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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 3 November 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

1. Explain the primary and secondary factors responsible for the formation of ocean currents. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question: To bring out the factors responsible for formation and movement of ocean currents and Sargasso Sea.

Directive word:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by defining ocean currents.

Body:

Draw a small illustrative diagram showing major ocean currents.

Mention primary and secondary factors responsible for their formation – insolation, atmospheric circulations, gravity and the effect of Coriolis force, Temperature and salinity differences and water density etc.

Conclusion:

Summarize the importance of Ocean currents.

Introduction

An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of sea water generated by a number of forces acting upon the water, including wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbeling, and temperature and salinity differences. Depth contours, shoreline configurations, and interactions with other currents influence a current’s direction and strength. Ocean currents are primarily horizontal water movements.

Body

ocean

 

Factors leading to origin and modification of ocean currents:

  • There are a variety of factors that affect how ocean currents (water in motion) are created, including a combination of two or more factors.
  • The different types of currents (referred to as surface or thermohaline, depending on their depth) are created by, among other things, wind, water density, the topography of the ocean floor and the Coriolis effect.

Primary Forces Responsible for Ocean Currents:

  • Insolation
    • Heating by solar energy causes the water to expand. That is why, near the equator the ocean water is about 8 cm higher in level than in the middle latitudes.
    • This causes a very slight gradient and water tends to flow down the slope. The flow is normally from east to west.
  • Wind (atmospheric circulation)
    • Wind blowing on the surface of the ocean pushes the water to move. Friction between the wind and the water surface affects the movement of the water body in its course.
    • Winds are responsible for both magnitude and direction [Coriolis force also affects direction] of the ocean currents. Example: Monsoon winds are responsible for the seasonal reversal of ocean currents in the Indian ocean.
    • The oceanic circulation pattern roughly corresponds to the earth’s atmospheric circulation pattern.
    • The air circulation over the oceans in the middle latitudes is mainly anticyclonic [Sub-tropical High-Pressure Belt] (more pronounced in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere due to differences in the extent of landmass). The oceanic circulation pattern also corresponds with the same.
    • At higher latitudes, where the wind flow is mostly cyclonic [Sub-polar Low-Pressure Belt], the oceanic circulation follows this pattern.
    • In regions of pronounced monsoonal flow [Northern Indian Ocean], the monsoon winds influence the current movements which change directions according to seasons.
  • Gravity:
    • Gravity tends to pull the water down to pile and create gradient variation.
  • Coriolis force:
    • The Coriolis force intervenes and causes the water to move to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere.
    • These large accumulations of water and the flow around them are called Gyres. These produce large circular currents in all the ocean basins. One such circular current is the Sargasso Sea.

Secondary Forces Responsible for Ocean Currents:

  • Temperature difference and salinity difference are the secondary forces.
  • Differences in water density affect vertical mobility of ocean currents (vertical currents).
  • Water with high salinity is denser than water with low salinity and in the same way cold water is denser than warm water.
  • Denser water tends to sink, while relatively lighter water tends to rise.
  • Cold-water ocean currents occur when the cold water at the poles sinks and slowly moves towards the equator.
  • Warm-water currents travel out from the equator along the surface, flowing towards the poles to replace the sinking cold water.

Conclusion

An ocean current flows for great distances and together they create the global conveyor belt, which plays a dominant role in determining the climate of many of Earth’s regions. More specifically, ocean currents influence the temperature of the regions through which they travel. Knowledge of surface ocean currents is essential in reducing costs of shipping, since traveling with them reduces fuel costs. Ocean currents can also be used for marine power generation, with areas off of Japan, Florida and Hawaii being considered for test projects.

 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

2. Account for spatial and temporal variations in the temperature distribution on Earth and the reasons for it. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question: To write about the factors causing variations in the temperature distribution on Earth.

 

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by mentioning about the temperature distribution on the Earth and its effects.

Body:

Mention the factors that influence the temperature distribution on earth. The Angle of Incidence or the Inclination of the Sun’s Rays, Duration of Sunshine, Transparency of Atmosphere, Land-Sea Differential, Prevailing Winds, Aspects of Slope, Ocean Currents, Altitude, Earth’s Distance form Sun.

Next, write about how the above helps in maintaining the heat balance.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating the importance of understanding the patterns of distribution of temperature.

Introduction

Temperature differs from one part of the world to the other. Since Insolation is the basic source of energy for the atmosphere, the distribution of insolation would determine the temperature of the earth. Thus latitude, altitude, distance from sea, features of the surface, nature of the landscape are some important factors that affect the distribution of temperature.

Body

Spatial variations in the temperature distribution on Earth

  • Horizontal Distribution of Temperature
    • The distribution of temperature across latitude over the Earth’s surface is known as the horizontal distribution of temperatures.
    • The horizontal distribution of temperature on Earth is shown by Isotherms. Isotherms are the line joining points that have an equal temperature.
    • When the isotherm map is analysed, it can be observed that the horizontal distribution of temperature is uneven.
  • Vertical Distribution of Temperature
    • The temperature in the troposphere decreases with increase in altitudes but the rate of decrease in temperature changes according to seasons.
    • The decrease of temperatures is known as vertical temperature gradient or normal lapse rate which is 1000 times more than the horizontal lapse rate.
    • The decrease of temperature upward in the atmosphere proves the fact that the atmosphere gets heat from the Earth surface through the process of conduction, radiation, and convection.
    • Hence, it is obvious that as the distance from the Earth’s surface (the source of direct heat energy to the atmosphere) increases (i.e. as the altitude increases), the air temperature decreases.

Temporal variations in the temperature distribution on Earth

  • Temperature Distribution in January
    • In January, there is winter in the Northern hemisphere and summers in the southern hemisphere.
    • The western margins of continents in January are much higher than the Eastern counterparts as the westerlies can carry high temperatures into the landmasses.
    • The temperature gradient is much closer to the Eastern margins of continents. The isotherms observe more steady behaviour in the southern hemisphere.

 

  • Temperature Distribution in July
    • During July, it is winter in the Southern hemisphere and summers in the Northern hemisphere. The isotherm behaviour is the opposite of what it was in January.
    • The isotherms are generally parallel to the latitudes in July.
    • The equatorial oceans record warmer temperatures more than 27 degrees Celsius.
    • More than 30 degrees Celsius is noticed over the land in the subtropical continent region of Asia, along the 30 ° N latitude.

Reasons for special and temporal variations in temperature distribution on Earth

  • Earth’s Distance from the Sun
  • The latitude of the place (The angle of Incidence or the Inclination of the Sun’s Rays)
  • The altitude of the place
  • Duration of sunshine
  • Differential heating of land and water
  • Distance from the sea
  • The air- mass circulation
  • The presence of warm and cold ocean currents
  • Local aspects

Conclusion

Thus, the temperature distribution determines the climate of a particular area. Global warming and climate change effects are altering the temperature distribution, thus affecting the climate across the globe.

 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

3. The socio-economic repercussions of covid-19 have had a disproportionate effect on women. They need to be acknowledged and rectified before the progress made so far in empowering women is lost. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:  Women account for 39% of migrant workers in the GCC (International Labour Organization, 2017) and the feminisation of the workforce across multiple sectors of the economy demonstrates a growing trend.

Key Demand of the question: To write about the steps needed to alleviate the impact of covid-19 on women empowerment.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Body:

First, explain key facts such as – Even before the Covid crisis, India’s quest for gender equality was stalling. Globally, female participation in the labour force is about two-thirds that of men. That number had hardly changed between 2014 and 2019.

Next, discuss then the several reasons, besides the underlying inequalities, for this disproportionate effect on women. A major factor is that coronavirus has significantly increased the burden of unpaid care. According to one survey, covid-19 has increased by 30% the time women in India spend on family responsibilities.

Next, explain the need for recognising gender parity to better the economy. Discuss the efforts of the government in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

Women tend to be the backbone of society during crises, even as they are also more likely to face the disproportionate impacts of such events. The Covid-19 pandemic is no different. It has severely exacerbated existing gendered barriers, widened India’s gender gap in the workforce, and affected (overwhelmingly female) caregivers and frontline workers.

Moreover, Dalberg conducted one of the largest studies of the socio-economic impacts of Covid-19 on women in low-income households, which pointed out that there is a multi-generational impact of poor nutrition, lack of access to contraceptives, and debt.

Body

Socio-economic repercussions of covid-19 on women

  • Women account for 39% of migrant workers in the GCC (International Labour Organization, 2017) and the feminisation of the workforce across multiple sectors of the economy demonstrates a growing trend.
  • Women migrants, who are in the skilled category are mainly nurses in the organised health industry; those in the semi-skilled or unskilled category are domestic workers, care workers, cleaning crew, manufacturing workers, salon staff and salespersons.
  • These workers are vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. For instance, domestic workers, who are mostly women, are greatly vulnerable to abuse owing to the very nature of their workspace.
  • The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the vulnerabilities of women migrant workers. For health workers it is more about the deterioration of their working conditions than the problem of losing their jobs.
  • In many countries, the work hours of nurses in many countries were extended from eight hours to 12 hours without overtime remuneration — that too in challenging working conditions.
  • Many of the semi-skilled and unskilled workers found themselves in a bind when they lost their jobs, wages and their accommodation too.
  • Whether professionally skilled or unskilled, migrant women workers have not had it easy in a foreign land where the discrimination and exploitation they faced were compounded by the novel coronavirus pandemic.
  • This definitely focuses light on the lacunae persisting in the creation of women-centric, rights-based policies to safeguard migrants.

Way Forward:

  • Implementation of the laws viz. Protection of women from sexual harassment at workplace act, maternity benefit Act in true letter and spirit.
  • Breaking the social barriers by gender sensitization and education at families, schools and workplaces.
  • Incentivizing companies to employ women and promoting safe work spaces are necessary.
  • Companies must compulsorily grant paternity leave so that the responsibility is shared.
  • Gender-wage gap should be reduced by bringing in stringent laws.
  • Formalization of jobs should be pushed to avail benefits to many women. Until then, social security benefits should be provided to women in unorganized sector.

Conclusion:

The plight of Indian women migrant workers in West Asia highlights the lack of gender-centric, rights-based safeguards. The need of the hour to reap economic benefits is by addressing the issues of gender rights and justice. Economic agency is one of the most enabling elements to shift gender relations of power, to release women from the kind of oppression, violence and powerlessness that they experience. Women’s inclusion in the development design would enhance the outcomes of development it the self.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

4. India and United States enjoy a comprehensive global strategic partnership with Trade and climate being the two major pivots in recent times. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question: As 2021 closes, with COVID-19 still a present danger and China, the emerging superpower on the global stage, viewed by both as a strategic competitor, India and the U.S. have a long way to go before they can inspire confidence that this blossoming alliance will endure for the long term.

Key Demand of the question: To write about the importance strategic partnership between India and the U.S

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about the deepening India and U.S ties.

Body:

First, mention the various components of India-U.S comprehensive global strategic partnership.

Next, write about the recent developments in trade between the two countries – volume of trade, India-U.S. Trade Policy Forum and India – U.S. Economic and Financial Partnership Dialogue etc.

Next, write about the recent developments in clean energy cooperation between the two countries – Strategic Energy Partnership/ Climate & Clean Energy Agenda 2030 etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to further enhance the ties.

Introduction

When the history of the 21st century is written, India and the United States and the strategic alliance they forge will play starring roles. Shared strategic interests will be undermined if India and the U.S. cannot jointly map coordinated policies on climate and trade. It would also lead to better front against China, which aims to dominate in these areas.

Body

Trade developments between India-USA

  • There are hopeful signs that India and USA are now prioritising the bilateral trade relationship by rechartering the Trade Policy Forum.
  • Solving WTO issues: India USA can find synergy starting with a resolution of their disputes in the World Trade Organization (WTO) on solar panels.
    • As they have dithered in pursuing cases in the WTO and settling them, China has effectively captured the global market, leaving each dependent on a source they view as a threat.
    • Strategic convergence must show the path here.
  • Energy relations: The two countries could also chart a path that allows trade to flow for transitional energy sources, such as fuel ethanol.
  • Take an incremental approach focusing on low-hanging fruit and gradually build up to more significant areas of contention. E.g. Tariff on steel and aluminium etc
  • Defence Trade: The United States urges more reforms in India’s defence offsets policy and higher Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) caps in its defence sector.

Recent developments in Climate partnership between India-USA

  • The U.S. Special Presidential Envoy for Climate, John Kerry, has visited India twice already, and India and the U.S. are collaborating under the Climate and Clean Energy Agenda Partnership.
    • India and the United States of America (USA) launched the “Climate Action and Finance Mobilization Dialogue (CAFMD)”. The CAFMD is one of the two tracks of the India-U.S. Climate and Clean Energy Agenda 2030 partnership launched at the Leaders’ Summit on Climate in April 2021.
  • The US will collaborate with India to work towards installing 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030.
  • Currently, India’s installed power capacity is projected to be 476 GW by 2021-22 and is expected to rise to at least 817 GW by 2030.
  • The Partnership will represent one of the core venues for U.S.-India collaboration and focus on driving urgent progress in this critical decade for climate action.
  • Through this collaboration, the United States and India aim to demonstrate how the world can align swift climate action with inclusive and resilient economic development, taking into account national circumstances and sustainable development priorities.

Conclusion

Climate and trade are interrelated in many ways, from commercial dissemination of cutting-edge carbon mitigation and adaptation products and technologies to the carbon emissions that come with the transport of goods and humans from one country to another. If governments, such as India and the U.S., coordinate policies to incentivise sharing of climate-related technologies and align approaches for reducing emissions associated with trade, the climate-trade inter-relationship can be a net positive one.

 

Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

5. Given its inclusive development aspirations, can India’s ambitious plan of net zero emissions by 2070 and other pledges at COP-26 summit in Glasgow be achieved? Critically examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: LiveMint

Why the question: In a surprise move at COP26 in Glasgow, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced that India will commit to ambitious, enhanced climate targets and cuts in carbon emissions in its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).

Key Demand of the question: To write about if India can achieve its COP-26 pledges while balancing its socio-economic goals.

Directive word:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context about COP-26 summit in Glasgow and India’s pledges.

Body:

First, write the performance of India’s performance with respect to achieving the its NDC’s of Paris climate deal. Mention about India’s performance in the latest Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2021 .

Next, mention the various developmental aspirations that are in front of India which must be factored in any net zero commitment

Conclusion:

Write a way forward wherein India can achieve net zero as well as sustainable development.

Introduction

India announced that it will reach carbon neutrality by 2070 as part of a five-point action plan that included reducing emissions to 50% by 2030. India made this pledge at the Conference of the Parties (COP) 26 climate summit in Glasgow, where it also urged developed countries to deliver on their promise of climate financing.

Body

India’s performance in Nationally Determined Contributions

  • At the fifth anniversary of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change (December 2020), India was the only G20 nation compliant with the agreement.
  • India has been ranked within the top 10 for two years consecutively in the Climate Change Performance Index.
  • The Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for All (UJALA) scheme is the world’s largest zero-subsidy LED bulb programme for domestic consumers.
  •  India provided leadership for setting up the International Solar Alliance, a coalition of solar-resource-rich countries, and the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure.

Can India achieve carbon neutrality by 2070?

  • Exceeding the NDC commitment: India is on track (as reports/documents show) to meet and exceed the NDC commitment to achieve 40% electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based sources by 2030.
  • Reduction in emission intensity of GDP: Against the voluntary declaration for reducing the emission intensity of GDP by 20%-25% by 2020, India has reduced it by 24% between 2005-2016.
  • More importantly, we achieved these targets with around 2% out of the U.S.$100 billion committed to developing nations in Copenhagen (2009), realised by 2015.
  • Renewable energy expansion: India is implementing one of the most extensive renewable energy expansion programmes to achieve 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022 and 450 GW by 2030.
  • Investment in green measures: As part of the fiscal stimulus after the pandemic, the Government announced several green measures, including:
  • a $26.5-billion investment in biogas and cleaner fuels,
  • $3.5 billion in incentives for producing efficient solar photovoltaic (PV)
  • and advanced chemistry cell battery, and $780 million towards an afforestation programme.
  •  India’s contribution to global emissions is well below its equitable share of the worldwide carbon budget by any equity criterion.

Challenges for India to achieve carbon neutrality

  • Any self-sacrificial declaration of carbon neutrality today in the current international scenario would be a wasted gesture reducing the burden of the developed world and transferring it to the backs of the Indian people.
  • India’s twin burden of low-carbon development and adaptation to climate impacts, is onerous and no doubt requires serious, concerted action.
  • India’s approach to eventual net-zero emissions is contingent on deep first world emissions reductions and an adequate and unambiguous global carbon budget.
  • Meanwhile, India must reject any attempt to restrict its options and be led into a low-development trap, based on pseudo-scientific narratives.

Way forward

  • According to the Council on Energy, Environment and Waters implications of a Net-zero Target for India’s Sectoral Energy Transitions and Climate Policy’ study, India’s total installed solar power capacity would need to increase to over 5,600 gigawatts to achieve net-zero by 2070.
  • The usage of coal, especially for power generation, would need to drop by 99% by 2060, for India to achieve net-zero by 2070.
  • Consumption of crude oil, across sectors, would need to peak by 2050 and fall substantially by 90% between 2050 and 2070.
  • Green hydrogen must contribute 19% of the total energy needs of the industrial sector.

Value Addition

India’s INDC, to be achieved primarily, by 2030

  • To reduce the emissions intensity of the GDP by about a third.
  • A total of 40% of the installed capacity for electricity will be from non-fossil fuel sources.
  • India also promised an additional carbon sink (a means to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere) of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by the year 2030.

 

 


General Studies – 3


Topic: Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

6. Organic methods can increase farm productivity and repair decades of environmental damage leading to improved food security. Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: DowntoEarth

Why the question: A survey in Haryana last year found that 45 per cent of 816 organic farmers got yields for wheat better than the state official average yield

Key Demand of the question: To write about the benefits of Organic farming especially in regards to improved food security.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define organic farming and explain its features in brief.

Body:

First, write about the benefits associated with organic farming – will conserve natural resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially reduce cost of production and climate-related risks for farmers, increased yield, better incomes

Next, mention steps that need to be taken to further promote organic farming.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising the importance of organic farming.

Introduction

According to FSSAI, organic farming is a system of farm design and management to create an ecosystem of agriculture production without the use of synthetic external inputs such as chemical fertilisers, pesticides and synthetic hormones or genetically modified organisms.

Body

Environmental Benefits of Organic Agriculture

  • Sustainability over the long term
    • Organic agriculture considers the medium- and long-term effect of agricultural interventions on the agro-ecosystem.
    • Organic agriculture takes a proactive approach as opposed to treating problems after they emerge.
  • Soil
    • Nutrient and energy cycling is increased and the retentive abilities of the soil for nutrients and water are enhanced, compensating for the non-use of mineral fertilizers.
    • Such management techniques also play an important role in soil erosion control.
  • Water
    • As the use of chemicals are prohibited in organic agriculture, they are replaced by organic fertilizers (e.g. compost, animal manure, green manure) and through the use of greater biodiversity (in terms of species cultivated and permanent vegetation), enhancing soil structure and water infiltration.
  • Air and climate change
    • Organic agriculture reduces non-renewable energy use by decreasing agrochemical needs.
    • Organic agriculture contributes to mitigating the greenhouse effect and global warming through its ability to sequester carbon in the soil.
  • Biodiversity
    • Organic farmers are both custodians and users of biodiversity at all levels.
    • The frequent use of under-utilized species, often as rotation crops to build soil fertility reduces erosion of agro-biodiversity, creating a healthier gene pool – the basis for future adaptation.
  • Genetically modified organisms
    • The use of GMOs within organic systems is not permitted during any stage of organic food production, processing or handling.
    • The organic label therefore provides an assurance that GMOs have not been used intentionally in the production and processing of the organic products.
  • Ecological services
    • The impact of organic agriculture on natural resources favours interactions within the agro-ecosystem that are vital for both agricultural production and nature conservation.
    • By opting for organic products, the consumer through his/her purchasing power promotes a less polluting agricultural system.
    • The hidden costs of agriculture to the environment in terms of natural resource degradation are reduced.

Conclusion

Natural farming is not a new concept in India, with farmers having tilled their land without the use of chemicals – largely relying on organic residues, cow dung, composts, etc. since time immemorial. This is also in sync with the Sustainable Development Goal 2 targeting ‘end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture’.

Value addition

Government Initiatives to Promote Organic Farming

  • Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North East Region (MOVCD)
  • Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY)
  • Certification Schemes
    • Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)is the food regulator in the country and is also responsible for regulating organic food in the domestic market and imports.
    • Participatory Guarantee System (PGS):PGS is a process of certifying organic products, which ensures that their production takes place in accordance with laid-down quality standards. PGS Green is given to chemical free produce under transition to ‘organic’ which takes 3 years. It is mainly for domestic purpose.
    • National Program for Organic Production (NPOP):NPOP grants organic farming certification through a process of third party certification for export purposes.
    • Soil Health Card Schemehas led to a decline of 8-10% in the use of chemical fertilizers and also raised productivity by 5-6%.
  • Agri-export Policy 2018
    • Focus on clustersand Marketing and promotion of “Produce of India” have positively impacted the organic farming in India
  • One District – One Product (ODOP)
    • The programme aims to encourage morevisibility and sale of indigenous and specialized products/crafts of Uttar Pradesh, generating employment at the district level.
    • The presence of aggregators is imperative to bring about economies of scale for the small and marginal farmers.
  • Zero Budget Natural Farming
    • Zero budget natural farmingis a method of chemical-free agriculture drawing from traditional Indian practices.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“Facts are many, but the truth is one” – Rabindranath Tagore

Difficulty level: Moderate

 

Why the question: The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote and highlighting its core meaning about importance of truth.

Body:

Write about facts can be manipulated and manufactures to suits the narrative. Give examples of justify your points. Mention that despite facts may point to different things generally the truth is only one.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

Rabindranath Tagore, India’s first Nobel laureate, will always be remembered in India as his poetic composition reverberates in our hearts and spirits in the form of our national anthem. A poet, philosopher, patriot, and a social thinker put in one, Tagore is one of the greatest revolutionaries India has produced. Tagore felt nature is a treasure of wisdom and hence education must happen in a natural setting. He championed the ideals of naturalism, humanism, internationalism and idealism.

Body

A fact is something that’s indisputable, based on empirical research and quantifiable measures. Facts go beyond theories. They’re proven through calculation and experience, or they’re something that definitively occurred in the past.

Truth is entirely different; it may include fact, but it can also include belief. Oftentimes, people will accept things as true because they fall closer to their comfort zones, are assimilated easily into their comfort zones, or reflect their preconceived notions of reality.

The difference between fact and truth is that fact is something that exists in real form, while Truth is the true state of a particular thing or a matter like a person, place, animal or thing. Well, facts are things that can be seen visually and can be verified properly. Fact is indisputable while truth is acceptable. To call something a fact is, presumably, to make a claim that it is true. This isn’t a problem for many things, although defending such a claim can be harder than you think.

Truth used to be an absolute. In today’s world, it feels less so. While facts have always been cherry-picked to make an argument stand, the ability to see and understand the context of those facts used to be more of a constant.

In this post-truth era, perception is real, truth is not. Here, one chooses the narrative first and the facts will follow. And the data will meekly fit into the groove because, like water, it takes the shape of the container in which the narrative is served. Once you have picked your own narrative, you have chosen your own truth, a truth untainted by objective reality.

Conclusion

From an endless stream of political misinformation to inescapable lies on social media, the signs that we are living in a post-truth world are hard to ignore. Thus, there must be earnest efforts to ensure that truth is upheld despite many facts.


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