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What are the causes of falling Total Fertility Rate (TFR)? Critically analyse India’s challenges as its fertility rate falls.

Topic: population and associated issues

4. What are the causes of falling Total Fertility Rate (TFR)? Critically analyse India’s challenges as its fertility rate falls. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

The data in NFHS 2019-21, the fifth in the survey series, shows the fertility rate at 1.6 per cent in urban areas and 2.1 in rural India.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the causes of falling TFR and the challenges it poses.

Directive word: 

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context from the NFHS-5 data.

Body:

First, write about the factors that have contributed to declining TFR are: Higher education, increased mobility, late marriage, financial independence among women and overall prosperity.

Next, possible challenges that the falling TFR may lead to.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting solutions to the challenges.