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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 4 November 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

1. Explain the reasons that make continental shelves one of the highly productive ecosystems. (250 words).

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To state the reasons for high productivity of continental shelves. 

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by briefly mentioning about relief of the ocean floor and its divisions. 

Body:

First, mention certain figures/stats regarding the productivity of continental shelves with examples.

Next, discuss in detail the reasons for high productivity of the continental shelves like high nuritent loads, vertical stability and shallowness etc. 

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising the overall economic importance of continental shelves. 

Introduction

Continental shelf, a broad, relatively shallow submarine terrace of continental crust forming the edge of a continental landmass. The geology of continental shelves is often similar to that of the adjacent exposed portion of the continent, and most shelves have a gently rolling topography called ridge and swale. Continental shelves make up about 8 percent of the entire area covered by oceans.

Body

 

Factors that make continental shelves one of the highly productive ecosystems:

  • The continental shelf is geologically defined as the submerged prolongation of the land mass of the coastal State, consisting of the seabed and subsoil of the shelf, slope, and rise. It does not include the deep ocean floor.
  • Despite their small size in both areal extent and volume, the waters over continental shelves are usually rich in nutrients, which in turn make them among the most biologically productive areas of the oceans.
  • Water depth over the continental shelves averages about 60 meters (200 feet). Sunlight penetrates the shallow waters, and many kinds of organisms flourish—from microscopic shrimp to giant seaweed called kelp. Ocean currents and runoff from rivers bring nutrients to organisms that live on continental shelves.
  • Plants and algae make continental shelves rich feeding grounds for sea creatures.
  • Accordingly, about 90% of the world’s fisheries production is harvested over the continental shelves.
  • One of the reasons for this higher productivity is the increased nutrient loads via runoff from the continental landmasses (mostly by rivers), however many shelf areas receive significant nutrients from upwelling of deeper ocean waters.
  • Continental shelf waters also tend to have food chains with fewer trophic levels, and on average support larger fish.

Conclusion

The Continental Shelf of the Indian Ocean is economically very significant for people. Indian Ocean is an “ocean of economic opportunities” for India. The security threats posed by State and non-state actors are impeding the progress. The Government initiatives like SAGAR, IORA, Sagarmala etc. should ensure that the fruits of Blue Economy is well reaped.

 

Topic: geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2. Why there are seasonal variations in the Indian monsoons? Strong monsoon may not always be a welcome news for farmers. Critically Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

Bring out the seasonal variations in the monsoon and to analyse the impact of too much monsoonal rain on Indian farmers.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by introducing Indian monsoon and its importance briefly.

Body:

Start by briefly mentioning about mechanism of the monsoon and the reasons for fluctuations in Indian monsoon according to the seasons.

Divide the answer in to various months and how monsoon varies with it. Use a diagram to explain it more systematically. Do include the Western Disturbances, Somali Jet Streams, Easterly Jet streams etc.

In the next part, start by mention how both monsoon deficit and too much monsoon in counterproductive in the Indian scenario. Mention the drawbacks of the too much surplus in monsoon such as floods, crop damage, increased pest infestation and disease, low outputs etc with supporting examples. Also, include the indirect costs incurred such as increased imports and reduced exports.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to deal with excess and surplus of monsoonal rain.

Introduction

Monsoons are seasonal winds which reverse their direction with the change of season. The monsoon is a double system of seasonal winds. They flow from sea to land during the summer and from land to sea during winter. Monsoons are peculiar to Indian Subcontinent, South East Asia, parts of Central Western Africa etc. Indian Monsoons are Convection cells on a very large scale. They are periodic or secondary winds which seasonal reversal in wind direction.

Body

 

Seasonal variation in the India monsoons

Northeast Monsoon and Southwest Monsoon:

  • Southwest summer monsoon brings widespread rain across the country.
  • For many parts of India, this is the only time they receive rain. These four months bring about 75 per cent of India’s annual rainfall.
  • However, for some regions of South India, it is the winter monsoon that is much more important.
  • Though much less heard of, especially in the north of the country, the northeast monsoon is as permanent a feature of the Indian subcontinent’s climate system as the summer monsoon.
  • The India Meteorological Department (IMD) recognizes October to December as the time for the northeast monsoon.
  • During this period, rainfall is experienced over Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh, along with some parts of Telangana and Karnataka.
  • The northeast monsoon does not have anything to do with India’s Northeast, even though a part of the system does originate from the area above it.
  • Rather, it derives its name from the direction in which it travels – from the northeast to the southwest.
  • Similarly, the summer monsoon (at least the Arabian Sea branch of it; there is also a branch that swerves in an anticlockwise direction in the Bay of Bengal before entering the Indian landmass and bringing rain to the eastern, northeastern and northern parts of the country) moves in exactly the opposite direction – from the southwest to the northeast.

Strong monsoon isn’t always good news for farmers:

  • India received the heaviest monsoon rain in 25 years. While rain usually cheers up the agricultural heartland, the erratic monsoon left many crops damaged.
  • While crops in the ground have been damaged by the monsoon, the rains have replenished reservoirs and groundwater reserves, which augurs well for India’s rural economy in 2020.
  • By the end of July, rainfall was so heavy that rivers flooded and crops were damaged.
  • The combination of a prolonged dry spell followed by heavy rainfall increased pest infestation and disease, forcing farmers to spend more on pesticides.
  • Heavy rains damaged the major crops- soybean, rice, cotton, sugarcane, pulses and vegetables.
  • India’s main summer-sown oilseed, Soybean, was particularly damaged as the state of Madhya Pradesh received rainfall 44% above average.
  • Maharashtra and Karnataka, the second- and third-biggest producers of sugarcane in India were flooded
  • Hence, the country is likely to receive the lowest sugar output in three years.
  • Maturing cotton in the western states of Gujarat and Maharashtra, the country’s top producers, was damaged by heavy rains
  • Rice was affected by excessive rains in southern and western India, as well as low rainfall in the top producing eastern state of West Bengal.
  • Vegetables such as tomatoes and onions went rotten due to heavy rainfall in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Following the heavy rains, moisture levels are adequate, and most reservoir levels are well-above their 10-year averages.
  • India could harvest a record wheat crop and production from winter-sown rice is expected to jump
  • But that could also create excess rice and wheat supplies at a time when India has been struggling to encourage exports because local prices are higher than global benchmarks.

Conclusion

Monsoon does play a big role in India. It has social, political, as well as economic implications. Thus, monsoon doesn’t only affect the crops but all the industries in the country. The monsoon-dependent Indian economy needs climate-sensitive budgeting. The excessive dependence on monsoon may be mitigated by the construction of modern irrigation canals, afforestation, and diversification of Indian industries.

 

Topic: Post-independence consolidation.

3. Operation Cactus enhanced India’s prestige enormously and showed our efficiency and capability to mount a successful operation at short notice. Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

On November 3, 1988, a group of Maldivians assisted by a Sri Lankan militant organisation unsuccessfully attempted to overthrow the government in the island republic of Maldives.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about operation cactus and its impact on India.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of Operation Cactus.

Body:

In the first part, mention the reasons for intervention of India in the political turmoil in Maldives.

Next, write about the successes of the operations – especially in terms of India’s military capabilities, commitment to preserving democracy in the neighbourhood etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by linking with present day role of India in its neighbourhood.

Introduction

‘Operation Cactus’, the code name for India’s military intervention in the Maldives in 1988, following an attempted coup d’état against the government of President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom and his request for help, was spontaneous and swift.

Body

Background: Operation Cactus

  • More than 60 of PLOTE’s mercenaries landed in the Maldivian capital of Male and soon gained control of the city.
  • Then-President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, who was able to escape capture, requested military intervention from several countries, including India.
  • Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi responded to Gayoom’s call, dispatching paratroopers and naval warships to the island nation.
  • Operation Cactus started on the night of 3 November 1988, hours after the request for intervention.
  • The Indian paratroopers rescued the President and soon returned control of the capital to the Maldivian government.

Operation Cactus: India’s intervention and rationale

  • India’s intervention in the attempted coup became necessary as in the absence of Indian intervention, external powers would have been tempted to intervene or even to establish bases in Maldives.
  • Maldives being in India’s backyard would have been detrimental to India’s national interest.
  • India’s whole security prospects in Indian Ocean was at stake due to this incident.
  • Relations with Sri Lanka the same year was tense and hence could not risk two antagonistic governments as its neighbours in Indian Ocean. India, therefore, intervened with “Operation Cactus”.
  • It was carried out to preserve the security situation in the wider Indian Ocean Region, which would be under threat if the attempted coup in Maldives was successful. Maldives was also an import sea line of communication.
  • Indian extradited some of the mercenaries captured from the freighter in July 1989 to stand trial in the Maldives. Although they were all handed death sentences, President Gayoom commuted to life imprisonment under Indian pressure. This also earned huge credibility to India.

Success of the operation and its impact

  • Operation Cactus was testimony to the fact that India could play a role in ensuring security in Asia. The role was a precursor to India being a regional security provider in the Indian ocean region.
  • India’s swift, decisive action was hailed by the international community, ranging from US President Ronald Reagan to Margaret Thatcher.
  • Operation Cactus enhanced India’s prestige enormously and showed our efficiency and capability to mount a successful operation at short notice. There was universal acknowledgement of our role as a police force in the area.
  • One of the impacts of the development was close alignment on the security understanding between India and Maldives.
  • India has been helping in the capacity and capability development of the Maldivian armed forces. Since then, thousands of Maldivian National Defence Force (MNDF) personnel have been trained in India.

Conclusion

India’s foreign policy is about non-interference in sovereign countries’ internal affairs but in 1988 the Maldivian president requested India’s help through military intervention and as a responsible neighbour India was swift in its action and within the bounds of legality per the ICJ Nicaragua. Most importantly, nations like USA, UK and others recognized India’s clout and its importance in the Indian Ocean region. India’s stature on diplomatic pedestal was raised high after Operation Cactus, making it a responsible nation contributing to world peace and security.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

4. The global multilateral institutions are inherently politicised and have often failed to represent the real multinational issues and changing power dynamics within their grouping. Critically comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Live Mnt

Why the question:

The observations on the performance of multilateral institutions have highlighted the dominance of China during the Covid pandemic and also the failure of such forums to address the changing security issues.

Key Demand of the question:

To analyse lacunae in the existing multilateral institutions and the need for a course correction.

Directive word: 

Critically comment – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘comment’ is prefixed, we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by stating the dormant and ineffective nature of functioning of multilateral institutions such as the UNSC, IMF and world bank in the recent times.

Body:

Mention the changing power dynamics within the multilateral organisations, the dominance of China and the minimal role of under developed countries in policy frameworks in domains such as International security, equitable access to different economies, Climate change etc. 

Next, mention the increasing debates around the issue and suggestive reforms and a need for a greater voice of the side-lined countries.

On the other hand, discuss some of the initiatives by these forums to enable relevant functioning in the current times such as enforcing the developed countries to contribute more to the climate financing in preserving the small island nations, bringing in mechanisms to ensure access of smaller economies etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that new challenges need a new approach to ensure effective functioning of the International forums to address common issues globally.

Introduction

The covid pandemic was a grim reminder of breaking down of multilateral organizations such as the WHO, UNSC, IMF and others such organizations, mainly due to high politicization. The instance where World Health Organization coyly followed the Chinese leadership in responding to the pandemic and Chinese interference in manipulating World Bank EODB index are few examples of the same. International institutions are inherently political in nature, but the way our post-1945 global multilateral order has been manipulated by China underscores an underlying power transition in global arrangements.

Body

Changing power dynamics within the multilateral organisations

  • US-China cold war: This weakening of the multilateral system is happening in the context of the world’s two major powers, the US and China, either unwilling or unable to shape institutional underpinnings.
    • While China wants a multipolar world and a unipolar Asia, the US wants a multipolar Asia but a unipolar world.
  • United Nations: The UNSC has been dysfunctional for many years and is now aligned into P3 and P2 (Russia-China axis).
    • International peace and security actions became hostage to UNSC indecisions. E.g.: Syrian civil war and Yemen civil war
  • World Trade: WTO dispute settlement body has become non-functional due to USA’s blocking of new appointments.
    • Due to non-consensus, the Doha Development Agenda has not found any resolution till date.
    • There is a clear developed vs developing country dichotomy that has hamstrung any agreement like e-commerce, digital trade, sustainable trade etc.
  • China’s dominance: China dictating actions of WHO during covid-19 pandemic is one of the main reasons for the wide spread disease outbreak.
    • It’s secrecy over covid-19 outbreak and blocking thorough investigations shows failure of multilateral bodies to enforce mandate.
  • Climate change and financing: Major issues of small island nations like submergence, displacement are ignored due to dilly-dallying of major powers for climate finance.
    • The common but differentiated responsibility has not been acknowledged by major industrial powers and Conference of Parties on Climate change has failed year after year to bring about rules to enforce the same under Paris Agreement.

Reforms needed to rejig multilateral bodies to be more equitable

Multilateralism should promote international law, democracy, equity and justice, mutual respect, right to development and non-interference in internal affairs of any country without double standards.

  • UN reforms long overdue: No reform of the UN would be complete without reform of the Security Council. Therefore, equitable representation as well as expansion of the UNSC is the desired reform.
  • WTO reforms: Immediate priority in WTO reforms should be to resolve the ongoing impasse in the Appellate Body to address the unilateral measures as these pose serious existential challenges for the organisation.
  • Climate finance: All nations collectively, should make instruments of global governance more inclusive, representative and participatory to facilitate greater and more meaningful participation of developing and least developed countries.
  • Reforms in global financial institutions like IMF: Reduce the voting powers of the USA which holds a virtual veto in the decision-making process of IMF.
  • Multilateral bodies need to become more responsive, effective, transparent, democratic, objective, action-oriented, solution-oriented and credible.

Conclusion

The world is changing rapidly and the US as well as China have little or no interest in shaping the multilateral order. As a consequence, plurilateral are fast emerging as one of the more important instruments available to middle powers to fill the void. This way, the US can be cajoled while China can be pushed back. The calculus of variable geometries is now being shaped by middle powers. For New Delhi, this a moment to take the lead in shaping the contours of the emerging world order.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

5. India still has a long way to go to bridge the gender gap in access and use of financial services. Comment (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

As per the All India Debt and Investment Survey (AIDIS), 20% of rural women have reported having debit or credit cards, compared to 64% of men. There is a 17% gender gap in card ownership even in urban areas.

Key Demand of the question:

To understand the gender dynamics in financial inclusion in India.

Directive word: 

Comment- here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by stating that the PMJDY scheme was brought in to ensure financial inclusion of all.

Body:

Mention some facts related to financial inclusion of women such as access to bank accounts, owning of debit/credit cards, use of digital payment platforms etc, also the disparities in access among urban and rural women.

Also discuss issues like low labour participation and low earnings and lack of access to mobile phones with internet, higher rejection ratio of loans for women owned businesses etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that the roadblocks to financial inclusion of women needs systemic address for their inclusion as well as improvement.

Introduction

The gender gap refers to the difference between women and men as reflected in social, political, intellectual, cultural, or economic attainments or attitudes. According to the Global Gender Gap Report, it will take more than 200 years for economic gender equality to emerge, and 108 years to completely close the global gender gap across politics, health and education.

Financially including women can have a far-reaching impact on their households as well as the country’s economy. Women in emerging economies reinvest 90% of their earnings in human resources such as education, nutrition and health.

Body

 

Gender gap in access and use of financial services in India

  • Findings from All India Debt and Investment Survey (AIDIS) 2019
    • As per the survey, 80.7% of women in rural areas and 81% in urban areas had deposit accounts in banks.
    • 55% of women still don’t actively use their PMJDY accounts.
    • When it comes to adopting digital financial products like credit cards, debit cards, and payment wallets, the disparity between men and women is stark.
    • 20% of rural women have reported having debit or credit cards, compared to 64% of men.
    • There is a 17% gender gap in card ownership even in urban areas.
  • Credit front
    • The loan rejection rate for women-owned businesses is 2.5 times higher than for men.
    • Lack of collateral, difficult access to a guarantor, weak property rights and various cultural barriers collectively hinder them from availing loans for productive purposes.
    • The very anticipation of rejection discourages women from even applying for loans.
  • Mobile & internet usage
    • The slow adoption of digital financial services by Indian women is also on account of the gender gap in mobile ownership and mobile internet usage.
    • In India, the ownership of mobile phones by women is 20% less than that by men, and the usage of mobile internet is 50% less.
    • In addition, only 14% of women in India are found to own smartphones.
  • Socio-cultural factors
    • Certain cultural norms exclude some women from using formal financial services.
    • Women in low-income households often leave their phones at home while leaving for work, have low digital literacy, and do not have complete autonomy in using their phones.
    • Such adverse practices make phone-based transactions, transfers, and loan repayments a steep challenge for them.

Way forward:

  • As the experience with rural self-help groups shows, women are remarkably prompt at repaying loans and the government should step up the amounts and ease loan disbursement for women.
  • Policy measures could include addressing or reducing the amount of unpaid work and rebalancing it between men and women, supporting employer or state-funded provision of childcare, and interventions to address digital and financial inclusion.
  • There are three approaches we could adopt to effectively bridge the gender divide in achieving financial inclusion: Design gender-sensitive products, build a network of female banking correspondents, and publish gender-disaggregated data on financial inclusion.
  • Designing better products for women requires a client-centred approach, where providers start by identifying and understanding how women use and interact with money, financial products and technology.
  • Design elements like vernacular communication and voice and video enablers can reduce friction for women in their use of digital financial products.
  • To mobilize small savings, we must create awareness about banking products and deliver these to last-mile women users, for which a robust network of female banking correspondents (BC) would be a major help.
  • They are largely considered approachable by women customers, who would be willing to entrust them with sensitive financial information.
  • Lastly, the periodic publication of gender-sliced data on various parameters of financial inclusion can help in tracking the gender divide and also make a clear case for gender-sensitive products.

 

Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

6. Discuss the benefits of 5G technology, its potential and challenges for implementation on a large scale in India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question: 

Many Indian telecom companies have sought government approvals for trial runs of 5G network in India.

Key Demand of the question:

To understand the potential of 5G technology and how India could harness it.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by stating details of 5G network and its frequency range.

Body:

First, mention the various potential benefits of 5G technology such as faster access to critical services, building smart cities, developing competitiveness with other nations in service delivery standards etc.

Next, discuss the challenges to roll out 5G such as high cost of installation, public apprehension regarding safety, need for a robust policy and Centre-state coordination etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that more and more discussions and quick action is the need of the hour for India to quickly harness the potential of 5G technology.

Introduction

5G is the fifth generation mobile network. It’s a unified platform which is much more capable than previous mobile services with more capacity, lower latency, faster data delivery rate and better utilisation of spectrum. The standards for the usage of 5G are defined and driven by 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).

Body:

Benefits of 5G technology:

  • A more Connected World:
    • 5G will provide the capacity and bandwidth as per the need of the user to accommodate technologies such as Internet of Things.
    • Thus, will help to incorporate Artificial Intelligence in our lives. It can also support Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality services.
  • Bringing Internet Connectivity Everywhere:
    • The speed of 5G will have ripple effects across many industries and geographies.
    • High speed internet access is critical to pushing rural industries — like farming and agriculture — to evolve.
    • 5G networks stand to unlock that innovation, but it’s highly dependent upon how it’s implemented.
  • Better Coverage in Densely Populated Areas:
    • Small cell deployments will be made more effective through high-speed internet, allowing lightweight, easy-to-mount network base stations to increase capacity and coverage in densely populated areas.
    • Though their range is much shorter, they will be able to alleviate overloaded networks in cities and other densely populated regions.
  • Networking as a Service:
    • Network slicing allows multiple virtual networks to be created on top of a shared physical infrastructure, so different types of applications and services will be able to run on shared infrastructure.
    • This enables telecommunications companies to provide networking on-demand in the same way that we currently access other services on-demand, creating a user experience that’s indistinguishable from a physically separated network.
  • radio access networks (RAN):
    • This is creating a new set of ecosystem players dominated by smaller and more innovative companies, which can make way for unknown companies from countries such as India, to emerge as mainstream mobile infrastructure technology providers for the world

The potential advantages it offers:

5G TECHNOLOGY

  • Industry 4.0:
  • The manufacturing industry is going through a digital revolution.
  • Within the context of Industry 4.0, manufacturers are becoming more efficient through the application of automation and data exchange to their existing factory processes to enable better integrated workflows and smarter manufacturing.
  • Industrial IoT technologies are streamlining and simplifying many manufacturing processes in revolutionary ways.
  • Mixed reality (MR) applications:
    • The MR Apps comprise augmented reality (AR) plus virtual reality (VR) apps.
    • Beyond the consumer market (think Pokémon Go), interesting applications are also likely to be found in industrial and medical contexts.
    • Remote medical procedures, engineering, public safety and field-service applications are all strong use case opportunities for the application of low latency 5G services.
  • Sports and entertainment:
    • A combination of VR and AR with ultra-high-fidelity enabled by 5G could transform the way fans interact in these events.
    • Motorsports is ideal for VR in particular: equipped with their mobile device or headset, fans could be served information like lap or technical information about cars as they race on the track in a sport like Formula 1
  • Fixed wireless access:
    • Fixed wireless access could also be used to bring high bandwidth digital services to under-served rural areas.
    • Mobile operators will then be able to compete with wireline, satellite and cable companies, offering new revenue streams and faster RoI.
  • Autonomous vehicles:
  • The idea that much of the car, if not all of it, is controlled not by the driver but by technology.
  • 5G is critical to realize this as it will offer the connectivity and speed needed to deliver vast amounts of data to one another as well as other objects simultaneously.
  • 5G can provide a completely seamless mobile experience is a must so that cars can stay constantly connected.

Challenges:

  • Huge Investment Required: India needs a massive Rs 5 lakh crore ($70 billion) investment to bring in 5G.
  • Expensive spectrum: Indian spectrum prices are some of the highest in the world and the allocated quantity is well below global best practices, while 40% of the spectrum is lying unsold.
  • Lack of uniform policy framework: Delays due to complex procedures across states, non-uniformity of levies along with administrative approvals have impacted telecom service providers in rolling-out Optical Fiber Cables (OFC) and telecom towers.
  • Local Regulatory Issues: Many of the local rules and regulations are prohibiting the rapid and cost-effective roll-out of small cells in city centres where Fifth Generation (5G) is initially expected to be most in demand.
  • Debt scenario in the industry: According to ICRA, the collective debt of telecommunications service providers (TSPs) stands at Rs 4.2 lakh crore.
  • Low optical fiber penetration: India lacks a strong backhaul to transition to 5G. Backhaul is a network that connects cells sites to central exchange. As of now 80% of cell sites are connected through microwave backhaul, while under 20% sites are connected through fiber.
  • High Import of Equipments: Imports account for a 90 per cent of India’s telecom equipment market. However due to lack of local manufacturing and R&D, Indian telecom providers have no option other than to procure and deploy 5G technologies from foreign suppliers.
  • Security: According to the Global Cyber Security Index released by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), only about half of all the countries had a cybersecurity strategy or are in the process of developing one. The index, which was topped by Singapore at 0.925 saw India at 23rd position.
  • Possibility of increased digital divide: Initial deployment of 5G networks in dense urban areas could left behind rural areas due to commercial viability, may led to increase the digital divide.
  • Human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: There has been concern about the said impact of these frequencies on health of human as well as on animals.

Way Forward:

  • Spectrum Policy: India’s spectrum allocation for public wireless services should be enhanced significantly. Also, the cost of spectrum relative to per capita GDP is high and should come down.
  • Create a Fifth Generation (5G) Program Office within Department of Telecommunications and an Oversight Committee.
  • New civil infrastructure like highways, roads, canals and utilities (gas, electricity, water) lines should be mandated to provide Common Telecom Infrastructure resources such as ducting and power junction boxes to support 5G infrastructure.
  • Security audits, a prerequisite for importing of equipment before deploying in Indian networks, needs to be simplified.
  • Favorable Taxation Policy: Reducing taxation and regulatory fees on revenues could contribute to further evolution of the tax framework.
  • Fifth Generation (5G) Pilot: Policy-makers may consider encouraging 5G pilots and test beds to test 5G technologies and use cases and to stimulate market engagement.
  • Support Fifth Generation (5G) investment: Indian government and regulators should ensure the long-term sustainability of the industry and its ability to fund the significant investment required for 5G network deployments.
  • Policy-makers may consider the use of licensed, unlicensed and shared spectrum to create a balanced spectrum ecosystem – one that encourages investment, makes efficient use of spectrum and promotes competition.
  • Where market failure has occurred, governments may consider stimulating investment in fibre networks and passive assets through setting up PPPs, investment funds and offering grant funds, etc.

Conclusion

The World Economic Forum predicts that by 2023 there will be a staggering 9.1 billion mobile subscriptions. 5G will act as the catalyst for Digital India—a watershed moment in digital transformation. India is at the cusp of a next generation of wireless technology 5G. It provides an opportunity for industry to reach out to global markets, and consumers to gain with the economies of scale. It can help in better service delivery, faster access to services and deeper penetration of digital services.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: moral and political attitudes.

7. What do you understand by public morality? Explain with examples. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a simple elaboration on the concept of public morality.

Body:

Write about aspects such as what is accepted within the realms of public morality, is it static and indestructible by quoting few examples. Influence of public morality on legislations and the changes with time such as legalisation of same-sex marriage etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that society evolves with time and thus the public morality also takes its shape, however certain historically sustainable values must be preserved as well.

Introduction

A morality is a system of principles and values concerning people’s behaviour, which is generally accepted by a society or by a particular group of people. Public morality refers to moral and ethical standards enforced in a society, by law or police work or social pressure, and applied to public life, to the content of the media, and to conduct in public places.

Body

Public morality is concerned with collective obligations, and is generally based on the notion of consequentialism. For instance, Public morality often means regulation of sexual matters, including prostitution and homosexuality, but also matters of dress and nudity, pornography, acceptability in social terms of cohabitation before marriage, and the protection of children.

It is a main justification for censorship; it can lead to campaigns against profanity, and so be at odds with freedom of speech. Gambling is generally controlled: casinos have been considered much more of a threat than large-scale lotteries or football pools. Public drunkenness is quite unacceptable in some societies, and legal control of consumption of alcohol is often justified in terms of public morality, just as much as for medical reasons or to limit alcohol-related crime.

Abortion is sometimes treated as an aspect of public morality, even if it is legally defined, regulated by medical professionals, and almost entirely hidden from public view. AIDS as a health policy issue is linked to public morality in a complicated manner.

Views on public morality do change over time. Public views on which things are acceptable often move towards wider tolerance.

Conclusion

Public morality has been on a decline due to a host of factors such as legal, corruption, malpractices, cultural etc. Citizens in a political community must be bound together neither by feelings nor by self-interest but by a commitment to common values discovered by public reason — values such as political freedom, solidarity, shared traditions and cultural heritage.


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