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[Mission 2022] INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY- 11 November 2021

 

 

InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically. 

current affairs, current events, current gk, insights ias current affairs, upsc ias current affairs

 

Table of Contents:

 

GS Paper 1:

1. Who is warrior woman Onake Obavva?

2. What is Leonids Meteor Shower?

 

GS Paper 2:

1. Union Cabinet brings back MPLAD Scheme.

2. General consent for CBI.

 

GS Paper 3:

1. Climate Change Performance Index.

2. What causes frothing in Delhi’s Yamuna?

 

Facts for Prelims:

1. India confers honorary rank of General on Nepal Army Chief.

2. Global Drug Policy Index.


 

Who is warrior woman Onake Obavva? Context:

GS Paper 1:

Topics Covered: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

 

From this year, the Karnataka government has decided to celebrate ‘Onake Obavva Jayanti’ on November 11 throughout the state.

current affairs

 

Who is Onake Obavva?

  • Onake Obavva is a woman warrior who fought the forces of Hyder Ali single-handedly with a pestle (‘onake’ in Kannada) in Chitradurga in the 18th century.
  • She died protecting the Chitradurga Fort, which was ruled by Madakari Nayaka in the 18th century.

current affairs

 

Legacy and relevance today:

  • Obavva is considered to be the epitome of Kannada pride and celebrated along with other women warriors of Karnataka state.
  • Onake Obavva’s courage and quick thinking have been praised by the people of Karnataka, especially in the Chitradurga region, where a stadium is named after her.
  • Inspired by Onake Obavva, in 2018, the Chitradurga police started ‘Obavva Pade’, a squad of women police constables to protect and educate women in the district. This was later extended to Bangalore.

 

Insta Curious:

There are many such women warriors from Karnataka. Some of them are Abbakka Rani (first Tuluva Queen of Ullal in coastal Karnataka who fought the Portuguese), Keladi Chennamma (the queen of the Keladi Kingdom who is known for fighting against Mughal emperor Aurangzeb), and Kittur Chennamma (Queen of Kittur known for the 1824 revolt against the British East India Company). Read about them in brief.

Sources: Indian Express.

What is Leonids Meteor Shower?

GS Paper 1:

Topics Covered: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclones etc.

 

Context:

The annual Leonids Meteor Shower has begun. This year’s shower is active between November 6 and 30, with peak activity expected on November 17.

 

What is Leonids Meteor Shower?

  • The debris that forms this meteor shower originates from a small comet called 55P/Tempel-Tuttle in the constellation Leo, which takes 33 years to orbit the sun.
  • The Leonids are considered to be a major shower that features the fastest meteors, which typically travel at speeds of 71 km per second.

current affairs

 

Meteor Shower vs Storm:

Every 33 years, a Leonid shower turns into a meteor storm, which is when hundreds to thousands of meteors can be seen every hour.

  • A meteor storm should have at least 1,000 meteors per hour. In 1966, a Leonid storm offered views of thousands of meteors that fell through the Earth’s atmosphere per minute during a period of 15 minutes.
  • The last such storm took place in2002.

current affairs

 

What are meteor showers?

  • Meteors are bits of rock and ice that are ejected from comets as they manoeuvre around their orbits around the sun.
  • Meteor showers are witnessed when Earth passes through the trail of debris left behind by a comet or an asteroid.

 

What Are the Differences Between An Asteroid, Comet, Meteoroid, Meteor and Meteorite?

  1. Asteroid: A relatively small, inactive, rocky body orbiting the Sun.
  2. Comet: A relatively small, at times active, object whose ices can vaporize in sunlight forming an atmosphere (coma) of dust and gas and, sometimes, a tail of dust and/or gas.
  3. Meteoroid: A small particle from a comet or asteroid orbiting the Sun.
  4. Meteor: The light phenomena which results when a meteoroid enters the Earth’s atmosphere and vaporizes; a shooting star.
  5. Meteorite: A meteoroid that survives its passage through the Earth’s atmosphere and lands upon the Earth’s surface.

current affairs

 

Insta Curious:

Did you know that the light in a Meteor shower—which is why a meteor is called a shooting star — is a result of the friction between the meteorite and the molecules present in the Earth’s atmosphere because of which it burns?

 

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. What is an Asteroid?
  2. What is a comet?
  3. What is coma?
  4. Differences between Asteroid, Comet, Meteoroid, Meteor and Meteorite.

Sources: Indian Express.

What is MPLAD Scheme?

GS Paper 2:

Topics Covered: Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

 

Context:

Citing economic recovery, the Union Cabinet has restored the Members of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS) that was suspended in April 2020 subsuming the funds for the scheme in the consolidated fund of India. However, the MPs will get ₹2 crore instead of the annual approved ₹5 crore.

 

Background:

The government had in April, 2020 decided not to operate MPLADS for the Financial Years 2020-21 and 2021-22; and place the MPLADS funds for these two-years at the disposal of the Ministry of Finance to meet the emergent needs of people.

  • From ₹5,012 crore spent during 2018-19, an expenditure of just ₹2,491.45 crore was taken up under the scheme in 2019-20.

 

How was this fund utilised?

The government has said that the funds saved from the MPLAD Scheme have been utilised to enhance the allocation of funds for improving health infrastructure, provide free ration under PM Garib Kalyan Yojana, and free vaccination for the people.

current affairs

 

About MPLAD scheme:

  • Launched in December, 1993.
  • Seeks to provide a mechanism for the Members of Parliament to recommend works of developmental nature for creation of durable community assets and for provision of basic facilities including community infrastructure, based on locally felt needs.
  • The MPLADS is a Plan Scheme fully funded by Government of India.
  • The annual MPLADS fund entitlement per MP constituency is Rs. 5 crore.

 

Special focus:

  • MPs are to recommend every year, works costing at least 15 per cent of the MPLADS entitlement for the year for areas inhabited by Scheduled Caste population and 7.5 per cent for areas inhabited by S.T. population.

 

Release of Funds:

  • Funds are released in the form of grants in-aid directly to the district authorities.
  • The funds released under the scheme are non-lapsable.
  • The liability of funds not released in a particular year is carried forward to the subsequent years, subject to eligibility.
  • The MPs have a recommendatory role under the scheme.
  • The district authority is empowered to examine the eligibility of works, sanction funds and select the implementing agencies, prioritise works, supervise overall execution, and monitor the scheme at the ground level.
  • At least 10% of the projects under implementation in the district are to be inspected every year by the district authority.

 

Recommendation of works:

  • The Lok Sabha Members can recommend works in their respective constituencies.
  • The elected members of the Rajya Sabha can recommend works anywhere in the state from which they are elected.
  • Nominated members of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha may select works for implementation anywhere in the country.

 

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. How is MPLADS connected to Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana?
  2. Where can nominated MPs recommend their works?
  3. Is there any special focus on SC and ST Welfare?
  4. Difference between grants and loans?
  5. Implementing agencies.

Mains Link:

Critically examine whether MPLADS has helped in bridging the gaps in provisioning of public services?

Sources: the Hindu.

General consent to CBI:

GS Paper 2:

Topics Covered: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

 

General consent to CBI

Context:

The Supreme Court has expressed concern over a submission by the CBI that since 2018, around 150 requests for sanction to investigate have been pending with eight state governments that have withdrawn general consent to the agency.

 

Background:

The CBI had filed the affidavit after the court inquired last month about the bottlenecks it faced, and the steps it had taken to strengthen prosecutions.

 

Which states have withdrawn general consent, and why?

Eight states have currently withdrawn consent to the CBI: Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Kerala, and Mizoram. All except Mizoram are ruled by the opposition.

 

Centre’s response:

  • State governments do not have any “absolute” power to keep the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) from investigating crimes inside the State.
  • Not even the Union government”, has the authority to rattle the autonomy of the premier agency to conduct investigations.
  • Also, withdrawal of general consent would not stand in the way of constitutional courts entrusting the CBI with the cases “where it is found that the State Police would not effectively conduct a fair and impartial investigation”.
  • Besides, the CBI was empowered to probe cases concerning any of the Central subjects enumerated in the Union List in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution.

 

Why is consent necessary?

The CBI is governed by the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act that makes consent of a state government mandatory for conducting investigation in that state.

 

There are two kinds of consent:

Case-specific and general– Given that the CBI has jurisdiction only over central government departments and employees, it can investigate a case involving state government employees or a violent crime in a given state only after that state government gives its consent.

  • “General consent” is normally given to help the CBI seamlessly conduct its investigation into cases of corruption against central government employees in the concerned state.

 

What does withdrawal mean?

It simply means that CBI officers will lose all powers of a police officer as soon as they enter the state unless the state government has allowed them.

  • The decision means the CBI will now have to get consent from the state government for every case it registers in Maharashtra.

 

Under what provision can general consent be withdrawn?

In exercise of power conferred by Section 6 of the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946, the state governments can withdraw the general consent accorded.

 

Can withdrawal mean that the CBI can no longer probe any case?

No. The CBI would still have the power to investigate old cases registered when general consent existed. Also, cases registered anywhere else in the country, but involving people stationed in states which have withdrawn consent, would allow CBI’s jurisdiction to extend to these states.

 

Calcutta High Court verdict:

Calcutta High Court recently ruled in a case of illegal coal mining and cattle smuggling being investigated by the CBI, that the central agency cannot be stopped from probing an employee of the central government in another state. The order has been challenged in the Supreme Court.

  • In Vinay Mishra vs the CBI, Calcutta HC ruled in July this year that corruption cases must be treated equally across the country, and a central government employee could not be “distinguished” just because his office was located in a state that had withdrawn general consent.
  • The HC also said that withdrawal of consent would apply in cases where only employees of the state government were involved.

 

Insta Curious:

Suits under Article 131 are filed exclusively in the Supreme Court with regard to disputes between States, or between the Centre and State. Do you know about the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court? Reference: read this.

 

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. About CBI and its establishment.
  2. Provisions of DSPE Act.
  3. What is General Consent?
  4. What happens when general consent is withdrawn by states?

Mains Link:

Can withdrawal mean that the CBI can no longer probe any case? Discuss.

Sources: Indian Express.

Climate Change Performance Index:

GS Paper 3:

Topics Covered: Conservation related issues.

 

Context:

The 17th edition of the Climate Change Performance Index was released recently.

 

About CCPI:

  • It is compiled by Germanwatch, the New Climate Institute, and the Climate Action Network.
  • It monitors climate mitigation progress of 60 countries and the European Union.
  • It aims to enhance transparency in international climate politics and enables the comparability of climate protection efforts and progress made by individual countries.

 

Methodology:

Methodological approach and data sources

The CCPI assesses countries’ performance in four categories:

  • “GHG Emissions” (40% of overall score).
  • “Renewable Energy” (20% of overall score).
  • “Energy Use” (20% of overall score).
  • “Climate Policy” (20% of overall score).

Components_of_the_CCPI

 

Performance of various countries in the latest index:

  • The first three ranks of the overall rankings were kept empty because no country had performed well enough in all index categories to achieve an overall very high rating.
  • The first three ranks in the greenhouse gas emissions category, too, were kept empty.
  • In terms of greenhouse gas emissions, Sweden, Egypt, Chile and the UK are in the top 7.
  • Scandinavian countries such as Sweden achieved the best results because of their “outstanding” effort on renewable energy. Iran and Russia are ranked the lowest in this category.
  • Overall, Australia, South Korea and Russia and the United States are among the lowest performing countries along with Kazakhstan and Saudi Arabia.
  • China is ranked 37 overall and has an overall rating of “low”.

current affairs

 

Performance of India:

  • In the overall rankings, India is at number 10 with a score of 69.22. It is a high performer except in the renewable energy category, in which it is ranked “medium”.
  • The report says that India is benefiting from its relatively low per-capita emissions.

 

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. About CCPI.
  2. Features.
  3. Criteria.
  4. Performance of various countries.

Mains Link:

Concerns for India, areas for improvement and the need for the government’s active involvement in controlling climate change.

Sources: Indian Express.

What causes frothing in Delhi’s Yamuna?

GS Paper 3:

Topics Covered: Conservation and pollution related issues.

 

Delhi’s Yamuna

Context:

In what has become a repeat occurrence in the city, a layer of froth was seen floating over parts of the Yamuna river near Kalindi Kunj recently, with Chhath devotees standing in toxic foam-laden water to offer prayers.

  • The froth is a sign of a polluted river.

 

What causes frothing in the Yamuna?

  • The release of untreated or poorly treated effluents, including sewage from those parts of the city that are not connected to the sewerage network and industrial waste, could lead to frothing.
  • Surfactants and phosphates from detergents in households and industrial laundry find their way into the river, as all the sewage is not treated.

 

Reasons for foaming around this time of the year:

The river is in a lean phase and the water flow is less. Pollutants, therefore, are not diluted. The turbulence at the barrage near Okhla generates foam from the phosphates.

 

Why is Yamuna so polluted?

  1. The sewage treatment plants of Delhi are major contributors of the Pollutants being discharged in the river.
  2. Pollutants discharge from different types of industry is also a major issue.
  3. Agriculture activities along the banks of the river in Delhi contributes to river pollution.
  4. Agricultural waste and pesticide discharge from the Haryana field also contributes to the pollution.
  5. The low volume of water flow in the river causes the pollutants to accumulate and raise the pollution level.

 

About Yamuna River:

  • The river Yamuna is a major tributary of river Ganges.
  • Originates from the Yamunotri glacier near Bandarpoonch peaks in the Mussoorie range of the lower Himalayas in Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand.
  • It meets the Ganges at the Sangam in Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh after flowing through Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Delhi.
  • Tributaries: Chambal, Sindh, Betwa and Ken.

 

Insta Curious:

Did you know that the Article 21, the right to clean the environment, and further, pollution-free water, has been protected under the broad rubric of the right to life?

 

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. River Yamuna Flows through how many states and UTs?
  2. Tributaries of Yamuna.
  3. Acceptable maximum limit of ammonia in drinking water?
  4. Permissible level of Sulfate.
  5. Desirable limit of hardness of water.
  6. The desirable level of faecal coliform.

Sources: Indian Express.

Facts for Prelims:

India confers honorary rank of General on Nepal Army Chief:

  • Nepal Army Chief General Prabhu Ram Sharma has been conferred the honorary rank of General of the Indian Army by President Ram Nath Kovind.
  • It is a customary practice by the two countries to confer the honorary rank of General on each other’s Army Chiefs.

 

Global Drug Policy Index:

  • The inaugural Global Drug Policy Index was released recently by the Harm Reduction Consortium.
  • It is composed of 75 indicators running across five broad dimensions of drug policy: criminal justice, extreme responses, health and harm reduction, access to internationally controlled medicines, and development.
  • It ranks Norway, New Zealand, Portugal, the UK and Australia as the five leading countries on humane and health-driven drug policies.
  • The five lowest-ranking countries are Brazil, Uganda, Indonesia, Kenya, and Mexico.
  • India’s rank is 18 out of 30 countries.

current affairs

 


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