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Critically analyse the various policies aimed at development of tribals in India.

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

3. Critically analyse the various policies aimed at development of tribals in India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question: 

Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the ‘Janjatiya Gaurav Divas’ celebrations to mark the birth anniversary of iconic tribal leader Birsa Munda, who led a rebellion against the British.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to critically present in what way tribal communities have been on the rear end of receiving benefits of the development strategy.

Directive word: 

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:


Start introduction by giving some data justifying the statement. Like, overall poverty in India is 21.9%, whereas for tribal population it stands at 46%.


Start by explaining how development has had negative impact on tribals overall socio economic development. For eg. Forced migration, loss of livelihood, displacement, acculturation issues, etc. Mention report by Virginius Xaxa committee.

Write about the different measures and recent schemes by Govt. for tribal development such as FRA, PESA, Tribal sub plan approach, Van bandhu scheme, Eklavya  scheme, etc.

Add case study and maps to support your discussions above. For eg. Niyamgiri hills-Vedanta group case, Sardar sarovar dam case, Can also add data on development indicators like MMR,IMR ,Literacy rate ,etc.


Conclude with a way forward.