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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 15 November 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent).

1. Himalayas are not only the physical barrier, they are also a climatic, drainage and cultural divide. Elucidate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Class-XI NCERT: India Physical Environment.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To bring out the impact of Himalayan Mountain Range on Climate of India, its effect on drainage system and pattern of Himalayan Rivers and the cultural divide across it.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Bring out how Himalayas serve as the physical barrier of India along with specifics of the Himalayan mountain ranges.

Body:

In the first part of the body, holistically address how Himalayas bear an impact of Indian climate with respect to Monsoon and protect India from cold storms.

In the next part, bring out the impact Himalayan Mountains on the drainage system and its importance to India.

In the final part, assess the cultural divide brought about by the Himalayas.

Conclusion:

Complete the answer by stressing on the overall role that Himalayas play in the geographical context of India.

Introduction

The Himalayan range is a transnational mountain chain and is the chief driver of the Asian climate. The Himalayas are the highest and the youngest fold mountain ranges of the world. Their geological structure is young, weak and flexible since the Himalayan uplift is an ongoing process, making them one of the highest earthquake-prone regions of the world. Himalaya stretching from J&K to the North -East of India has always been a physical, climatic, drainage and a cultural divide.

Body

 

Himalayas: A physical barrier:

  • Divides India from central Asia and thereby protected India from their direct attack through this route.
  • Isolates Indian Sub-continent from the rest of Asia.

Himalayas: A climatic divide:

  • The Himalayas, as a great climatic divide affecting large systems of air and water circulation, help determine meteorological conditions in the Indian subcontinent to the south and in the Central Asian highlands to the north.
  • By virtue of its location and stupendous height, the Great Himalaya Range obstructs the passage of cold continental air from the north into India in winter.
  • It also forces the southwesterly monsoon (rain-bearing) winds to give up most of their moisture before crossing the range northward. The result is heavy precipitation (both rain and snow) on the Indian side but arid conditions in Tibet.
  • Himalayas represent a long chain of mountains that separate India from rest of Asia making India a subcontinent with its own climatic features. During winters when freezing temperatures
    prevail in North Asia, Himalayas object these cold winds and thus preventing the Ganga plains from freezing leading to sustenance in agriculture.
  • Himalayas also obstruct the South West monsoon winds thus producing rains thus helps in maintaining the monsoon nature of our climate in North India.

Himalayas:  A drainage divide:

  • The Himalayas are drained by 19 major rivers, of which the Indus and the Brahmaputra are the largest, each having catchment basins in the mountains of about 100,000 square miles (260,000 square km) in extent.
  • Five of the 19 rivers, with a total catchment area of about 51,000 square miles (132,000 square km), belong to the Indus system—the Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, and the Sutlej—and collectively define the vast region divided between Punjab state in India and Punjab province in Pakistan.
  • Of the remaining rivers, nine belong to the Ganges system—the Ganges, Yamuna, Ramganga, Kali (Kali Gandak), Karnali, Rapti, Gandak, Baghmati, and Kosi rivers—draining roughly 84,000 square miles (218,000 square km) in the mountains, and three belong to the Brahmaputra system—the Tista, the Raidak, and the Manas—draining another 71,000 square miles (184,000 square km) in the Himalayas.
  • The rivers that flow through India originate due to melting of glaciers in the upper reaches and maintained by rain in the lower reaches thus leading to many perennial rivers which are vital for agriculture.
  • Also a lot of rivers forms flood plains in the lower reaches and bring alluvium which is very productive.
  • The snow melt in summer and precipitation in winter makes them perennial rivers. i.e, having water throughout the year. The abundant waterfall, huge snowfield and large glaciers feed these drainage systems. The Himalayan rivers give life to the northern India.

Himalayas: creating a cultural divide:

  • Himalayas have three distinct chain of mountains, the upper Himalayas or himadri, Himachal or lesser Himalayas and Shiwaliks.
  • The Himadri which is very prominent in Kashmir region has many highest glaciers of the world leading to unique pattern of living.
  • In Uttarakhand, Siwaliks or dun formations caused some cultivation and transhumance of tribes like Bhutias.
  • In Sikkim and Darjeeling, the Duar formation and moderate slopesgave rise to tea cultivation here too tribes like Lepcha lead a unique way of life.
  • In North East Himalayas because of rain all around the year Tropical evergreen forests predominate which are cleared by the inhabiting tribes for Jhum cultivation.

Conclusion

Apart from the above, The Himalayas are also home to a diversity of medicinal resources. The Himalayas are also a source of many minerals and precious stones. It is also imperative from the perspectives of Flora, fauna, defence, pilgrimage and tourism too.

Thus, The Himalayas comprise the most dominating geographical feature of India. No other mountain range anywhere in world has affected the life of people and shaped the destiny of a nation as the Himalayas have in respect of India.

Value addition

The Himalayan ranges can be grouped into four parallel longitudinal mountain belts of varying width, each having distinct physiographic features and its own geologic history. They are designated, from south to north, as the Outer, or Sub-, Himalayas (also called the Siwalik Range); the Lesser, or Lower, Himalayas; the Great Himalaya Range (Great Himalayas); and the Tethys, or Tibetan, Himalayas. Farther north lies the Trans-Himalayas in Tibet proper. From west to east the Himalayas are divided broadly into three mountainous regions: western, central, and eastern.

 

Topic: Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent).

2. Trace the regional divisions in the Northern Plains of India and bring out their geomorphological features. Why are Northern Plains so significant? Explain. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Class-XI NCERT: India Physical Environment.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain the regional divisions in the northern plains, its geomorphological features and significance.

Directive:

Explain – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by mentioning about Northern Plains of India and their composition.

Body:

In the first part of the body, bring forth the regional divisions: Sindh Plain, Rajasthan Plain, Punjab Plain, Ganga Plain, Brahmaputra Plain, Ganga – Brahmaputra Delta and explain them briefly.

In the next part, bring out the geomorphological features such as The Bhabar, The Terai, The Bhangar, The Khadar, Reh or Kollar and explain them briefly.

In the final part, mention about the significance such as Agriculture, Tourism, Soil profile, Ecology and cultural aspects etc.

Conclusion:

Complete the answer by mentioning the overall significance of the northern plains.

Introduction

The great Northern Plains of India are an aggradation surface of great extent formed after the Himalayas. They are comparatively of recent origin and are believed to have formed by the filling up of a depression resulting from the uplifting of the Himalayas, by deposition of sediments brought by swift-flowing Himalayan rivers, originated in Himalayas. This plain is mainly developed by rivers Ganga, Indus and Brahmaputra. The fine and the deep alluvium deposits by the rivers make the northern plains one of the most fertile plains in the world.

Body

 

Regional divisions:

  • Plains of northern India, a flat and enormous plain, extend in the east west direction between the Himalayan in the north and Great Indian Peninsular Plateau in the south.
  • They are divided into three parts:
    • Indus plain
    • Ganga plain
    • Brahmaputra plain.
  • Northern plains are the youngest physiographic feature in India. They lie to the south of the Shivaliks, separated by the Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFF).
  • These plains form an unbroken belt of alluvium varying in thickness from east Bihar Plain to Punjab and northern Rajasthan.
  • Sutlej Plain in the west, the Ganga Plain in the middle, the Ganga Delta and the Brahmaputra Valley in the east constitute the northern plains.
  • The southern boundary is a wavy irregular line along the northern edge of the Peninsular India.
  • On the eastern side, the plains are bordered by the Purvanchal hills.
  • These are among the largest plains of the world. 

Geomorphological features:

  • The most characteristic feature of the great plains of Northern India is their extreme horizontality. From the geomorphological aspect there is no difference between the Indus basin and the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin.
  • They are classified into four distinct divisions:
    • Bhabar belt: made up of pebbles and boulders, the streams flow underground, adjacent to foothills
    • Terai belt: composed of new alluvium, region is damped and thickly forested and receives heavy rainfall throughout the year and has a variety of wildlife.
    • Bangar Belt: composed of old alluvium, forms Gangetic delta, covered by laterite deposits
    • Khadar Belt: made up of new alluvium of the flood zones.
  • They are formed by the alluvial deposits of the rivers and their tributaries.
  • They extend from Sutlej river in the west to Brahmaputra in the east.
  • The northern plains are the largest alluvial tract of the world. These plains extend approximately 3200 km from west to east.
  • The average width of these plains varies between 150 and 300 km. In general, the width of the northern plains increases from east to west (90-100km in Assam to about 500km in Punjab).

Importance of Northern Plains:

  • The northern plains are a riverine region, being bountifully endowed with the fertile soil, favourable climate, flat surface rendering possible the construction of roads and railways, and slow moving rivers. All these factors have made this plain very important.
  • Heavy Concentration of Population:
    • The great plain of India with its deep, fertile, stoneless, alluvial soil and its many rivers, is the most favourable and most desirable part of the sub-continent.
  • Cultural and Political Importance:
    • A significant fact is that in view of the immense concentration of population and resource the Ganga valley has always dominated North India.
    • It is the dominant area from which not only the political power but also economic and cultural movements spread to Aryavarta (i.e., the area lying north of the Vindhyas). Delhi, Patna and Kolkata have served as the political capitals of the country.
    • Himalayan forests have several wildlife species, and these forests are also having species for medicinal use.
    • These plains have given birth to and nursed and nourished the unique civilizations in its river valleys the Harappa, Mohenjadaro, Lothal etc.
  • Social and Religious Significance:
    • It has been famous for its inexhaustible people who wanted to enjoy its bounty either through sword or through the scale; for its literature and art; for its historical monuments and archaeological sites.
    • Many holy sites are present in these plains.
    • There are many religious places along the banks of the sacred rivers like the Ganga and the Yamuna which are very dear to Hindus. Here flourished the religions of Buddha and Mahavira and the movements of Bhakti and Sufism.
  • Economic Significance:
    • The plains have a fertile soil and because of the slow moving perennial water courses and favourable climate and they are, the great agricultural tracts of the country, raising bumper crops of rice, wheat, oilseeds, sugarcane, tobacco and jute.
    • They are even now the foci of industrial and commercial activities.
    • Rivers are navigable throughout the year and support inland transportation
    • Flat land- good for roads and railways,
    • Irrigational facilities.
    • For construction of H.E.P. Plants
    • It has well developed roads, railways and navigable waterways which promotes trade and commerce in this region
    • Northern Plains produces 60% of food in India. It is home to around 65 crore people.
    • Agriculture, livestock, power plants, industries and tourism provide employment to more than half of population in India.

Conclusion

Altogether, the great Indian Northern plains play a substantial function in the geographical richness of India. One of the densely populated regions of the country, the plains add to the cultural and the traditional heritage of India. In a nutshell, the plains are a land of favorable attraction, tourism, and employment opportunities.

 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

3. Analyse the contributions of Jawahar Lal Nehru in laying foundations of Modern India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian Express

Key Demand of the question:

To understand Nehru’s contributions in building New India.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by emphasising the crucial role of Nehru in freedom struggle and to go on to become the first Prime Minister of Independent India.

Body:

Write about various facets of contributions of Nehru such as Nehruvian socialism, Non Alignment Policy, Industrialisation, Contributions towards constitutional framework etc and how it is still relevant in the present day social dynamics.

Conclusion:

Summarise the above said points and how Nehru’s tryst with India’s destiny has remained relevant till date.

Introduction

Jawahar Lal Nehru (1889-1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a control figure in Indian Politics before and after independence. He emerged as the paramount leader of the Indian independence movement under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi and led India from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in 1964.

Body

Four principal pillars of Nehru’s legacy to India

  • Democratic institution-building
  • Staunch pan-Indian secularism,
  • Socialist economics at home, and
  • A foreign policy of non-alignment,

Nehruvian Policies that aided nation building post-Independence

  • Consolidation of the nation:Nehru took a firm stance against the possible division of India into smaller principalities. He established the State Reorganization Committee to fulfil regional aspirations of the people which would lower the chances of them wanting to cede from the nation. This way he strengthened the unity.
  • Rehabilitation of refugees:Refugees from Pakistan were given shelter and attempts were made to reduce communalism.
  • Secularism:It was mainly due to Jawahar Lal Nehru’s efforts that India emerged as a secular state in the mid-twentieth century. Much before independence, he played a heroic role in the development of a secular basis for Indian polity. This helped in building the narrative of ‘Unity in Diversity’.
  • Welfare state:Nehru was a practical idealist and believed that socialism and democracy were not contradictory but complementary to each other. He wanted to build a welfare state for the equitable distribution of wealth.
  • Planning Commission:Nehru, a pragmatic socialist understood the importance of the welfare state in a country which does not have sufficient infrastructure, established a planning commission for long term planning of social schemes.
  • Non-Alignment Policy (NAM):Nehru, being the Foreign Minister, did not want to join either of the power blocs. Also he did not want India to remain aloof from world politics. Therefore, Nehru’s visionary approach to establish NAM with other third world countries proved to be an ideal foreign policy approach.

Conclusion

The period of Nehru is recorded in the history as “Nehruvian Era” during which democracy took the roots; and social, economic, cultural and educational development for the nation building. Despite facing daunting tasks, he was successful in maintaining and strengthening the nation.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. With more young adults entering higher education and increasing job aspirations not matching their educational profile, the new National Employment Policy must accommodate for these trends. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

The government is in the process of setting up an expert committee for drafting a National Employment Policy. Its goal is to enable productive and sufficient job creation, a task that has proven elusive.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the factors that needs to be addressed in the new National Employment Policy.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by elaborating with facts regarding more adults entering higher education and their increasing job aspirations.

Body:

Write about the various factors to be addressed by the policy such as creating opportunities that rightly match the profile of the youth at the same time meeting the needs of the industries and also ensuring retention. Also mention about employability factor of the graduates and the college-industry linkage to be created. Further, mention the trend of startups and entrepreneurs and hoe the policy can aid them.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that the new policy must reverberate the present needs of the youth looking to have a stable and satisfactory job.

Introduction

According to various studies in India, over 62% of the population in India is aged between 15 and 59 years, and the average age of the population is less than 30 years. India is thus going through the stage of ‘demographic dividend’  that represents the prospective for economic growth based on the age structure of the population. The government is in the process of setting up an expert committee for drafting a National Employment Policy. Its goal is to enable productive and sufficient job creation, a task that has proven elusive.

Body

Crucial aspects that need attention while formulating a forward-looking policy.

  • A less widely used but highly insightful measure, the employment- to-population ratio, and second, the regional employment profile of young adults (aged 20-29 years).
  • Employment as a share of the labour force is used more commonly but does not provide an accurate understanding of the demographic challenge facing India.
  • In contrast, changes in the employment-to-population ratio tell us whether the economy is generating jobs fast enough to keep a constant proportion employed.
  • It is common to analyse the employment pattern of the entire employed working-age population, without paying attention to the age profile of the workforce.
  • Young adults tend to be at the start of their career, some are still in higher education, their skills (or lack thereof) are more relevant to newer job roles, and they change jobs often. Policymakers should examine labour-market changes with a special focus on young adults.
  • Sectoral analysis shows that a sharp decline in farm work among young adults mimics the pattern in more developed economies.
  • Not only has unemployment risen, the proportion of young adults in higher education has also jumped.

Overall, with rising education levels, young adults look for aspirational jobs and are ready to wait for one that suits them, resulting in higher unemployment rates. The new employment policy needs to take this aspirational aspect into account. An excessive focus on labour-intensive manufacturing is unlikely to hold appeal among the educated youth. Alternatively, India’s education system needs to be remoulded to reduce its focus on formal higher education and raise the profile (and appeal) of skill-based occupations and manufacturing work.

Conclusion

Employment patterns may not reflect young adult’s aspirations. A new employment policy, therefore, should pay close attention to the labour-market dynamics of young adults in India.

 

Topic: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

5. Analyse the reason for high Gini co-efficient in India and its impact. What measures are needed to address it? (250 words).

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Recently the CJI commented that the divide between haves and have-nots is still a reality.

Key Demand of the question:

To understand the indication of Gini Co efficient and its impact.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by stating the factors representing Gini Co efficient.

Body:

Explain the various factors causing increasing inequalities in India such as education divide between the urban and rural population, inequalities in access to employment opportunities and other type of inequalities.

Next, discuss the impact of such inequalities on the national development, societal friction, hindrance to SDG’s etc.

Next, write steps to that are needed to be taken in this regard.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing an way forward.

Introduction

The Gini index, or Gini coefficient, is a measure of the distribution of income across a population developed by the Italian statistician Corrado Gini in 1912. A higher Gini index indicates greater inequality, with high-income individuals receiving much larger percentages of the total income of the population.

Body

Causes for high Gini coefficient

  • Overdependence on agricultural sector:The sector is over employed. About 48% of population is dependent on agriculture for livelihood. Underemployment and disguised unemployment has made the agricultural sector economically stressed.
  • GDP contribution:Agriculture has 50% of people dependent on it contributes to GDP in around 15%. While the service sector has around 20% of population dependent on it and contributes more than 50% to GDP. This is increasing the divide between the populations.
  • Crony capitalism:Even though India opened for liberalisation after the 1991 reforms had shortfalls which led to crony capitalistic tendencies that resulted in rich getting richer and poor remained poor.
  • Jobless growth:Increase in GDP is not effectively converted into employment generation or increase in the per capita income leading to increase the gaps between the people.
  • Corruption:Widespread corruption in implementation of the welfare schemes has also led to seepages. This leakage is captured by the capitals.

Impact of Rising Inequalities

  • Divide: Leads to the proliferation of Digital divide, Rural- Urban divide, Educational divide, Rich- poor divide etc.
  • Regularisation of Inequalities:Major economists’ worldwide attempt to justify inequalities as an inevitable by-product of growth leading to the reduction of absolute poverty.
    • Because of this, the distribution of new wealth between the rich and the labour has become so one-sided that workers are continuously being pushed to poverty while the rich are getting richer.
    • The deteriorating inequality in income and opportunities impact few sections disproportionately owing to the discrimination based on gender, caste, and many other factors.
  • Can increase government budget and the burden of subsidies: By providing stimulus packages to get the economy on track and to provide relief to economically weaker sections (EWS). The government introduced the Aatmanirbhar Bharat package and schemes like Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana.
  • Creation of Monopolies:Notwithstanding its alleged commitment to market competition, the neoliberal economic plan instead fetched the decline of competition and the rise of close to monopolistic power in the economy: pharmaceuticals, airlines, telecom, agriculture, banking, industrials, and retail.
  • Unsustainable Economic Growth:One of the chief feature of economic expansion is the intensification in use of energy. There is an unprecedented concentration of high energy density in all the economic development approaches.
  • Would create Social unrest: The income inequality throughout the pandemic is one of the reasons for the miseries of migrant workers.

Way Forward

  • Provisions in Constitution: Enforcement of Constitutional Assurance of equality as protected in the fundamental rights. Articles 14, 15 and 16form a structure of the Constitutional Right to Equality.
  • Employment Generation: The failure to develop manufacturing sectors like Textile, Clothing, automobiles, consumer goods etc. is the significant reason of increasing inequalities. The Labour-intensive manufacturing has the potential to absorb millions of people who are separating from farming while service sector incline to benefit mostly the urban middle class.
  • Promotion of Civil Society: Provides a greater voice to traditionally oppressed groups; by enabling civil society groups like association with in these groups. Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes should be encouraged to become entrepreneurs.
  • Women Empowerment: For achieving gender equality plans like confirmatory action by reserving seats in legislatures, increasing reservation at Local self-government both at Urban and village level, stringent implementation of schemes to remove wage gap, making education curriculum gender sensitive, awareness about women right, changing social norms etc.
  • Improving Economic Policies: By ensuring universal access to public funded high quality services like Public health and education, social security benefits, employment guarantee schemes; inequality can be reduced to great extent.

Conclusion

According to Oxfam Report if India ends inequality from increasing further, it could possibly end extreme poverty for 90 million people and if it goes further and reduces inequality by 36%, it could virtually eliminate extreme poverty.

 

Topic: Linkages between development and spread of extremism.

6. While steps necessary to maintain law and order is an essential component to curb left-wing extremism, the spread of left-wing extremism (LWE) has other important factors which should be given due consideration. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

With the deaths of 26 rebels in a police operation in Gadchiroli on Saturday, the proscribed Communist Party of India (Maoist) has faced yet another setback in its “protracted armed struggle” against the Indian state.

Key Demand of the question:

To understand the various factors impacting the cause of left wing extremism and ways to address it.

Directive word: 

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a brief on the issues and spread of left wing extremism in India.

Body:

Mention the security threats associated with LWE in India and the need to have a strong retaliatory strategy to keep the excesses in check. On the other hand also analyse underdevelopment as the root cause of LWE and suggest a developmental approach to address the issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that a fine balance of having strict enforcement along with development is the need to address the issue of LWE.

Introduction

Left Wing Extremism (LWE) movement has its roots in the Naxalbari area West Bengal in the 1960’s.These Maoists insurgents started running a parallel system of administration in parts of central and Eastern India. They kill civilians, destroy public buildings and extract ransom from businessmen. In the recent years, however, LWE movement is showing decline, because of the shift in the approach of the successive Governments. The recent statement by Home Minister noted that the geographical influence of the Maoists has reduced from 96 districts in 10 States in 2010 to 41 now.

 

At least 26 Naxals were killed recently in an encounter with the Maharashtra police in Gadchiroli district.

Body

Factors leading to Left-wing extremism

  • Political Factors
    • Nature and apathy of the political system towards tribals remained one of the most important factors that led to such uprisings.
    • Inability of political authority in India to provide avenues for structural uplift to the deprived sections of society in the affected states.
    • Lack of political participation by the tribal community
  • Economic Factors
    • Poverty and economic inequality and underdevelopment in the naxal affected regions.
    • Entry of mining companies in Tribal lands and forests, posing threat to the livelihood of the tribals.
    • Indigenous tribal population deprived of their lands, uprooted from their traditional source of livelihood.
    • The benefits of the resource exploitation are not passed on the tribals.
  • Environmental Degradation
    • Environmental degradation in the form of destruction of land and water resources due to mining and industrial activates.
  • Lack of basic facilities
    • Lack of basic facilities like education, freedom, sanitation and food.
    • The socially backward tribals form the major support base for Naxalites because of inequality, illiteracy and lack of opportunities.
  • Discrimination against tribals
    • Poor implementation of laws prohibiting transfer of tribal land to non-tribals in the Fifth Schedule areas.
    • Non-regularisation of traditional land rights under FRA, 2006.
    • Hasty rejections of land grants to tribals.
  • Displacement of people
    • Eviction from lands traditionally used by tribals.
    • Forced Displacementscaused by mining, irrigation and power projects without adequate arrangements for rehabilitation. As a result, livelihoods were lost.
    • Large scale land acquisition for ‘public purposes’ without appropriate compensationor rehabilitation

Measures needed by government to tackle the Maoist insurgency:

  • Modernizing the police force: The scheme focuses on strengthening police infrastructure by construction of secure police stations, training centers, police housing (residential) and equipping police stations with required mobility, modern weaponry, communication equipment and forensic set-up etc.
    • On the administrative side, changes include separation of investigation from law and order, specialized wings for Social and Cyber Crimes are initiated in several states.
    • Various technological reforms are pushed including modernization of the control room, fast tracking Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and System (CCTNS), pushing for National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) and pushing for incorporation of new technology into policing
  • Social Integration:State Governments have surrender and rehabilitation policy, while the Central Government supplements the efforts of the State Governments through the Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme for LWE affected States.
    • Additional incentives are given for surrendering with weapons/ammunition.
    • The surrenderers are also impartedvocational training with a monthly stipend for a maximum period of 36 months.
    • Skill Development: Skill Development in 34 Districts affected by Left Wing Extremism” under implementation from 2011-12 aimsto establish ITIs and Skill Development Centers in LWE affected districts.
  • Infrastructure Development:Road Connectivity, communication needs to be rapidly scaled up in LWE affected districts. g.: Mobile towers being set up in remote areas.
  • Community policing improves interface with citizens and makes police more sensitive. E.g. (i) Janamaithri Suraksha Padhathi, Kerala (ii) Friends of Police Movement (FOP), Tamil Nadu (iii) Suraksha Setu – Safe City Surat Project
  • Improve communication network: There should be sharing of information & knowledge to improve the functioning of police force.
  • Better Surveillance and Monitoringwith standardization, deployment and integration of private security surveillance system.

Way forward

  • It is the belief of the Government of India that through a holistic approachfocusing on development and security-related interventions, the LWE problem can be successfully tackled.
  • States play a vital role in maintaining law and order.So, emphasis should be laid on the capacity-building and modernization of the local police forces. Local forces can efficiently and effectively neutralize the LWE organizations.
  • The Kargil Review Committee (KRC) reportnoted that in wake of Internal security challenges that the country faces, the role and the tasks of the paramilitary forces have to be restructured particularly with reference to command and control and leadership functions.
  • A purely security-driven approach fraught with human rights’ violations has only added to the alienation among the poor in these areas.
  • The Union government and the States must continue to learn from successes such as the expansion of welfare and rights paradigms in limiting the movement and failures that have led to the continuing spiral of violence in select districts.
  • The Maoists must be compelled to give up their armed struggle and this can only happen if the tribal people and civil society activists promoting peace are also empowered.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions;

7. Write a short note on deontological ethics. (150 words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Philosophical Mondays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about deontological ethics in detail.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by defining deontology.

Body:

Explain that Deontology is duty ethics, so it compares a person’s actions against some duty or imperative. Discuss the rationale behind it. Write about the significance of the deontological ethics and with suitable illustrations explain it.

 Conclusion:

Completed by summarising their importance.

Introduction

Deontology is also referred to as duty-based ethics. Deontological ethics focuses on how actions follow certain moral rules. So, the action is judged rather than the consequences of the action. The biggest proponent of deontological ethics was Immanuel Kant who said that moral rules should be adhered to if universalising the opposite would make an impossible world

Body

Deontological (duty-based) ethics are concerned with what people do, not with the consequences of their actions.

  • Do the right thing.
  • Do it because it’s the right thing to do.
  • Don’t do wrong things.
  • Avoid them because they are wrong.

It is based on each individual’s duty or obligation towards each other, all living things, and the environment based on moral beliefs and values. It teaches about always acting in good faith and adheres to the Golden Rule to treat others the way you want to be treated by them.

Examples

  • The Ten Commandments are examples of deontology.
  • In Mahabharata, during Kurukshetra battle Arjun finds himself in ethical dilemma while attacking his kinships. At that time Krishna talks about Deontological Ethics suggesting to focus on rightful duty and not on the Consequences and deaths while delivering the rightful duty.
  • Similarly, whole Geeta is based on “Detachment of oneself with consequence and focussing on Duty”

Conclusion

Deontology is simple to apply. It just requires that people follow the rules and do their duty. This approach tends to fit well with our natural intuition about what is or isn’t ethical. Unlike consequentialism, which judges actions by their results, deontology doesn’t require weighing the costs and benefits of a situation. This avoids subjectivity and uncertainty because one only has to follow set rules

Value addition

The advantages of Deontological ethics are

  • Emphasises the value of every human being
    • Duty-based ethical systems tend to focus on giving equal respect to all human beings. This provides a basis for human rights – it forces due regard to be given to the interests of a single person even when those are at odds with the interests of a larger group.
  • It creates a level of personal responsibility.
    • Deontology also asks that people act as if they were responsible for creating laws and expectations within their society. Actions should only be taken in a way that would harmonize society if all the laws and procedures enacted were to harmonize. Creating disharmony would be considered ethically wrong, so it would be an action to be avoided.
  • It creates a guideline to follow.
    • In deontology, right is always “right” and wrong is always “wrong.” There are no exceptions to this black-and-white concept, even if the situations rise to the extreme. It is a process where all members of a society can aspire to be virtuous because they understand what is expected of them from an ethical standpoint.
  • It offers motivation.
    • People hesitate when making decisions because they fear what the consequence of a decision will be. In deontology, the consequence is taken out of consideration. Only the action is evaluated for “right” or “wrong,” so that creates a better level of motivation to make decisions.
  • It delivers justice.
    • Deontology may offer an individualized perspective, but there are no shades of gray within this ethical approach. It is a black-and-white evaluation process. Something is either “right” or “wrong,” which dictates that the individual must always choose the option that is “right.”
  • It can still operate under objective guidelines.
    • Deontology can create similarities between individuals with like-minded ethics. It is also something that can be handed down from generation to generation. Individuals can learn what is consistently “right” and consistently “wrong” and teach that knowledge to others.

There are few shortcomings too

  • Duty-based ethics sets absolute rules. The only way of dealing with cases that don’t seem to fit is to build a list of exceptions to the rule.
  • Allows acts that make the world a less good place
  • Because duty-based ethics is not interested in the results it can lead to courses of action that produce a reduction in the overall happiness of the world.
  • No consequences are considered. Deontology looks at the action be taken on its own. There is no consideration given to the consequence of an action. Even though the concepts of “right” and “wrong” can be taught to others, it is up to each person to decide their individualized ethics.
  • It is selfish. At its core, deontology only considers the individual and what is best for that person, at that time. There is no thought of others, of culture, or of society. It focuses on each decision, in the moment, and determines the ethics of that choice at that time.

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