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InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically. 

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Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

1. What is the Puri heritage corridor?

2. Alexander and Chandragupta Maurya.

3. Guru Nanak Dev Jayanti.


GS Paper 2:

1. PESA Act.

2. The process for repealing a law.


Facts for Prelims:

1. Op Sankalp.


What is the Puri heritage corridor?

GS Paper 1:

Topics Covered: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.



Puri heritage corridor is being developed at a cost of Rs 800 crore in Odisha.


What is the Puri heritage corridor project?

  • Conceived in 2016, the Project aims to transform the holy town of Puri into an international place of heritage.
  • A total of 22 different projects will be executed in a phased manner.
  • Funds have been allocated under the state government’s Augmentation of Basic Amenities and Development of Heritage and Architecture at Puri (ABADHA) scheme.
  • The project includes redevelopment of Puri lake and Musa river revival plan.


About Puri Jagannath Temple:

  • It is an important Vaishnavite temple dedicated to Jagannath, a form of Sri Krishna in Puri in Odisha.
  • The temple is believed to be constructed in the 12th century by King Anatavarman Chodaganga Deva of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty.
  • Jagannath Puri temple is called ‘Yamanika Tirtha’ where, according to the Hindu beliefs, the power of ‘Yama’, the god of death has been nullified in Puri due to the presence of Lord Jagannath.
  • This temple was called the “White Pagoda” and is a part of Char Dham pilgrimages (Badrinath, Dwaraka, Puri, Rameswaram).
  • The Puri temple is famous for its annual Ratha Yatra, or chariot festival, in which the three principal deities are pulled on huge and elaborately decorated temple cars.

current affairs


Insta Curious:

Did you know that the idol of Jagannatha is made of wood and is ceremoniously replaced in every twelve or nineteen years by using sacred trees?



Prelims Link:

  1. About Puri Jagannath temple.
  2. Nagara Architecture.
  3. Puri Rath Yatra.
  4. Puri heritage corridor.

Mains Link:

Discuss the significance of Puri heritage corridor project.

Sources: Indian Express.

Alexander and Chandragupta Maurya:

GS Paper 1:

Topics Covered: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.


Chandragupta Maurya:


Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath recently said that Chandragupta Maurya, who founded the Mauryan empire in the 4th century BC, had defeated Alexander of Macedon in battle — and yet, it is the latter whom historians have chosen to call “great”.


Legacies of Alexander vs Chandragupta:


Alexander was born in 356 BC at Pella in ancient Greece, and succeeded his father, king Phillip II, to the throne at the age of 20.

He came to be called ‘great’ because of his stupendous military conquests.

  • He had established, before he turned 30 years of age, the largest empire the world had seen until then, which stretched across modern western and central Asia all the way from Greece to India’s northwestern frontier.
  • Subsequently, Ghenghis Khan (1162-1227) stamped his authority over a bigger swathe of Asia and Europe, and other conquerors such as Tamerlane, Atilla the Hun, and Charlemagne, as well as Ashoka, Akbar, and Aurangzeb built their own very large empires.


His quest for India:

  • In 327 BC, Alexander crossed the Indus, the farthest frontier of the old Persian empire, and began his Indian campaign that lasted about two years.
  • The king of Taxila surrendered to Alexander.
  • In the battle of Hydaspes that followed, Alexander won against King Porus.
  • After the defeat of Porus, Alexander wished to march on into the heartland of the Gangetic basin — but upon reaching the Beas, the last of the five rivers of Punjab, his generals refused to go further.
  • Alexander was forced to turn back, and he followed the Indus southward to its delta, where he sent part of his army to Mesopotamia by sea, while leading the other part overland along the Makran coast.



His aborted Indian campaign notwithstanding, Alexander is believed to have died undefeated in any battle — seemingly fulfilling the prophecies of the oracles that he would conquer the entire world.

  • Alexander had travelled some 1,000 miles from Macedonia, conquering seven nations and, it is said, more than 2,000 cities.
  • He hoped to solve the “problem of the ocean” that Greek philosophers had grappled with, reaching the sea, and then sailing to subjugate more new lands.



  • He was the architect of an empire that controlled the plains of both the Indus and the Ganga, and which stretched until the eastern and western oceans.
  • With Pataliputra at its imperial centre, the Mauryan Empire for the first time unified most of South Asia.
  • Chandragupta laid the foundations of an extensive and efficient system of centralised administration and tax-collection that formed the bases of his empire.
  • Trade and agriculture were reformed and regulated with the building of infrastructure and standardisation of weights and measures, and provisions were made for a large standing army.

Some Greek sources suggest that Chandragupta may have been in communication with Alexander during the latter’s Indian campaign.



Chandragupta overthrew the unpopular last king of the Nandas, Dhana Nanda, and occupied his capital, Pataliputra.

  • Guided by the guile and strategy of Kautilya and by his own great military prowess, Chandragupta went about fulfilling his imperial ambitions.
  • Once he had established his mastery over the plains of the Ganga, he moved north-west to occupy the power vacuum left by the retreat of Alexander’s army.

The territorial foundation of the Mauryan Empire had been laid, with Chandragupta controlling the Indus and Ganges Plains and the borderlands — a formidable empire by any standards.


Insta Curious:

Did you know that Chandragupta’s political mentor and chief adviser was Chanakya, also known as Kautilya and Vishnugupta, to whom is attributed the legendary Arthashastra, the pioneering Indian treatise on political science, statecraft, military strategy, and economy?

Did you know that in Indian history, the suffix ‘great’ has been used for the emperors Ashoka, Rajaraja and Rajendra Chola, and Akbar, among others?



  1. About Chandragupta Maurya.
  2. About Alexander.
  3. Pataliputra.
  4. Mauryan Dynasty.
  5. Battle of Hydaspes.

Mains Link:

Comment on the legacies of Chandragupta Maurya and Alexander.

Sources: Indian Express.

Guru Nanak Dev Jayanti:

GS Paper 1:

Topics Covered: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.



Guru Nanak Dev Ji Jayanti, also known as Guru Nanak’s Prakash Utsav and Guru Nanak Dev Ji Gurpurab, celebrates the birth of the first Sikh guru, Guru Nanak.

  • Guru Nanak Jayanti is celebrated on the full moon day of Kartik month, also known as Kartik Poornima.
  • This year, followers of Guru Nanak will celebrate the Guru Nanak Jayanti on November 19, 2021.
  • It will mark the 552nd birth anniversary of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the first of the ten Sikh gurus.

Guru Nanak (1469-1538 AD)


About Guru Nanak Dev:

  • Guru Nanak Dev (1469-1539) was born in a village, Talwandi Rai Bhoe, near Lahore (it was renamed later as Nankana Sahib).
  • He initiated inter-faith dialogue in the 16th century and had conversations with most of the religious denominations of his times.
  • His written compositions were included in the Adi Granth compiled by the fifth Sikh Guru Arjan Dev (1563-1606).
  • It is known as Guru Granth Sahib after the additions made by the 10th guru Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708).

Guru Nanak’s Teachings: Peace and Harmony for all

  • Guru Nanak was a great champion of equality. He aimed at creating a casteless society in which there is no hierarchy.
  • For him, the differences and multiple identities based on caste, creed, religion and language were irrelevant.
  • He had said, “Preposterous is caste, vain the distinction of birth. The Lord gives shelter to all beings”.
  • Referring to women, the Guru Nanak says: “How can they be inferior when they give birth to men? Women as well as men share in the grace of God and are equally responsible for their actions to Him.”
  • The spirit of living together and harmoniously working together is a consistent thread of thought that runs through Guru Nanak hymns.
  • He founded three pillars of Sikhism namely Naam Japna, Kirat Karni, and Vand Chakna.
  • He consciously went on long journeys (called uddasian) to far off places along with his two companions Bhai Bala, a Hindu, and Bhai Mardana, a Muslim, to hold dialogues with many saints and Sufis even, some charlatans who claimed some spiritual powers and had some social following.

Significance and relevance of his teachings:

Guru Nanak Dev ji, saint-composer and amongst the great spiritual leaders, his ideas, thoughts and teachings assume far greater relevance today than ever before. They can promote peace, equality and prosperity across the globe.

Sources: PIB.


GS Paper 2:

Topics Covered: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.



One Day National Conference was organized on the Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (PESA) to celebrate 25th year of PESA Act, as part of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav.

About the PESA Act, 1996:

The Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 or PESA Act is a law enacted by the Government of India for ensuring self-governance through traditional Gram Sabhas for people living in the Scheduled Areas of India.

  • It was enacted by Parliament in 1996 and came into force on 24th December 1996.
  • The PESA is considered to be the backbone of tribal legislation in India.
  • PESA recognises the traditional system of the decision-making process and stands for the peoples’ self-governance.


To promote local self-governance in rural India, the 73rd constitutional amendment was made in 1992. Through this amendment, a three-tier Panchayati Raj Institution was made into a law.

  • However, its application to the scheduled and tribal areas under Article 243(M) was restricted.
  • After the Bhuria Committee recommendations in 1995, Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act 1996 came into existence for ensuring tribal self-rule for people living in scheduled areas of India.
  • The PESA conferred the absolute powers to Gram Sabha, whereas state legislature has given an advisory role to ensure the proper functioning of Panchayats and Gram Sabhas.
  • The power delegated to Gram Sabha cannot be curtailed by a higher level, and there shall be independence throughout.

current affairs


Powers and functions given to the Gram Sabhas:

  • Right to mandatory consultation in land acquisition, resettlement and rehabilitation of displaced persons.
  • Protection of traditional belief, the culture of the tribal communities
  • Ownership of minor forest products
  • Resolution of the local disputes
  • Prevention of land alienation
  • Management of village markets
  • Right to control production, distillation, and prohibition of liquor
  • Exercise of control over money-lending
  • Any other rights involving the Scheduled Tribes.

Issues Related to PESA:

The state governments are supposed to enact state laws for their Scheduled Areas in consonance with this national law. This has resulted in the partially implemented PESA.

  • The partial implementation has worsened self-governance in Adivasi areas,l ike in Jharkhand.
  • Many experts have asserted that PESA did not deliver due to the lack of clarity, legal infirmity, bureaucratic apathy, absence of a political will, resistance to change in the hierarchy of power, and so on.
  • As per Social audits conducted across the state, In reality different developmental schemes were being approved on paper by Gram Sabha, without actually having any meeting for discussion and decision making.



Prelims Link:

  1. About PESA.
  2. Key features.
  3. Rights under the act.
  4. Role of Gram Sabhas.
  5. Social audits.

Mains Link:

Discuss the significance of PESA.

Sources: PIB.

The process for repealing a law:

GS Paper 2:

Topics Covered: Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.


repealing a law:


Prime Minister Narendra Modi in his address to the nation on November 19 announced the repeal of three contentious farm laws.

He assured farmer groups protesting against these laws that the legislative process for the repeal would be completed in the upcoming Winter Session of the Parliament.

What were the farm laws that have been repealed?

They are:

  1. The Farmers Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020, which is aimed at allowing trade in agricultural produce outside the existing APMC (Agricultural Produce Market Committee) mandis;
  2. The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Act, 2020, which seeks to provide a framework for contract farming;
  3. The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act, 2020, which is aimed at removing commodities such as cereals, pulses, oilseeds, edible oils, onion and potato from the list of essential commodities.

What does it mean for a law to be repealed?

  • Repealing a law is one of the ways to nullify a law. A law is reversed when Parliament thinks there is no longer a need for the law to exist.
  • Legislation can also have a “sunset” clause, a particular date after which they cease to exist.

How can the government repeal a law?

The government can repeal the laws in two ways — it can either bring a Bill to repeal the three laws or promulgate an ordinance that will have to be subsequently replaced with a Bill within six months.

  • For repeal, the power of Parliament is the same as enacting a law under the Constitution.
  • Article 245 of the Constitution which gives Parliament the power to make laws also gives the legislative body the power to repeal them through the Repealing and Amending Act.
  • The Act was first passed in 1950 when 72 Acts were repealed.
  • A law can be repealed either in its entirety, in part, or even just to the extent that it is in contravention of other laws.

What is the process for repealing a law?

Laws can be repealed in two ways — either through an ordinance, or through legislation.

  • In case an ordinance is used, it would need to be replaced by a law passed by Parliament within six months.
  • If the ordinance lapses because it is not approved by Parliament, the repealed law can be revived.


The government can also bring legislation to repeal the farm laws.

  • It will have to be passed by both Houses of Parliament, and receive the President’s assent before it comes into effect.
  • All three farm laws can be repealed through a single legislation.
  • Usually, Bills titled Repealing and Amendment are introduced for this purpose.



Prelims Link:

  1. What are APMCs? How they are regulated?
  2. Overview of Model Contract farming act.
  3. The price range fluctuation allowed in the Essential Commodities (Amendment) Bill, 2020.
  4. Stock limit regulation under the Essential Commodities (Amendment) Bill, 2020 will not be applicable for?
  5. Other key Provisions of the bills.

Mains Link:

Do you think the reforms proposed for agricultural sector under the realm of Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan ensure better price realization for farmers? Elucidate.

Sources: Indian Express.

Facts for Prelims:


INS Trikand is currently deployed in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman as part of Operation Sankalp.

  • Operation Sankalp was started in June 2019 after there were explosions on board two oil tanker ships in the Gulf of Oman amid increased tensions between Iran and the U.S.
  • It is the Indian Navy’s effort to maintain a frontline ship in the region to ensure safe and secure movement of trade, instill confidence in the maritime community and contribute to regional maritime security.

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