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[Mission 2022] SECURE SYNOPSIS: 16 November 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

1. Explain the various sub-divisions of Himalayan mountains and their significance. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the various sub-divisions of Himalayan mountains and their significance.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving brief about the Himalayan mountains.

Body:

Write the major sub division, their important features and their significance – Kashmir or North-western Himalayas, Himachal and Uttarakhand Himalayas, Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas, Arunachal Himalayas and Eastern Hills and Mountains.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing on the overall importance of Himalayas.

Introduction

The Himalayan range is a transnational mountain chain and is the chief driver of the Asian climate. The Himalayas are the highest and the youngest fold mountain ranges of the world. Their geological structure is young, weak and flexible since the Himalayan uplift is an ongoing process, making them one of the highest earthquake-prone regions of the world. Himalaya stretching from J&K to the North -East of India has always been a physical, climatic, drainage and a cultural divide.

Body

 

On the basis of relief, alignment of ranges and other geomorphological features, the Himalayas can be divided into the following subdivisions:

Kashmir Himalayas

  • It comprises a series of ranges such as the Karakoram, Ladakh, Zaskar and Pir Panjal.
  • The northeastern part of the Kashmir Himalayas is a cold desert, which lies between the Greater Himalayas and the Karakoram ranges.
  • The Kashmir Himalayas are also famous for Karewa formations, which are useful for the cultivation of Zafran, a local variety of saffron.
  • Some of the important passes of the region are Zoji La on the Great Himalayas, Banihal on the Pir Panjal, Photu La on the Zaskar and Khardung La on the Ladakh range.
  • Some of the important fresh lakes such as Dal and Wular and saltwater lakes such as Pangong Tso and Tso Moriri are also in this region.

The Himachal and Uttarakhand Himalayas

  • This part lies approximately between the Ravi in the west and the Kali (a tributary of Ghaghara) in the east
  • All the three ranges of Himalayas are prominent in this section also.
  • These are the Great Himalayan range, the Lesser Himalayas (which is locally known as Dhaoladhar in Himachal Pradesh and Nagtibha in Uttarakhand) and the Shiwalik range from the North to the South

The Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas

  • They are flanked by Nepal Himalayas in the west and Bhutan Himalayas in the east. It is relatively small but is a most significant part of the Himalayas.
  • It is a region of high mountain peaks like Kanchenjunga (Kanchengiri), and deep valleys.
  • The higher reaches of this region are inhabited by Lepcha tribes while the southern part, particularly the Darjiling Himalayas, has a mixed population of Nepalis, Bengalis and tribals from Central India.

The Arunachal Himalayas

  • These extend from the east of the Bhutan Himalayas up to the Diphu pass in the east
  • These ranges are dissected by fast-flowing rivers from the north to the south, forming deep gorges.
  • Bhramaputra flows through a deep gorge after crossing Namcha Barwa
  • An important aspect of the Arunachal Himalayas is the numerous ethnic tribal communities inhabiting these areas. E.g. the Monpa, Abor, Mishmi, Nyishi and the Nagas. Most of these communities practise Jhumming.
  • It is also known as shifting or slash and burn cultivation. This region is rich in biodiversity which has been preserved by the indigenous communities.

Eastern hills and mountains

  • These are part of the Himalayan mountain system having their general alignment from the north to the south direction.
  • They are known by different local names. In the north, they are known as Patkai Bum, Naga hills, the Manipur hills and in the south as Mizo or Lushai hills.
  • These are low hills, inhabited by numerous tribal groups practising Jhum cultivation.
  • Most of these ranges are separated from each other by numerous small rivers. The Barak is an important river in Manipur and Mizoram.

Conclusion

The Himalayas comprise the most dominating geographical feature of India. No other mountain range anywhere in world has affected the life of people and shaped the destiny of a nation as the Himalayas have in respect of India.

 

Topic: Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent)

2. Proper ecosystem management across the world’s mountain areas will meet demands of nature and communities to address global changes and enhance ecosystem and human well-being. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about integrated approach to mountain ecosystem development to address challenges and secure livelihood of people residing there.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start the answer by stating that mountains cover 24% of the Earth’s land surface. They are home to 12% of the world’s population and another 14% of the population reside in their immediate proximity.

Body:

First, mention the major services provided by the mountain ecosystem – freshwater, biological and cultural diversity, traditional ecological knowledge, tourism and influence the climate at many scales.

Next, write about threats to mountain ecosystems are particularly fragile, subject to both natural and anthropogenic drivers of change. These range from volcanic and seismic events and flooding to global climate change and the loss of vegetation and soils because of inappropriate agricultural and forestry practices, and extractive industries.

Next write about management is not only important for mountain communities, but also for a sizeable proportion of the global population and steps needed in this regard.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Mountains cover 24% of the Earth’s land surface. They are home to 12% of the world’s population and another 14% of the population reside in their immediate proximity. They provide vital goods and services -particularly freshwater – to a significant proportion of humanity. Mountains are key centers of biological and cultural diversity as well important sites of traditional ecological knowledge, and influence the climate at many scales. In other words, they provide multiple ecosystem services across our planet. Therefore, their effective management is not only important for mountain communities, but also for a sizeable proportion of the global population.

Body

Importance of mountains

  • Mountains host communities with ancient cultures and traditions.
  • Mountains are also the sources of springs and rivers.
  • A large proportion of the world’s minority populations live in mountain areas.
  • Mountains and mountain-protected areas are places of spiritual solace, inspiration, recreation and relaxation.
  • The world’s mountains encompass some of the most spectacular landscapes, a wide variety of ecosystems and a great diversity of species
  • The world’s principal biome types—from hyper-arid hot desert and tropical forest to arid polar icecaps—all occur in mountains.
  • Mountains support about one quarter of world’s terrestrial biological diversity
  • Nearly half of the world’s biodiversity “hotspots” concentrated in mountains
  • Genetic diversity tends to be higher in mountains associated with cultural diversity and extreme variation in local environmental conditions

Challenges posed to mountain ecosystem

  • Mountains are vulnerable to a host of natural and anthropogenic threats
  • These include seismic hazards, fire, climate change, land cover change and agricultural intensification, infrastructure development, and armed conflict.
  • These pressures degrade mountain environments and affect the provision of ecosystem services and the livelihoods of people dependent upon them.
  • People living in mountain areas are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity.
  • Harsh climate and inaccessible terrain, combined with political and social marginality, make mountain people vulnerable to food shortages.
  • The stability of mountain populations is at present threatened by migration.
  • Exodus of highland people to the plains in search of livelihood opportunities has become a major problem.
  • With this, the traditional knowledge of mountain people is getting destroyed.
  • With water shortage and degradation of grazing land due to furious dam-building activity, life has become harder for those who choose to stay behind.
  • Mountain people are some of the world’s poorest people.
  • Most highland farmers cannot compete with the high production volume of lowlands
  • Highland farmers are frequently paid only a fraction of the value of their produce due to long supply chains that increase transportation and other costs.

Way Forward

  • Enhance understanding of mountain ecosystems and the conservation of its biological and cultural diversity, and sustainable development
  • Ensure that mountain ecosystems are understood in relation to the communities who rely on them
  • Generate knowledge and guidance that is respectful of existing traditional ecological knowledge systems and which emphasizes the centrality of local communities to successful ecosystem management
  • Promote the development of policies that enhance the management of mountain ecosystems including biodiversity conservation, sustainable development, climate change mitigation and adaptation
  • Regularly share case studies and lessons learned drawing from the diverse and rich regional experiences of its membership
  • Increase linkages with other IUCN Specialist and Thematic Groups as well as Commissions to integrate the management of mountain ecosystems within cross-cutting themes such as eco disaster risk reduction, gender and conservation, resource governance and human rights.
  • Improve knowledge networks by strengthening linkages with IUCN Member Organizations and external stakeholders (including academics and young professionals) working in mountain ecosystems

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Role of civil services in a democracy.

3. In regards to civils services, what is the doctrine of pleasure? Does the recent amendment extending tenures of several heads of departments further enhances the doctrine? Critically Examine.  (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

A day after promulgating two ordinances that would allow the Centre to extend the tenures of the Directors of the CBI and the Enforcement Directorate from two years to up to five years, the Personnel Ministry issued an order to amend the Fundamental Rules, 1922 adding the two posts to the list whose services can be extended by up to two years beyond the two-year fixed tenure in “public interest”.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about doctrine of pleasure and to examine if the recent amendments further enhance the doctrine.

Directive word: 

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by defining doctrine of pleasure.

Body:

In the first part, write about the two ordinances that would allow the Centre to extend the tenures of the Directors of the CBI and the Enforcement Directorate from two years to up to five years. Mention the further scope of increment in public interest by to years.

Next, discuss how this further enhances the doctrine of pleasure – neutrality, independence, expectation of favour. Also mention as to how it is in contravention to Vineet Narain vs Union of India case.

Next, mention as to how this amendment may dilute the doctrine and not enhance it.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a wat forward.

Introduction

The Doctrine of Pleasure in India is borrowed from England. The President of India is the Executive Head of the Union and he enjoys the same position as the Crown enjoys in England, the President has been vested with the power to remove a civil servant at any time under this doctrine.

The doctrine is embodied in Article 310 of Indian Constitution. According to it, except for the provisions provided by the Constitution, a civil servant of the Union works at the pleasure of the President and a civil servant under a State works at the pleasure of the Governor of that State. The operation of the Doctrine of Pleasure can be limited by constitutional provisions.

Body

Amendment

  • The Centre promulgated 2 ordinances to lengthen the tenures of the Directors of CBI and Enforcement Directorate from 2 years to 5 years and dispensed an order to amend the Fundamental Rules, 1922.
  • The tenure of the CBI Director is extended by amending the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act.
  • The tenure of ED is extended by amending the Central Vigilance Commission Act 2003

Concerns of the amendment

  • The announcement will compromise the autonomy of the two organisations.
  • It goes in contradiction of the spirit of the Supreme Court judgment in Vineet Narain vs. Union of India(1997) that said Directors of the CBI and the ED should have a minimum tenure of 2 years.
  • It did not bar longer terms or extension lead, giving an annual extension lead can be a motivation for demonstrating loyalty to the ruling government in discharge of their duties.
  • The alterations were carried out through the ordinance route which increases the doubt whether the government is interested on retaining the present Director of Enforcement, S.K.Mishra.
  • Implied addition for an officer appointed to one of the protected posts if the selection comes within 2 years of retirement.

View of the Judiciary

  • We should make it clear that extension of tenure granted to officers who have attained the age of superannuation should be done only in rare and exceptional cases.

Conclusion

Importantly, the notification provides that this extension shall be subject to the discretion of the Central government, only if it considers it necessary in the light of the public interest.

 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

4. Despite the recent progress in India–Turkey relations, however, there is still a lack of strategic convergence between the two countries on multiple issues especially in the wake of pan-Turkism. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Turkey’s influence in Eurasian region is expanding. Delhi’s current political divergence with Ankara only reinforces the case for a sustained dialogue between the two governments and the strategic communities.

Key Demand of the question:

To write India-Turkey relations on strategic convergence in the wake of pan-Turkism and recent changes.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin the answer by giving context with respect to rise of pan-Turkism.

Body:

 In the first part, give the historical context to Indo-Turkish relations -During the Cold War period, Turkey saw its relations with India through the prism of Pakistan, Turkey sided with Pakistan on the Kashmir dispute. However, over a period of time, cooperation was achieved between both countries in various sectors, including defence, space, science and technology.

Next, write about recent changes especially rise of pan-Turkism, Ankara’s stance on the Kashmir issue, which is still pro-Pakistan; its conflicting role in Afghanistan; Turkey’s prioritisation of its relations with China over India and Turkey’s addition to FATF grey list.

Next, write about how Indian diplomacy must be approach Ankara considering Eurasian periphery.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

The ideology of pan-Turkism’s origin dates back to the mid-19th century when campaigns for uniting Turkic people in Russia gained traction. A defining slogan of pan-Turkism is “Where there are Turks, there is Turkey.”

Body

Background

  • Turkey and India have shared bilateral ties for centuries.
  • That age-old relationship, however, is on a downward spiral.
  • Whatever historical and civilizational bond they share is declining so rapidly that both are now openly exchanging diplomatic blows at the global stage in full view of the public.
  • Their heightened tensions are likely to have a bearing on their respective neighborhoods.

India- Turkey Relations

  • Turkey & India have profound historical connections. The connection dates back to the years 1481-82 when the first discussion of diplomatic mission took place between the Ottoman Sultans and the Muslim rulers of the sub-continent.
  • Friendship treaty with Turkeysigned by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1951 emphasized India’s hopes for building an enduring partnership in the post-colonial era.
  • The divergent Cold War strategic alignments of both the countries did not let them develop their relationship effectively.
  • Two strong prime ministers, Rajiv Gandhi and Atal Bihari Vajpayee, tried to finish the stalemate in India- Turkey relations, but did not succeed.

Current Issues

  • Turkey backs “multilateral dialogue” on Kashmir issue and offers to mediate between India and Pakistan. Thereby against India’s stance of Kashmir being a bilateral issue.
  • Turkey supports Organisation of Islamic Cooperation’s stand on Kashmir which is anti-India.
  • On India’s admission into the Nuclear Suppliers Group, the Turkish stance has remained to push for Pakistan’s case along with India’s.
  • Turkey supports India’s proposal for a permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council. But, Turkey is also a member of the Uniting for Consensus which opposes expansion of permanent membership in the Security Council. This group includes Pakistan.
  • Turkish government intends to penetrate India’s Muslim minority and use the Indian Muslim network for Pakistan’s benefit, using them as a tool by Muslim countries to put pressure on India.

Way forward

  • Focus should be on developing Trade and Economic ties.
  • Turkey requires new markets as Europe is not welcoming Turkey.
  • The two nations are also discovering collaboration in areas like construction, infrastructure development, renewable energy, and tourism.
  • The zones of cooperation can be explored and the ‘Pakistan factor’ need to be side-lined to build a vivacious relationship.

Conclusion

As a great civilizational state, Turkey will withstand as a pivotal state in Eurasia long after Erdogan is gone. Independent India has fought to develop respectable relations with Turkey over the decades. A hard-headed attitude in Delhi today, however, might open new possibilities with Ankara and in Turkey’s Eurasian fringe.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

5. Given its benefits and recent emphasis on cryptocurrencies, India should take rapid strides towards a ‘Digital Rupee’. Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Key Demand of the question:

To understand the dynamics between Inflation and economic growth and the role of RBI in this.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by explaining the emerging concept of ‘Digital Rupee’ or central bank digital currency (CBDC).

Body:

First, give context about implementation of digital currencies via various governments in different capacities. Also, the recent onslaught of decentralised crypto currency.

Next, write about potential benefits that India can accrue from Digital Rupee. financial inclusion, the cashless society, decrease the cost of printing, expanding the digital economy and empowering citizens etc.

Next, write about potential challenges with regards to CBDC. User adoption, security, threat to traditional banking, complexity, domination by Chinese and Opportunity cost due to RBI’s reluctance etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward as to how India should step up to CBDC.

Introduction

A Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC), or national digital currency, is simply the digital form of a country’s fiat currency. Instead of printing paper currency or minting coins, the central bank issues electronic tokens. This token value is backed by the full faith and credit of the government.

The Reserve Bank of India is likely to soon kick off pilot projects to assess the viability of using digital currency to make wholesale and retail payments to help calibrate its strategy for introducing a full-scale central bank digital currency (CBDC).

Body

According to the Bank for International Settlements, more than 60 countries are currently experimenting with the CBDC. There are few Countries that already rolled out their national digital currency. Such as,

  • Swedenis conducting real-world trials of their digital currency (krona)
  • The Bahamasalready issued their digital currency “Sand Dollar” to all citizens
  • Chinastarted a trial run of their digital currency e- RMB amid pandemic. They plan to implement pan-China in 2022. This is the first national digital currency operated by a major economy.
  • Nigeria launched its non-interest-yielding central bank digital currency (CBDC) — the eNaira,

 

Need for a CBDC:

  • The growth of cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum etc has raised challenges to fiat currencies.
  • Along with their other vulnerabilities made the central bank of each country explore the possibility of introducing their own digital currencies.
  • A 2021 BIS survey of central banks, which found that 86% were actively researching the potential for such currencies, 60% were experimenting with the technology, and 14% were deploying pilot projects.
  • The need for inter-bank settlement would disappear as it would be a central bank liability handed over from one person to another.

Working of CBDC:

  • CBDCs use distributed ledger technology (DLT), which is typically deployed in a hybrid architecture i.e. existing central bank and payment infrastructure + DLT for movement, transparency, workflow and audit trail or tracing of funds (value).
  • This technology helps in efficiency (speed), security (encryptions) and also other aspects like smart contracts which execute buy and sell transactions based on a pre-defined criteria and opens up the possibility of ‘programmable’ money.
  • CBDC can be in different forms like token or account/ digital wallet form.
  • The underlying technology used for CBDCs can vary from DLT or a mix of existing payment rails and systems at one layer and DLT at the second layer. In order to keep track of money, banks need to store financial records, such as how much money a person has and what transactions they’ve made.
  • While digitising the money supply chain from central banks to commercial banks to consumers of wholesale and retail CBDCs, complimenting the existing infrastructure and investment is important.

Potential of a CBDC:

  • An official digital currency would reduce the cost of currency management while enabling real-time payments without any inter-bank settlement.
  • India’s fairly high currency-to-GDP ratio holds out another benefit of CBDC — to the extent large cash usage can be replaced by CBDC, the cost of printing, transporting and storing paper currency can be substantially reduced.
  • As the currency in digital form, it can provide an efficient way for financial transaction. Further, digital currency also solves the challenges with Cash and coins. Cash and coins require expenses in storage and have inherent security risks like the recent heist in the RBI currency chest.
  • There are about 3,000 privately issued cryptocurrencies in the world. According to IMF, the key reason for considering national digital currency is to counter the growth of private forms of digital money.
  • There is a possibility of these companies going bankrupt without any protection. This will create a loss for both investor and creditor. But the National Digital currency has government backing in case of any financial crisis.
  • As the state-backed digital currency can provide investor/consumer protection, the private can confidently invest in the associated infrastructure without any doubts over its regulation. This will improve the services to people.
  • The national digital currency will be regulated by the RBI. So, there will be less volatility compared to other digital currencies.
  • Current RBI’s work on inflation targeting can be extended to national digital currency also. Since India is planning to ban other cryptocurrencies, the RBI can better regulate digital and fiat currency. Thus, upgrading to digital currency and balancing the macroeconomic stability.
  • With the introduction of CBDC in a nation, its central bank would be able to keep a track of the exact location of every unit of the currency, thereby curbing money laundering.
  • Criminal activities can be easily spotted and ended such as terror funding, money laundering, and so forth

Concerns posed:

  • India is already facing many cyber security threats. With the advent of digital currency, cyberattacks might increase and threaten digital theft like Mt Gox bankruptcy case.
  • According to the Digital Empowerment Foundation in 2018 report, around 90% of India’s population is digitally illiterate. So, without creating enough literary awareness introduction of digital currency will create a host of new challenges to the Indian economy.
  • Introduction of digital currency also creates various associated challenges in regulation, tracking investment and purchase, taxing individuals, etc.
  • The digital currency must collect certain basic information of an individual so that the person can prove that he’s the holder of that digital currency. This basic information can be sensitive ones such as the person’s identity, fingerprints etc.

Conclusion:

There are crucial decisions to be made about the design of the currency with regards to how it will be issued, the degree of anonymity it will have, the kind of technology that is to be used, and so on. There is no doubt that the introduction of National Digital currency prevents the various threats associated with the private-owned cryptocurrencies and take India the next step as a digital economy. But the government has to create necessary safeguards before rolling out. India needs to move forward on introducing an official digital currency.

 

Topic: Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

6. What do you understand by fifth generation warfare? Elaborate on the measures that are needed to be put in place to tackle this form of warfare by adversarial nations. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: New Indian Express

Why the question:

An interesting debate has emerged on whether conventional conflict remains a significant part of India’s security or if hybrid threat scenarios will dominate in the future

Key Demand of the question:

To write about to 5th generation warfare and measures that are needed to combat it.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining 5th generation warfare.

Body:

First, write the evolution of warfare and elaborate upon the features of 5th generation warfare and how different it is from conventional warfare.

Next, mention the vulnerabilities of India to 5th generation warfare. Write about the steps that are needed to placed – tackling information war, identifying vulnerable areas, creating awareness, proactively taking action against hostile elements etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward

Introduction

War, in the popular sense, a conflict between political groups involving hostilities of considerable duration and magnitude. Clausewitz cogently defines war as a rational instrument of foreign policy: “an act of violence intended to compel our opponent to fulfil our will.”

Body

Evolution of warfare:

  • First-generation warfarerefers to Ancient and Post-classical battles fought with massed manpower, using phalanx, line and column tactics with uniformed soldiers governed by the state.
  • Second-generation warfareis the Early modern tactics used after the invention of the rifled musket and breech-loading weapons and continuing through the development of the machine gun and indirect fire. The term second generation warfare was created by the U.S. military in 1989.
  • Third-generation warfarefocuses on using late modern technology-derived tactics of leveraging speed, stealth and surprise to bypass the enemy’s lines and collapse their forces from the rear. Essentially, this was the end of linear warfare on a tactical level, with units seeking not simply to meet each other face to face but to outmanoeuvre each other to gain the greatest advantage.
  • Fourth-generation warfareas presented by Lind et al. is characterized by a “post-modern” return to decentralized forms of warfare, blurring of the lines between war and politics, combatants and civilians due to nation states’ loss of their near-monopoly on combat forces, returning to modes of conflict common in pre-modern times.
  • Fifth-generation warfareis conducted primarily through non-kinetic military action, such as social engineering, misinformation, cyber-attacks, along with emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence and fully autonomous systems. Fifth generation warfare has been described by Daniel Abbot as a war of “information and perception”.

Characteristics of 5th generation warfare

  • Fifth-generation warfare is typified by its “omnipresent battlefield”, and the fact that people engaged in it do not necessarily use military force, instead employing a mixture of kinetic and non-kinetic force.
  • Unlike the earlier generations of warfare, which relied on the might of military, speed, stealth and surprise, in the latest, the fifth generation, the lines between war and politics, military and civilian are blurred.
  • The lives of common citizens might be more directly and intricately linked compared to even the forces at ground zero.
  • In the fifth generation wars, patience and time emerge as powerful weapons.

Way Forward

  • Governments must institute a process to develop a national methodology ofself-assessment and threat analysis.
  • Institutionalizing a process concerning threat and vulnerability information will enhance 5th generation warfare early warning efforts, assist resiliency efforts, and may even have a deterrent effect.
  • 5th generation warfare is an international issue, so should be the retort.
  • National governments must coordinate a rational approach amongst themselves to understand, identify and react to 5th generation warfare to their collective interests.
  • Multinational structuresshould be established to enable cooperation and collaboration across borders.
  • Modern hybrid war which simultaneously combine conventional, irregular, and terrorist components is a multifaceted challenge that requires a compliant and versatile military to overcome.
  • The perception of 5th generation war is not new, but its means are increasingly sophisticated and deadly, and require a response in similar fashion.

Conclusion

The proliferation of different tools of warfare and resultant expansion of the battle-field means that no particular service can guarantee victory. The modern battlefield needs not just military but political, psychological, electronic, technological warriors too. To win today’s ‘wars’, one needs a whole-of-government (WOG) approach with elements of Comprehensive National Power as part of the action/response system.

The Armed Forces should be prepared to take threats in all domains, as also take offensive actions in those domains. A synergistic, multi-domain, WOG approach may prove to be the decisive factor in battle-field dominance.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. Whether values are sacred, have intrinsic worth, or are a means to an end, values vary among individuals and across cultures and time. Discuss. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: A Practical Approach to Ethics Integrity and Aptitude by D.K Balaji.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by defining values and its respect to moral relativism.

Body:

Write about various sources of values and how they develop in a persons life. Write about irrespective of the origin of the value, they vary across time and space. Use examples to justify your points.

Also, mention that some values maybe universal and use examples for that.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of values.

Introduction

Values are elements of life that we hold as important or desirable. They are standards of conduct and guide of human behaviour. Values give meaning and strength to a person’s character by occupying a central place in his life. Values reflect one’s personal attitude and judgments, decisions and choices, behaviour and relationships.

Body:

Values can be relative as well as absolute.

Relative values:

These are based on individual and societal standards, their likes, dislikes, social norms, tradition, for instance Indian traditional values of ‘Vasudev Kutumbakam’, universal brotherhood, tolerance may contradict with western values of liberalism, individualism and utilitarianism.

  • Values evolve to bring order in the society and are culture specific. They evolve along with the cultures.
  • For E.g.: The present generation of Indian society is more ambition sensitive showing more assertiveness, instead of Indian traditional values of sacrifice and selflessness
  • The norms of nuclear family and even live-in relationships are more socially accepted today.
  • People’s values tend to change over time as well. Values that suited you as a child change as you become a young adult, which may further change as you become an old person.
  • They change because we want them to; or sometimes they change even if when we didn’t mean them to. We may have believed that something is wrong but now we might not be so sure that it’s true. We may have believed that we’d never do something; but then we do it and we decide that it’s okay to do it.
  • Over a period of time, new ethical issues have arisen and values have changed.
  • New knowledge about existing problems or techniques and completely new areas of work has also led to change in values.
  • There are a series of core values around which most people would agree. However even those are changing at least in the intensity.
  • For E.g.: say if we believe that that human life is sacred, but we do not feel the same intensity of this value when judging a terrorist who has killed thousands of innocent people.

“The man who never alters his opinion is like standing water, and breeds reptiles of the mind.” – English poet William Blake.

We can often see resistance from parents and society as we are growing up. Our changing values sometimes conflict with our parents’ values, or our culture’s values and leads to this resistance. For example, women working at par with men, etc.

Absolute values:

Universal values like truth, gratitude, peace, non-violence, sympathy, are considered beyond time and space. They are core values and are fundamental. They do not change and remain stable.

  • The standards of conduct differ from person to person, society to society but there can be some values which can be considered universal.
  • For E.g.: Murder is a crime in every society and hence a universal norm.
  • Immanuel Kant considered human dignity as a universal value and one of his categorical imperatives. Similarly, justice for Rawls is an architectonic principle.
  • Over the time, repeated positive engagement of values is likely to strengthen them. Our lives provide continual opportunities for the growth of certain values. Our lives also sometimes put constraints on certain values.
  • Values as such do not change. Only their expression changes depending on circumstances and situations. In some cultures, as well as different circumstances, the priorities assigned to values change.
  • We can find values like peace, kindness, hard work, perseverance, etc. still relevant to the same degree as from age old times. They will still remain relevant even after we die.
  • Values are essential to build ourselves. We build ourselves to survive in the world and create a society. Since values needed to build a good society are constant or similar, values can be said to be constant, similar or universal as each of us tries to build a good society.
  • “Open your arms to change but don’t let go of your values.” – The 14th Dalai Lama. This tells us that good values are not supposed to change. They are eternal.

Conclusion

Thus, values can be either universal, relative or dynamic which keeps changing with time. As Einstein once rightly remarked, “Try not to become a man of success but try to become a man of values”. Values influence our thoughts, feelings and actions. They guide us to do the right things. Values give direction and firmness to life.


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