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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 10 November 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

1. What is a tsunami? Mention its causes and characteristics. Also, describe the factors of destruction from tsunamis? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1. UPSC asked Question related to Tsunamic in 2017

Key Demand of the question:

To write about to factors which lead to formation of Tsunami and its characteristics as well as its destructive impact.

Directive word: 

Describe – Give a detailed explanation of the process or impact

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Write about Tsunami -Tsunami is a series of large waves of extremely long wavelength and period usually generated by a violent, impulsive undersea disturbance or activity near the coast or in the ocean.

Body:

Write about the various causes of Tsunami e.g. Earthquake, Rock fall, etc. Mention the characteristics of its waves, why it becomes so destructive near the shore. Write about three factors of destructions – Inundation, Wave Impact and Erosion. Also, give examples of few recent Tsunami including 2004 Indian Ocean

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarizing the above.

Introduction

Tsunami means a “harbour wave” in literal translation and comes from the Japanese characters for harbour (tsu) and wave (nami). A tsunami also called seismic sea waves, is one of the most powerful and destructive natural forces. It is a series of extremely long waves caused by a large and sudden displacement of the ocean due to earthquake, volcanic eruptions etc. When they reach the coast, they can cause dangerous coastal flooding and powerful currents that can last for several hours or days.

Body

Causes:

Tsunamis are ocean waves triggered by:

  • Large earthquakes that occur near or under the ocean
  • Volcanic eruptions
  • Submarine landslides
  • Onshore landslides in which large volumes of debris fall into the water

Characteristics:

  • Tsunamis are giant waves caused by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions under the sea. Out in the depths of the ocean, tsunami waves do not dramatically increase in height.
  • But as the waves travel inland, they build up to higher and higher heights as the depth of the ocean decreases.
  • The speed of tsunami waves depends on ocean depth rather than the distance from the source of the wave.
  • Tsunami waves may travel as fast as jet planes over deep waters, only slowing down when reaching shallow waters.
  • While tsunamis are often referred to as tidal waves, this name is discouraged by oceanographers because tides have little to do with these giant waves.

Factors of destruction from tsunamis:

  • There are three factors of destructions from tsunamis: inundation, wave impact on structures, and erosion.
  • Strong, tsunami-induced currents lead to the erosion of foundations and the collapse of bridges and seawalls.
  • Flotation and drag forces move houses and overturn railroad cars.
  • Considerable damage is caused by the resultant floating debris, including boats and cars that become dangerous projectiles that may crash into buildings, break power lines, and may start fires.
  • Fires from damaged ships in ports or from ruptured coastal oil storage tanks and refinery facilities, can cause damage greater than that inflicted directly by the tsunami.
  • Of increasing concern is the potential effect of tsunami draw down, when receding waters uncover cooling water intakes of nuclear power plants.

Conclusion

More than 700 million people live in low-lying coastal areas and Small Island Developing States exposed to extreme sea-level events including tsunamis. Resilient infrastructure, early warning systems, and education is critical to saving people and protecting their assets against tsunami risk in the future.

 

Topic:Salient features of world’s physical geography.

2. The destructive power of Tsunamis is all because of the topography of the seafloor near the shore, and is bound to increase in the future. Highlighting the statement, discuss some of the mitigation measures in this regard. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how topography of sea floor influence formation of Tsunami, why Tsunami destructive power is going to increase and mitigation measures required.

Directive word: 

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Explain the relation of Tsunami with its topography of the sea floor. ( No need to go deeper into the causes, as that has been dealt in the previous questions)

Body:

Explain Why Tsunami waves is going to be more destructive in the future e.g. effect of sea level rise, Climate change. Also, destructive power of much weaker power tsunami will increase in the future. Then, describe various mitigation factors- by government, NDMA and your own suggestions.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising the above.

Introduction

Tsunami is a seismic sea wave or tidal wave, catastrophic ocean wave, usually caused by a submarine earthquake, an underwater or coastal landslide, or a volcanic eruption. The term tidal wave is frequently used for such a wave, but it is a misnomer, for the wave has no connection with the tides. Sea-level rise can significantly increase the tsunami hazard, which means that smaller tsunamis in the future can have the same adverse impacts as big tsunamis would today.

Body

Tsunami Wave

Topography of the seafloor near  the shore affects the power of Tsunamis

  • Tsunami waves become dangerous only when they get close to the coast: the height of a Tsunami wave grows larger as the water becomes more and more shallow in a wave shoaling process
  • An increase in wave amplitude results in “shoaling” when waves, including tsunamis, run from deep to shallow water. This is significant in coastal regions. This phenomena occurs because of the force from the seabed as it becomes shallower. This slows down the wave: the shallower the water, the slower the wave.
  • Even when tsunamis have only a small amplitude (less than a meter) they can shoal up to many meters high as they hit shallow water. When a tsunami hits shallower coastal waters, the trough or base of the wave contacts the beach floor. As a consequence, the leading edge of the tsunami slows dramatically due to the shallower water, but the trailing part of the wave is still moving rapidly in the deeper water.
  • The wave is compressed and its velocity slows below 80 kilometers per hour. Its wavelength diminishes to less than 20 kilometers and its amplitude is magnified many times. This piling up of tsunami energy results in growth of the wave height.
  • The form of the adjacent geography to deep water (open bays and coastline), can shape the tsunami into a step-like wave with a steep braking face. The wave height as it crashes upon a shore depends almost entirely upon the submarine topography offshore. Steeper shorelines produce higher tsunami waves.
  • Because of the factors of low amplitude in deep water and large wavelength, tsunamis are often not noticed in mid-ocean. As the tsunami hits shallower water, the velocity slows, wavelength decreases and the waves height (amplitude) increases.
  • Small islands with steep slopes usually experience little runup – wave heights there are only slightly greater than on the open ocean. This is the reason that islands with steep-sided fringing or barrier reefs are only at moderate risk from tsunamis.
  • However, this is not the case for islands such as the Hawaiian or the Marquesas. Both of these island chains do not have extensive barrier reefs and have broad bays exposed to the open ocean.

Measures for mitigation of Tsunami waves

Tsunami

Structural measures

  • A robust techno-legal regime through efficient land use practices, bio shields, and shelter belt plantation and mangrove regeneration with community involvement is the need of the hour.
  • Setting up tsunami prediction and warning systems such as INCOIS of India. India is much safer against tsunami threat than it was in 2004, thanks to the state-of-the-art tsunami early warning system established at Indian National Centre for Ocean Information System (INCOIS).
  • Construction of seawalls, breakwaters, tsunami river gates and developing forest barriers may also help in preventing extensive damage.
  • Building tsunami evacuation structures
  • Limiting new development in tsunami hazard zones
  • Designing, siting, and building structures to minimize tsunami damage
  • Adopting building codes that address tsunamis
  • Protecting and strengthening existing structures and infrastructure that if damaged would negatively affect response and recovery
  • Moving important community assets and vulnerable populations out of tsunami hazard zones
  • Other ways to prepare for and mitigate the potential impacts of a tsunami emphasize thoughtful land-use planning and building design in tsunami hazard zones.

Non-structural measures

  • Communities can use the tsunami hazard zone maps to determine where people and other important community assets (e.g., buildings, facilities, bridges, schools, hospitals) are at risk so they can decide where to focus preparedness, response, and mitigation efforts.
  • Educating the public (residents and visitors) about tsunamis and tsunami safety before a tsunami strikes.
  • A strong mechanism has been recommended for effective emergency response by involving local police network, civil defence volunteers wherever available, home guards, State Disaster Response Forces and National Disaster Response Force is also imperative.
  • The focus in recent times has been on enhancing community awareness and responsethrough several capacity building activities, biennial Indian Ocean wide tsunami drills and piloting of the UNESCO-IOC Tsunami Ready initiative.
  • Protection of coastal ecosystems like mangroves and coral reefs may help in lowering tsunami-related hazards.

Way forward

  • Initiatives like Tsunami Ready has to be replicated in other vulnerable coastal communities as it enhances ability to respond to cyclones and storm surges too.
  • The best of warning systems could fail, if communities are not prepared, if they do not understand the official and natural warning signs of a tsunami, and if they do not take appropriate and timely response.
  • Building resilient infrastructure, setting up early warning systems, and spreading awareness among people is critical in preventing tsunami-related risks in the future.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: India and its neighbourhood- relations.

3. Conflicts over fishing rights are not infrequent along the International Maritime Boundary Line between India and Pakistan. Discuss how both countries can ensure that fishermen are not victims of a deterioration in ties between the countries. (250 Words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Recently an Indian fisherman was killed in firing by the Pakistan Maritime Security Agency (PMSA) off Gujarat.

Key Demand of the question:

Highlight the present state of conflicts over fishing rights between India and Pakistan, and how this can be resolved.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them.

 Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Describe the current state of conflict of fishing rights by highlighting the killing of Indian fishermen.

Body:

Mention about the established international practices and bilateral understandings.

Talk about how Civilians along international borders often get caught in disputes between countries.

Mention about fishermen issue between India and Sri Lanka.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward for collaboration between countries for solving the issue.

Introduction

A maritime boundary is a theoretical separation of the Earth’s water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical benchmarks. It normally bounds areas of exclusive national rights over mineral and biological resources, including maritime features, limits and zones. Normally, a maritime boundary is demarcated at a specific distance from a jurisdiction’s coastline.

UNCLOS is the solitary international convention that stipulates a framework for state jurisdiction in maritime spaces. It offers a different legal status to various maritime zones.

Body

The territorial waters extend seaward up to 12 nautical miles (nm) from baselines of a country. As per the international law and the Thalweg principle, a boundary can only be fixed in the middle of the navigable channel, which intended that it has been divided between Sindh and Kutch, and thereby India and Pakistan.

Indo- PAK Maritime Issue

  • Sir Creek is a 96-km strip of water disputed between India and Pakistan in the Rann of Kutch marshlands.
  • The dispute lies in the interpretation of the maritime boundary line between Kutch and Sindh.
  • Apart from strategic location, Sir Creek’s core importance is fishing resources. Sir Creek is considered to be among the largest fishing grounds in Asia.
  • Vital reason of the possible presence of great oil and gas concentration under the sea, which are currently unexploited.
  • Demarcation of maritime boundary between India and Pakistan in Arabian Sea

Reason for persisting Maritime conflicts

  • Failure in implementing joint working group resolutions: Since 1969, 12 rounds of talks have been held over the issue of Sir Creek, but both sides have denied reaching any solution.
  • Failure of Direct talks:Attempts to negotiate a settlement through direct talks between fishermen from both sides have also failed.
  • Inability to find a common ground: Sri Lanka favours an instantaneous ban on unsustainable fishing practiceslike bottom trawling.  Although Tamil Nadu fishermen want a lengthy phase-out period for the same.
  • Alternate solutions failed: The proposal to replace Tamil Nadu fishermen trawlers with deep sea fishing vesselshas not been successful.
  • Politicization of Issue: It has frequently been a sensitive political issue in Tamil Nadu in the past one decade. Regional parties in Tamil Nadu had been often fighting with the Union governments for their indifference to the issue.

Conclusion

Mutual acknowledgement of each other’s apprehensions and interests can improve the relationship between both the countries. India should focus more on its traditional and cultural ties to improve relations with Sri Lanka and Pakistan. Opening ferry services between India and Sri Lanka can improve people to people linkages.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Environmental Pollution and Degradation. Environmental Impact Assessment

4. The ‘Net-Zero’ commitment of India, in relevance to Climate Change presents many opportunities and challenges. Comment (150 Words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Recently, the Indian Prime Minister made a few commitments at the COP26

Key Demand of the question:

Highlight the opportunities and challenges for India with its ‘net-zero’ commitment

Directive word:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon

 Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

A brief on ‘net-Zero’ commitments at COP26

Body:

First. Mention the opportunities for India with its commitment; then the challenges

Suggest way forward

Conclusion:

A relevant closing statement

Introduction

Given the magnitude of climate change phenomena occurring all over the world, the upcoming COP26 climate deal negotiation is crucial to cap global warming at the 1.5-2 degrees Celsius upper limit set out in the 2015 Paris Agreement. India announced that it will reach carbon neutrality by 2070 as part of a five-point action plan that included reducing emissions to 50% by 2030. However, it can have an impact on the Indian economy and most crucially the job creation, if not managed well.

Body

Benefits

  • It could give a clear signal of India’s intentions and provide better access to international technology, funding and markets.
  • It is estimated that 60 per cent of India’s capital stock — factories and buildings that will exist in 2040 — is yet to be built.
  • The country can potentially leapfrog into new green technology, rather than being overburdened with “re-fitting” obligations.
  • If India can now transition to green growth, it could create a more responsible and sustainable economy.
  • If India’s exports achieve a “green stamp”, they may find better market access, especially if the world imposes a carbon tax on exports from economies where carbon emissions remain elevated.
  • They not only open up new markets but also bring in international competition, forcing the domestic industry to become more efficient, while pushing up FDI inflows and technical know-how.
  • Estimates show that 2-2.5 million additional jobs can be created in the renewables sector by 2050, taking the total number of people employed there to over 3 million.

Challenges

  • Risk of Inflation:Anything which factors in the polluting cost of fossil fuels is likely to lead to price rises in some sectors such as logistics, chemical products, electricity (more than 70% of India’s electricity came from coal), etc.
  • Impact on Petroleum sector: A report by think tank Carbon Trackerestimated that over USD 1 trillion of business-as-usual investment by the oil and gas sector would no longer be viable in a genuinely low-carbon world.
    • Moreover, the IMF has called for the end of all fossil fuel subsidies. This may impact India’s petroleum export and also, may lead to an unemployment crisis at the mass level.
  • Impact on agriculture: Agriculture accounts for over 15% of India’s $2.7 trillion economy and employs almost half of the country’s more than 1.3 billion people. Agriculture sector being one of the biggest emitter of GHGs due to activities like paddy cultivation, burning post-harvest waste etc. This could pose a big challenge. On the other hand, it could pose challenges to food security too.
  • Impact on livestock sector: Around two-thirds of Indians live in the countryside and India’s large livestock population is central to the country’s agriculture and its village economy. That makes reducing methane emissions, generated by cows’ digestive systems and manure, a major challenge.
  • Forestry in itself is less of an issue for India, but the country was troubled by a clause in the COP26 declaration that could limit trade. Since our international trade is increasingly becoming a big part of our economy, any clause on trade would affect the prospects.
  • Impact on job creation & rural livelihoods: As curbs on Agri and livestock rearing come in, this would impact the jobs and in turn push rural people into poverty.
  • Impact on industries: India has not yet reached the peak industrialization. Thus, the cop26 proposals could directly impact the ‘Make in India’ again leading to jobless growth

Steps required on part of the Indian Government:

  • Covering up Economic Risk of Net Zero Emissions:Central banks and national treasuries should form a combined strategy to balance economic growth with sustainable development.
    • A vital step should be explicitly including policies for climate mitigation in the government budget, along with energy, roads, health, and education.
  • Switching to Hydrogen Economy: Power generation by green hydrogenwill be a viable solution to achieve the target of ‘net-zero’ emission to remain under 1.5° C.
    • It will also be a leap forward in minimizing the dependence on conventional fossil fuels.
  • Mobilizing Climate Finance:There is also a need to launch a major campaign to mobilize climate finance and focus should be given on energy efficiency, use of biofuels, carbon sequestration, and carbon pricing.
  • Reducing emissions from the transport sector & industry: Focus on public transport; use of gas-based transportation; use of biofuels and shift to electric vehicle
  • Private sector investment:  The private sector today owns about 48% of the total capacity of hydro projects in India. For India to meet its 2030 targets, private investors will need an incentive to keep adding to this capacity.
  • Investment in the RE sector: A five-fold addition in renewable capacity needs to be accompanied by greater R&D investments by all stakeholders. IP needs to be held by Indian entities as the dominant player China can’t be relied upon.
  • Nuclear energy:  India’s own breeder reactor using thorium as well as investment in Fusion technology (India is contributing to ITER fusion project in France)
  • Better coordination between the state electricity boardswould be needed so that utilities with surplus power can make up for the deficits of others.
  • The need for radical solutions like solar geoengineeringalso merits attention. India might well be able to play a major role in the aerosol-spraying missions or reflector installations needed for such a collective project. Rich nations, though, might have to put in most of the money.

Conclusion

Governments and multilateral organizations must ensure that private investment flows from the global north to the south, and into the relevant sectors. This must be the focus of India’s climate diplomacy, now that the pledges have been made.

Additional Information

Important takeaways of COP-26 Summit:

  • Climate Change Cost:Although there is disagreement on the magnitude, several economists are certain about the possible impact of global warming on global output.
  • According to an International Monetary Fund (IMF)estimate, unchecked global warming would reduce 7% of world output by 2100.
  • The Network for Greening the Financial System (NFGS)group of world central banks puts it even higher at 13%.
  • Most Vulnerable Area: It is unanimously accepted that the developing world will be the worst affected areaby climate change.
  • Presently, much of the world’s poor live in the tropical or low-lying regionsalready suffering climate change fall-out like droughts or rising sea levels.
  • Moreover, their countriesrarely have the resources to mitigate such damage.
  • Impact on Micro-Level: Climate change will drive up to 132 million more people into extreme poverty by 2030,a World Bank paper last year concluded.
  • Analysing Net ZeroEmission Scenario: ‘Net zero emissions’ refers to achieving an overall balance between greenhouse gas emissions produced and greenhouse gas emissions taken out of the atmosphere.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

5. “Every individual’s decision is determined more by emotions, rather than by rationale”. Comment (250 Words)

 Difficulty Level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

How emotions influence our decisions more than the rationale behind it?

Directive word:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by describing Decision making process

Body:

Mention the factors that influence Decision making process

Then, mention how Emotions determine our actions & Decisions?

Further explain, how taking decisions with a Rationale in mind, would enhance the decision making process?

Conclusion:

A relevant summarising statement

Introduction

A decision-making process is a series of steps taken by an individual to determine the best option or course of action to meet their needs.

Body

Several factors influence decision making. These factors, include

  • Past experience
  • Cognitive biases
  • Age and culture
  • Individual differences
  • Belief in personal relevance
  • Escalation of commitment
  • Motivation and Emotion

Understanding the factors that influence decision making process is important to understanding what decisions are made. That is, the factors that influence the process may impact the outcomes.

Role of Emotions in Decision Making

Emotions are created when the brain interprets what’s going on around us through our memories, thoughts and beliefs. This triggers how we feel and behave. All our decisions are influenced by this process in some way. Making emotional decisions is natural.

  • For example, if you’re feeling happy, you might decide to walk home via a sunny park. But if you’d been chased by a dog as a child, that same sunny park might trigger feelings of fear, and you’d take the bus instead. There may be logical arguments to be made either way, but in the moment, the decision is driven by your emotional state.

Different emotions affect decisions in different ways. If you’re feeling sad, you might be more willing to settle for things that aren’t in your favour, such as not putting yourself forward for promotion, or remaining in an unhealthy relationship. But sadness can also make you more generous — research shows that unhappy people are more likely to be in favour of increasing benefits to welfare recipients than angry people, who are lacking in empathy.

Emotional decision making can affect not just the outcome of the decision, but the speed at which you make it.

  • Anger can lead to impatience and rash decision-making.
  • If you’re excited, you might make quick decisions without considering the implications, as you surf the wave of confidence and optimism about the future.
  • While if you feel afraid, your decisions may be clouded by uncertainty and caution, and it might take you longer to choose.
  • Decisions led by emotion can also be more compassionate, particularly if they affect other people. We see this at play in stories of people putting their own lives at risk to save someone else, or when we choose how to break difficult news to a friend.

While rational decision making is a multi-step process for making choices between alternatives. The process of rational decision making favours logic, objectivity, and analysis over subjectivity and insight. Irrational decision is more counter to logic. The decisions are made in haste and outcomes are not considered.

Conclusion

Both emotion and logic have a role to play in helping us make positive decisions. If we understand where our emotions come from and start to notice how they affect our thinking and behaviour, we can practice managing our response and learn to make better choices.

 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration.

6. There can be no good governance without moral leadership. Comment. (150 words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the relationship between moral leadership and good governance.

Directive word:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by describing moral leadership.

Body:

Bring out the relationship between moral leadership and good governance. In governance, a leader grapples with not only the legal aspects of the matter, but also with ensuring that moral interpretations yield equitable results. Substantiate with recent examples from the happenings as well as historical examples.

Suggest ways how leadership can align itself to moral values.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing on need for moral leadership in the present times.

Introduction

Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Ethical Leadership is about Moral principles that govern a person’s behaviour or the conducting of an activity. Ethical leadership means acting according to your moral principles in your day-to-day business life and decision-making.

Body:

Moral leadership leads to good governance

  • Leaders with good moral sense provide attention to the development of ethical perspectives within organizational components.
  • Leaders need to make ethically accountable decisions in rapidly changing government environments and within these spheres, they face decisions and implement actions to create an ethical environment and promote a community’s interests.
  • The standard  of  governance  and  its  outcomes  in  any  government  reflect  the  calibre of  officials  that  constitute  the  administrative
  • A good  and  efficient  administration  is  equally  a responsive one; it takes cognizance that purpose and obligation of government is to protect peoples’ rights  and  promote  their  individual  and  collective  well-being  as  human
  • These leaders are not simply well-behaved, they stimulate action by anchoring their daily work – and the work of those around them – in a principled vision of what is good for the world.
  • Moral leaders are advocates who see the humanity in everyone and take the time to build unique and deep relationships.
  • They see people not as means, but as ends in themselves. They listen and learn from those they lead and are often more inclusive.
  • Moral Leadership has the potential to sustain ethical and personal development along with social development.
  • When morality buds in leaders, they become aware of the accountability condition, the specific coping strategy relevant to the condition is embraced.
  • The leaders who are held accountable for their moral actions are more likely to be aware of the accountability requirements in order to promote good governance.
  • When individuals were notified that they would be held accountable for their decisions regarding stereotype change and generalizations, both information processing and judgment vigilance increased.

Conclusion:

In a reshaped world, formal authority is less potent. Only moral authority can build trust, inspire colleagues, create meaning and help people imagine a better future. Effective leadership and Good Governance are two sides of the same coin. The two have many elements in common. Without an effective leadership we may not envisage Good Governance in its totality. In fact, Good Governance may not be achieved in its totality because of cultural, psychological, social and sociological impacts and differences.


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