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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 5 November 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

1. Mangrove swamps protect coastal areas from erosion, storm surge, and tsunamis. Mangroves in India are getting ecologically fragile and climatically vulnerable. Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Class-XI NCERT: India Physical Environment.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain the importance of mangroves and to bring out the various threats faced by them.

Directive: 

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin the answer by briefly writing about mangroves and their ecosystem. 

Body:

You can draw simple and illustrative of map showing important mangroves.

Write about the role of mangroves as the first line of defense against erosion and flooding. Also mention about the other ecological benefits of mangroves as well as its unique flora and fauna.

Next, write about the various threats that mangroves are facing which is making them ecologically fragile and climatically vulnerable such as Coastal development, clearing for agriculture, excessive Aquaculture &Salt Production, River changes: Dams and irrigation, Destruction of coral reefs, Pollution and Climate change etc. Cite necessary examples, facts and figures to substantiate your point.

Conclusion:

Write a way forward to protect the Mangrove ecosystem of India.

Introduction

Mangroves are the characteristic littoral plant formation of tropical and subtropical sheltered coastlines. They exhibit remarkable capacity for salt water tolerance, strong wind velocity, varying tides and high temperature (FAO-1952). E.g.: Rhizopora, Avicenia, Bruguiera etc. Total cover of Mangroves in India is about 4,975 sq km as per latest State of Forest Report 2019.

Body

Ecological Services by Mangroves:

  • Mangrove plants have (additional) special roots such as prop roots, pneumatophores which help to impede water flow and thereby enhance the deposition of sediment in areas (where it is already occurring), stabilize the coastal shores, provide breeding ground for fishes.
  • Mangroves moderate monsoonal tidal floods and reduce inundation of coastal lowlands.
  • They prevent coastal soil erosion.
  • They protect coastal lands from tsunami, hurricanes and floods.
  • Mangroves enhance natural recycling of nutrients.
  • Mangrove supports numerous flora, avifauna and wild life.
  • Provide a safe and favourable environment for breeding, spawning, rearing of several fishes.
  • They supply woods, fire wood, medicinal plants and edible plants to local people.
  • They provide numerous employment opportunities to local communities and augments their livelihood.

Threats to Mangroves:  

A scientific study reported that 100 per cent of mangrove species, 92 per cent of mangrove associates, 60.8 per cent of algae, 23.8 per cent of invertebrates and 21.1 per cent of fish are under threat.

Natural forces due to climate change:

  • Sea-level rise: Mangrove systems do not keep pace with changing sea-level and fall
  • Extreme high-water events: affect the position and health including through altered sediment elevation and sulphide soil toxicity
  • Storms: increase damage to mangroves through defoliation and tree mortality and they collapse
  • Precipitation: decreased rainfall and increased evaporation will increase salinity, decreasing net primary productivity, growth
  • Temperature: Changing species composition, Changing phenological patterns (e.g., timing of flowering and fruiting)
  • Ocean circulation patterns: affect mangrove propagule dispersal and the genetic structure of mangrove populations, with concomitant effects on mangrove community structure.

Anthropogenic activities:

  • Mangroves are being destroyed and facing severe threats due to urbanization, industrialization, and discharge of domestic sewage, industrial effluents and pesticides.
  • Saltpans and aquaculture also pose major threat to the mangroves.
  • 40 per cent of mangrove forests in West Coast of India have been converted into farmlands and housing colonies over the last three decades.
  • Some of the mangrove species like Bruguiera cylindrica and Sonneratia acida are at the verge of extinction.
  • Due to shrimp farming, about 35,000 ha of mangroves have been lost in India.

Scientific Management of Mangroves

  • Nationwide mapping of the mangrove areas, by remote sensing techniques coupled with land surveys, and time series to assess the rate of degradation of the ecosystems.
  • Quantitative surveys of area, climatic regime, rate of growth of forest trees and seasonal variations of environmental parameters.
  • Inclusion of mangrove species under threat in the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red list. E.g. Sonneratia griffithii in India
  • Assessment of suitable sites for reserve forests. E.g.: Artificial regeneration through mangrove nurseries or aerial seeding.
  • Joint management of mangroves with local community participation.
  • Disease and pest control. E.g.:   Crab cuts are prevented by painting hypocotyls in yellow or Placing seedlings inside bamboo containers.
  • Afforestation of degraded mangrove areas;
  • Study of management methods, the ecology of mangroves, their flora and fauna, their microbiology and the biochemistry of organic matter and sediments.
  • Mangroves for Future is a unique partner-led initiative for coastal ecosystem conservation. This project is being coordinated by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) covering, initially, eight countries (including India) in South Asia, South East Asia and Western Indian Ocean, for the protection of the mangroves.
  • The mangroves have been afforded protection under Category I (ecologically sensitive) of the CRZ.

Conclusion:

An increase of 54 sq. km in mangrove cover has been observed as notes in SFR 2019. There is a need to build on this progress for stabilization of low-lying coastal lands. Mangroves being natural filters of pollutants from water, it becomes even more necessary to conserve them.

Value addition

Characteristics:

  • Mangroves are salt tolerant trees, also called halophytes, which survive high salinity, tidal regimes, strong wind velocity, high temperature and muddy anaerobic soil – a combination of conditions hostile for other plants.
  • The mangrove ecosystems constitute a symbiotic link or bridge between terrestrial and marine ecosystems.
  • They are found in the inter-tidal zones of sheltered shore, estuaries, creeks, backwaters, lagoons, marshes and mud-flats.

Role and Significance of Mangroves

  • Mangroves moderate monsoonal tidal floods and reduce coastal inundation.
  • It prevents coastal soil erosion.
  • It supplies firewood, medicinal plants to local inhabitants.
  • They support numerous flora, avifauna and wildlife.
  • Mangroves support seashore and estuarine fisheries.
  • It protects inland agricultural lands, livestock and coastal lands from hurricane and tsunami effect.
  • Mangroves enhance natural recycling of nutrients.
  • Mangroves are flood buffers and they also help in stabilizing the climate by moderating temperature, humidity, wind and even waves
  • They are natural carbon sinks.

 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography;

2. Compare and contrast, the continental drift theory, sea floor spreading theory and the plate tectonics theory. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: NCERT Book For Class XI: Fundamentals of Physical Geography.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the differences as well as similarities between most important theories that tried to explain the plate tectonics.

Directive: 

Compare and contrast – provide for a detailed comparison of the two types, their features that are similar as well as different. One must provide for detailed assessment of the two.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Write about plate tectonics and the movement of continents and various theories put forward to explain them. 

Body:

This is a very straightforward question and to answer it, drawing a table would be apt in order to compare and contrast the theories.

Bring out differences in the continental drift theory, sea floor spreading theory and the plate tectonics theory on the following parameters such as Authors of the theory, what the theory explains, forces it considers for the movement, supporting evidences it considers, critique of theory if any and its acceptance among scientists etc.

Conclusion:

Mention about general importance of the theories and conclude your answer.

Introduction

Continents cover 29 per cent of the surface of the earth and the remainder is under oceanic waters. The positions of the continents and the ocean bodies, as we see them in the map, have not been the same in the past and it is now a well-accepted fact that oceans and continents will not continue to enjoy their present positions in times to come.

Body

Various theories have been proposed to substantiate the present locations of the continents and oceans.

continental_drift

 

sea_floor

Comparison: Continental Drift – See Floor Spreading – Plate Tectonics

Continental DriftSea Floor SpreadingPlate Tectonics
Explained byPut forward by Alfred Wegener in 1920sArthur Holmes explained Convectional Current Theory in the 1930s.

Based on convection current theory, Harry Hess explained See Floor Spreading in the 1940s

In 1967, McKenzie and Parker suggested the theory of plate tectonics. Morgan later outlined the theory in 1968
TheoryExplains the Movement of Continents onlyExplains the Movement of Oceanic Plates onlyExplains the Movement of Lithospheric plates that include both continents and oceans.
Forces for movementBuoyancy, gravity, pole-fleeing force, tidal currents, tides,Convection currents in the mantle drag crustal platesConvection currents in the mantle drag crustal plates
EvidenceApparent affinity of physical features, botanical evidence, fossil evidence, Tillite deposits, placer deposits, rocks of same age across different continents etc.Ocean bottom relief, Paleomagnetic rocks, distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes etc.Ocean bottom relief, Paleomagnetic rocks, distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes, gravitational anomalies at trenches, etc.
DrawbacksToo general with silly and sometimes illogical evidence.Doesn’t explain the movement of continental plates 

———————

AcceptanceDiscardedNot completeMost widely accepted
UsefulnessHelped in the evolution of convection current theory and seafloor spreading theoryHelped in the evolution of plate tectonics theoryHelped us understand various geographical features.

Conclusion

Thus, it is a combination of all these various forces which has led to formation of diversity of land and sea forms across the globe. It is a continuing process since the beginning of formation of earth and various activities like volcanoes, earthquakes, formation of new land masses stand testimony to these activities.

 

Topic: urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

3. One of the fallouts of unplanned and rampant urbanisation is the man-animal conflict. Discuss the major reasons for increase in man-animal conflict in India in recent years. What have been major steps undertaken by the government for mitigation of conflict? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate.

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

The leopard (Panthera pardus) faces an 83% increased risk of extinction in North India due to roadkill, according to a new international study that quantifies the threat posed by roads to the survival of animal populations around the world.

Key Demand of the question:

To analyse lacunae in the existing multilateral institutions and the need for a course correction.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start with what you understand by Man-Animal conflicts.

Body:

Start by explaining what you understand by man-animal conflicts. Discuss what the main causes of man wildlife conflict are – The cause of human wildlife conflict was human settlement, agricultural expansion, illegal grass collection, over grazing by livestock and deforestation in national park. As a result, local communities disliked wildlife inhabiting in and around their surroundings. human population growth and expansion, habitat degradation and fragmentation, land use transformation and increasing densities of livestock grazing in protected areas are considered as major causes of man-carnivore conflicts.

Write about the various government policies and programmes in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the issue.

Introduction

According to data from the Union environment ministry, more than 1,608 humans were killed in human-wildlife conflict cases involving tigers, leopards, bears and elephants between 2013 and 2017. A deadly conflict is underway between India’s growing masses and its wildlife, confined to ever-shrinking forests and grasslands, with data showing that about one person has been killed every day for the past three years by roaming tigers or rampaging elephants.

Body

Reasons for rise in Man-Animal Conflicts

  • Unbridled Development: The existing space for Tigers, Elephants and other big wild animals are shrinking due to encroachment of wildlife habitats. Unsustainable land use is the biggest problem in this regard.
    • Animals are increasingly finding their usual corridors and pathways blocked by roads, rail tracks and industries.
    • The Ken-Betwa River interlinking projectwill submerge 100 sq. km of Panna Tiger Reserve.
  • Urbanization: Urbanization and growth agendas alter landscape dynamics, which has a cascading effect on the ecological dynamics of wildlife.
    • g.: In the area of Gwal Pahari on the Gurugram-Faridabad Road, for example, the district town and country planning department has issued change of land use permissions
    • Recent relaxations in normsto allow for a widening of highway and railway networks near these protected areas are the new threats
  • Primary reason for the increasing human-animal conflicts is the presence of a large number of animals and birds outside the notified protected areas.
    • Wildlife experts estimate that 29 per cent of the tigers in India are outside the protected areas
  • Poor Enforcement of laws: No buffer zone is maintained between critical wildlife habitats and human settlements.
  • Climate Change and Biodiversity:With the food chain undergoing rapid changes and pool of species declining, the forage is decreasing for wild animals. Hence, they come in search of livestock in fringe areas of human settlements.
  • Less Protected Area: Only 5% of India’s geographical area is in the protected area category. This space is not enough to have a full-fledged habitat for wild animals.
    • A territorial animal like a male tiger needs an area of 60-100 sq km. But the area allocated to an entire tiger reserve, like the Bor Tiger Reserve in Maharashtra, is around 140 sq km.
    • The territorial animals do not have enough space within reserves and their prey does not have enough fodder to thrive on.

Government Initiatives to reduce Man-Animal conflict

  • A network of Protected Areas namely viz., national park, Sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves and Community Reserving covering important wildlife habitat have been created all over the country under the provisions of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 to conserve wild animals and their habitat.
  • Wildlife corridors:Wildlife corridors have been developed in many parts of the country.
    • For example: In 2017, to protect elephant habitats, the Odisha government had identified 14 corridors.
    • Tiger corridor around Tadoba-AndhariTiger Reserves are built.
  • “Plan Bee”: Indian Railwayslaunched ‘Plan Bee’ to prevent elephants getting hurt on rail tracks, thereby reducing the elephant death toll.
    • Nearly 50 buzzing amplifiers have been deployed as part of “Plan Bee” at a dozen “elephant corridors” in the vast forests of Assam, home to nearly 6,000 elephants, 20% of the country’s total.
  • State governments:
    • Assistance to state government for construction of boundary walls and solar fences around the sensitive areas to prevent the wild animal attacks
    • Supplementing the state government resources for payment of ex gratia to the people for injuries and loss of life in case of wild animal attacks.
    • Encouraging state government for creation of a network of protected areas and wildlife corridors for conservation of wildlife.
  • Provisions under the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 empower concerned authorities take necessary steps to handle problematic wild animals.
  • Standard Operating Procedures for the management of major problematic animals like tiger, elephant, leopard, rhino etc. are being used by the respective state governments
  • Controlling population: In January 2018, the Environment Ministry has approved “immune-contraception” method to address man-animal conflicts.
    • The immuno-contraception is non-hormonal form of contraception. It causes production of antibodies which in turn prevents conception in animals.
    • Ministry sanctioned over Rs 10 crore for ‘immunology contraception’ of wild boars, Rhesus monkeys and elephants.

Way Forward

  • Community Participation: Local volunteers should be trained to handle with human-wildlife conflicts and organize locals for immediate initial steps till the wildlife rescue team arrives
  • Rescue Teams:Wild Life Rescue Teams equipped with adequate personnel, equipment and communication systems should be present in potential areas of human-animal conflict.
  • Awareness campaign:
    • Hunting of prey animals, such as deer and pig, needs to stop as they form the base for growth of tiger and other carnivore populations.
  • Identifying regular movements corridors of large wildlife, and adequate publicity/awareness to avoid disturbances
  • Compilation of data on conflicts, reasons for such conflicts, best practices of response. Identify hotspots of conflict and keep extra vigil in such areas.
  • Insurance programs for damage due to wildlife.
    • Crop insuranceshould be provided in the event of destruction by wild animals.
    • Livestock insuranceand its scope must be explored.
  • Help locals in constructing barriers, and develop scaring away methods.

 Conclusion

Human life is vital and so is a thriving wildlife that sustains the ecosystem. Harmony between humans and wildlife can ensure protection of both. Conservation and Development must go hand in hand to combat man animal conflict, which in turn will lead to sustainable development. 

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

4. India has done exceedingly well with respect to vaccination on a global scale but door to door vaccination will give us a chance to ensure total coverage of population. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

Prime Minister Narendra Modi proposed campaigns of home-delivered immunization, asking to invoke the ‘ghar ghar teeka’ spirit for home-to-home shots

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the importance of door to door vaccinations.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by stating that India’s various landmark in covid-19 vaccination. 

Body:

Write about, advantages of home delivered vaccination – to cover doses of elderly, bed ridden population and also to cover other age bracket population such as under 18 and kids, to remove vaccine hesitancy etc.

Also, mention the need to maintain the momentum of present vaccination drives. Further highlight the role of states in giving impetus to vaccination drives and also mention about the potential of increased export of vaccines by domestic companies once the local vaccinations are fully covered

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that given the research statistics of a higher prevention mortality rate of fully vaccinated population, India must continue the positive trajectory of its vaccination targets.

Introduction

India began the “World’s Largest Vaccination Program” on January 16, 2021 and completed vaccination of 100 crore doses on October 21, 2021, in just about nine months since starting vaccination. This has been a tremendous journey in dealing with COVID-19, especially when we recall how things stood in early 2020. Prime Minister proposed campaigns of home-delivered immunization, asking to invoke the ‘ghar ghar teeka’ spirit for home-to-home shots.

Body

Need for door to door vaccine campaign

  • Some parts of India lag others on vaccination coverage.
  • As many as 40 districts across Manipur, Jharkhand, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Maharashtra and Meghalaya have been identified as laggards, and our daily rate of vaccination has been slowing even in better-covered areas.
  • An outreach by way of officials visiting peoples’ residences could help dispel myths and worries about vaccination and finish the task.
  • What must not be deployed are coercive tactics.
  • Anecdotal reports have emerged from some states of jab-givers bullying people into their jabs by falsely warning of exclusion from welfare schemes if they didn’t comply.
  • We must ensure that only persuasion is used, not pressure. Forced compliance could arouse suspicion, stiffen resistance and thus prove counterproductive.

Challenges in India:

  • Vaccine hesitancy:Either they are common people, or the frontline workers, vaccine hesitancy, if exists, it may obstruct the smooth implementation of the vaccination drive.
    • If the healthcare workers are hesitant about getting vaccinated, it will not create a good impact among common people as they are the role model for the people who will be vaccinated next.
    • There is uncertainty and suspicion about the side effects of the vaccine.
  • Limited Suppliers: Limited capacity of the two vaccine (COVAXIN & COVISHIELD)manufacturers who are now being piled upon with much bigger orders from state governments and private hospitals that may take months to fulfil.
  • Supply Chain Gap: There is a big gap in the supply chain of the ambitious programme to vaccinate all its adult population.
    • Although India ranks number three after the US and China in the absolute number of vaccines administered, only about 13% of its population has received a single jab and about 2% fully vaccinated.
  • Unequal Procurement Process: The revised vaccine procurement process builds in a skew against smaller hospitals in cities and townsin comparison to their bigger counterparts in simply getting access to the shots, and a more disconcerting urban-rural divide in terms of where healthcare facilities are vis-à-vis the already-established supply-chain map.
  • Digital Divide: There is the issue of mandatory Co-Win registrationas part of the new decentralised distribution strategy, which potentially adds to an entry barrier that could be tougher to navigate for users in the hinterland, both in terms of access to the platform and an English-only interface for users so far.
    • Mandatory online registration introduces a skew in favour of urban centres, given that a little over half of India’s population has access to broadband Internet, while rural tele-density is under 60%.
    • States including Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Madhya Pradesh having among the country’s lowest tele-density.
    • It is more difficult for those with less access and greater unfamiliarity with technology, including access to a smartphone or computer.

Measures to be taken by the government

  • India’s vaccine drive is an example of what India can achieve if the citizens and the Government come together with a common goal in the spirit of Jan Bhagidari.This cooperation and coordination must continue to exist and state governments can ensure that people get vaccinated at the earliest.
  • Equitable distribution of vaccinations must continueand all adult population group should get their second dose through tracking.
  • Government must approvetrials of vaccination in children like in the USA and start with 12+ age population to get vaccine coverage. This will resume the disrupted education in India, in a safe manner.
  • All Ministries of the Government came together to facilitate the vaccine makers and remove any bottlenecks as a result of our‘whole of Government’ approach.
  • In a country of the scale of India, it is not enough to just produce.Focus has to be on last mile delivery and seamless logistics.

Conclusion

For the world’s largest vaccination against covid-19, a multi-prong approach is required including educating people, following the vaccination process, keeping a check on new strains of virus, maintaining the records of essential data of the beneficiaries and refining our strategy.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

5. Fall in crop incomes and the crisis of economic viability are direct outcomes of administrative inefficiencies and policy lacunae concerning small and marginal farmers. Comment (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Situation Assessment of Agricultural Households (SAAH) survey to says that India’s farming population is much smaller than is usually estimated.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the issues of small-marginal farmers and suggest steps to improve their livelihood.

Directive word: 

Comment- here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving statistics regarding small and marginal farmers in India.

Body:

In the first part, write about the issues plaguing the small and marginal farmers in India – Small holdings make agriculture uneconomic, Perpetual indebtedness, Inability to procure quality seeds, Lack of water and poor yields etc.

Next, Mention about the improving administrative inefficiency and fixing policy problems –  need for new opportunities for small and marginal farmers in allied activities like of livestock sector especially dairy, goat and sheep farming etc. Also, mention ways to make agriculture sustainable and better remunerative for small and marginal farmers.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Future of agriculture is a very important question for the planners and all other stakeholders. Government and other organisations are trying to address the key challenges of agriculture in India, including small holdings of farmers, primary and secondary processing, supply chain, infrastructure supporting the efficient use of resources and marketing, reducing intermediaries in the market.

The average farm size declined from 2.3 hectares (ha) in 1970-71 to 1.08 ha in 2015-16. The share of small and marginal farmers increased from 70 per cent in 1980-81 to 86 per cent in 2015-16.

Body

Issues faced by Indian farmers

  • Fragmented and small land holdings– Indian landholdings are so small that makes little marketable surplus. This makes them to go for subsistence agricultureand also difficult for mechanisation. Also due to a greater number of family members after independence, land was divided into smaller pieces leading to fragmentation. Unaffordable good quality Seeds– Seed is a critical and basic input for attaining higher crop yields and sustained growth in agricultural production. Unfortunately, good quality seeds are out of reach of the majority of farmers, especially small and marginal farmers mainly because of exorbitant prices of better seeds.
  • Low average yield– Indian soils have been used for growing crops over thousands of years without caring much for replenishing. This has led to depletion and exhaustion of soils resulting in their low productivity.
  • Irrigation– Although India is the second largest irrigated countryof the world after China, only one-third of the cropped area is under irrigation.
  • Lack of mechanisation–Most of the agricultural operations in larger parts are carried on by human hand using simple and conventional tools and implements like wooden plough, sickle, etc. This lead to lesser productivity.
  • Agricultural Marketing– Agricultural marketing still continues to be in a bad shape in rural India. Most of the farmers are left with small volume of produce.
  • Scarcity of capital– Agriculture is an important industry and like all other industries it also requires capital. The role of capital input is becoming more and more important with the advancement of farm technology.
  • Unreliable Monsoon– Indian Monsoon is always a gamble. If it’s doesn’t rain farmers will be worst hit of drought and famine. Excessive rain may destroy farmer’s crop or he would not get good price due to high supply in Market due to over production.
  • Social Problems– Indian farmers get birth in debt, live in debt & died in debt. This is the important social problem in our country. General causes of social problems :
    • Drought & Natural calamities.
    • Totally depend on agriculture.
    • Lack of supplementary side business.
    • Traditional method of agriculture & lack of updates knowledge.
    • Conflict, dispute among family members.
    • Unwanted activities & expenditure on modern life style.
  • Unorganised agriculture– No systematic institutional & organisational planning in cultivation, irrigation harvesting & marketing. Minimum purchase price fixed by the government do not reach to the poorest farmers.
  • Literacy & opposition to developments– Most of the marginal farmers are illiterate. Therefore he find difficult to learn about new techniques. Similarly, farmers are superstitious, traditional & not easily accept challenges & inventions. This culture called as a poverty of culture.

Measures to improve condition of farmers in India:

  • Processing industries and cold storage facility: Today 90% farmers want processing unit and cold storage facility in the villages, especially for vegetables and fruits. Government should incentivise industry to open food processing units and cold storage facility near villages.
  • Irrigation facilities: Small land farmers are unable to arrange irrigation systems. They need proper irrigation. So government should have to take initiative for providing irrigation to the small land owners.
  • Education to farmers: Many farmers are not aware about crop rotation. Though education in urban areas has improved a lot, the government has ignored the same in rural areas in general & in agriculture sector. So Government agencies should start efficient mechanism in this regard.
  • Need for better water management: Currently available irrigation facility do not cover the entire cultivable land. In most cases, it is not the lack of water but lack of proper water management that causes water shortage. Improved modern methods of rain water harvesting should be developed.
  • Developing alternate source of income for farmers: The Government should take up the responsibility for providing training to the farmers to acquire new skills to reduce the dependence on agriculture. New areas like horticulture, aquaculture, and fishery should also be promoted.
  • Sustainable farming methods: Organic farming is the way out for sustainable farming. Organic certification process should be faster. Precision farming helps to get out of drought adversities by targeted input delivery. It requires minimum input and also reduces cost of production.
  • Women support: Women farmers don’t enjoy entitlement to their land. GoI is in process of digitisation of land records. In that process women farmers of that family can also be done to get their Rights. Further smart farm tools and machineries must be gender neutral in its accessibility.
  • Climate Resilience farming (CRF): It depends mostly on technological tools like smart weather forecast using big data analytics. Plant biotechnology by developing short duration varieties, submerged crop varieties for coastal regions, drought resistant varieties for arid areas can further promote CRF.

Conclusion

Higher R&D investment is required for development of smart and technological solutions to Agricultural problems of Indian. Advocating use of Drones and smart phones to assess crop failures in PM fasal bima yojna crop insurance scheme, e NAM are few Policy initiatives. There is a need for work on cost-effective technologies with environmental protection and on conserving our natural resources

 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

6. Climate risks may become irreversible despite taking actions. Should the focus be also on adaptation along with mitigation? Critically comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question: 

Many Indian telecom companies have sought government approvals for trial runs of 5G network in India.

Key Demand of the question:

To understand the potential of 5G technology and how India could harness it.

Directive word: 

Critically comment – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘comment’ is prefixed, we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by stating details of 5G network and its frequency range.

Body:

Begin by giving context about the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Sixth Assessment Report (AR6).

Next, write about the progress and steps that were taken to tackle climate change. Next write about limitation of the measures.

Next, write about why the world must focus on adaptation along with mitigation so as to incorporate irreversible changes of climate change.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

Climate scientists argue that global warming is exacerbating extreme weather events. And natural disasters are often the source of health crises, particularly in fragile settings. Strengthening adaptation is a must in the face of climate change. This includes plans to protect the human health from air pollution, heat waves, floods, droughts and the degradation of water resources. At present, more than 7 million deaths occur worldwide every year due to air pollution.

Body

Climate actions should focus on adaptation also along with mitigation

  • The World Health Organization estimates that climate change is causing tens of thousands of deaths every year.
  • These deaths arise mainly from epidemics such as cholera, dengue and extreme weather events such as heat waves and floods.
  • Experts predict that by 2030, climate change will cause an additional 250,000 deaths each year from malaria, diarrhoeal disease, heat stress and undernutrition alone.
  • Certain groups have higher susceptibility to climate-sensitive health impacts owing to their age (children and elderly), gender (particularly pregnant women), social marginalization (associated in some areas with indigenous populations, poverty or migration status), or other health conditions like HIV. The socioeconomic costs of health problems caused by climate change are considerable.
  • Many infectious diseases, including water-borne ones, are highly sensitive to climate conditions.
  • climate change and air pollution share many major common sources (fossil fuel and biomass burning), climate-driven changes in weather patterns and higher carbon dioxide levels could also worsen air quality in many regions of the world.
  • Elevated CO2 levels in occupied buildings are a well-known indoor air quality concern, with studies reporting associations with declines in cognitive performance and increased risk of sick building syndrome in office workers and schoolchildren.
  • Climate change lengthens the transmission season and expands the geographical range of many diseases like malaria and dengue.
  • Climate change will bring new and emerging health issues, including heatwaves and other extreme events. Heat stress can make working conditions unbearable and increase the risk of cardiovascular, respiratory and renal diseases.
  • Additionally, it is estimated that 5 million people are displaced annually by climate or weather-related disasters, and these figures are expected to increase in the future. Climate-induced human mobility has a socioeconomic cost and can affect mental and physical health.
  • Malnutrition and undernutrition are highlighted as a concern for a number of developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, which discussed the impacts of climate change on food security, particularly in relation to floods and drought. Climate change threatens food and nutrition security

Strengthening Adaptation measures are the way forward:

  • Adaptation means anticipating the adverse effects of climate change and taking appropriate action to prevent or minimise the damage they can cause. Mitigation is an intervention to reduce the emissions sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases.
  • new building codes to adapt future climate change.
  • Developing drought tolerant crops and setting aside land corridors to help species migrate.
  • More secure facility locations and infrastructures
  • Landscape restoration (natural landscape) and reforestation
  • Flexible and diverse cultivation to be prepared for natural catastrophes
  • Research and development on possible catastrophes, temperature behavior, etc.
  • Preventive and precautionary measures (evacuation plans, health issues, etc.)
  • Moving on to more sustainable food production and healthier diets to improve the environment and reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases. One way to do this would be to promote diets rich in fruits and vegetables, including local in-season varieties.

Conclusion

Unprecedentedly, today, the world population is encountering unfamiliar human-induced changes in the lower and middle atmospheres and world-wide depletion of various other natural systems (e.g. soil fertility, aquifers, ocean fisheries, and biodiversity in general). Adaptation and Mitigation together will help in tackling the health impacts of Climate change.

Value addition

Measures undertaken in India towards combating climate change:

  • The National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC) is a Central Sector Scheme which was set up in the year 2015-16. The overall aim of NAFCC is to support concrete adaptation activities which mitigate the adverse effects of climate change. The projects related to adaptation in sectors such as agriculture, animal husbandry, water, forestry, tourism etc. are eligible for funding under NAFCC
  • National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC): The Action plan covers eight major missions on Solar, Enhanced Energy Efficiency, Sustainable Habitat, Water, Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem, Green India, Sustainable Agriculture and Strategic Knowledge on Climate Change.
  • International Solar Alliance (ISA): ISA was jointly launched by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi, and the then President of France, Francois Hollande in Paris on the side-lines of CoP 21 in 2015. The vision and mission of the alliance is to provide a dedicated platform for cooperation among solar resource rich countries that lie completely or partial between the Tropics of Capricorn & Cancer.
  • State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC): State governments have drafted climate strategies aligned with the eight National Missions under the NAPCC. The strategies focus on issues ranging from climate mitigation, energy efficiency, and resource conservation to climate adaptation.
  • FAME Scheme for E-mobility: Union Government in April 2015 launched Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric vehicles (FAME) – India Scheme with an aim to boost sales of eco-friendly vehicles in the country. It is a part of the National Mission for Electric Mobility.
  • Atal Mission for Rejuvenation & Urban Transformation (AMRUT) for Smart Cities.
  • Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana: The scheme provides LPG connections to five crore below-poverty-line beneficiaries. The connections are given in the name of women beneficiaries to reduce their dependence on fossil fuels and conventional fuel like cow dung for cooking food, thus reducing air pollution.
  • UJALA scheme: The scheme was launched by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi in January 2015 with a target of replacing 77 crore incandescent lamps with LED bulbs. The usage of LED bulbs will not only result in reducing electricity bills but also help in environment protection.
  • Swachh Bharat Mission: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Movement) is a campaign that was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on October 2, 2014. The campaign seeks to clean the streets, roads and infrastructure of the country’s 4041 statutory cities and towns.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

7. People with strong emotional intelligence skills rise above any situation. Emotional intelligence is the difference that makes the difference. Elucidate. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Key Demand of the question:

To explain how EI makes a difference in day to day administration as well in extreme situations.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In your own words, define Emotional intelligence and what it means to you.

Body:

Emotional Intelligence (EI) refers to the capability of a person to recognize, understand and manage own emotions, as well as to understand, manage and influence emotions of others. It is not always virtuous and can be used as a tool for positive and negative ends.

Very briefly describe the key 5 components of EI.

Explain why it is so valuable in the context of civil servants. Mention how it makes a difference and people with high EI can manage any situation and rise above it. Cite examples to substantiate your points.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Emotional intelligence is the single best predictor of performance in the workplace and the strongest driver of leadership and personal excellence.

Introduction

Emotional intelligence or EI is the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, and those of the people around you. Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth.

Body:

According to Daniel Goleman, an American psychologist who helped to popularize emotional intelligence, there are four key elements to it viz. Self-awareness, self-management, social awareness & relationship management.

Significance of Emotional intelligence:

  • Appraising emotions arising from situations:
    • Using emotions for reason based decisions and policy making.
    • Identifying emotions in faces, voices, postures, and other content during public management activities.
  • Recruitment:
    • EQ measurement is invaluable in selecting and recruiting high performance workers.
  • Predicting performance:
    • Some companies are blending IQ testing with scientific measurement of EQ to predict job performance and direct workers to jobs where they are most likely to succeed.
  • Negotiation:
    • Whether you’re dealing with a trading partner, competitor, customer or colleague, being able to empathize and be creative in finding win-win solutions will consistently pay off.
  • Performance management:
    • 360-degree feedback is a common tool for assessing EQ. Knowing how your self-perception compares with others’ views about your performance provides focus for career development and positive behavioural changes.
  • Peer relationships:
    • Good networking skills are a staple of job effectiveness for the average worker. Networking has too often been associated with “using” other people, but a heightened EQ ensures a mutually beneficial approach to others.
  • Social responsibility:
    • When a leader cares about others, he is not a centre of attention and keeps everyone in the loop by making their intentions known.
  • Stress tolerance:
    • To stay focused, stress should be managed and it involves own reactions to stress or the reactions of others to the stress.
  • Impulse control:
    • Independent people evaluate the alternatives and initiate the work by taking appropriate action by executing the right options. People who manage their impulses avoid being distracted and losing control of the situation.
  • Optimism:
    • Optimistic people have a target that they’re aiming toward. These people are confident in their ability to carry out the required actions and meet the target by looking for successful solutions to problems.

Ways to develop emotional intelligence in civil servants:

  • Assessing personal strengths and limitations
  • Providing feedback with care
  • Maximizing learner choice
  • Encouraging participation
  • Linking learning goals to personal values
  • Adjusting expectations
  • Gauging readiness
  • Fostering a positive relationship between the trainer and the learner
  • Maximizing self-directed change
  • Setting clear goal
  • Maximizing opportunities to practice emotional intelligence
  • Providing frequent feedback on that practice
  • Enhancing insight into emotions and thought patterns

Conclusion:

The Center for Creative Leadership even draws on research to suggest that 75% of careers are negatively impacted by emotional competency-related themes. These include the inability to respond adaptively to change, nurture trust, lead teams during tough times, and deal effectively with interpersonal problems. So developing your EI skills will help civils servants perform better in the workplace.


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