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[Mission 2022] SECURE SYNOPSIS: 28 October 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

1. How are air masses classified? Explain the process of formation of air masses? What is the impact of air mases on weather across the world? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the classification, process of formation and the impact of air masses in weather.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define what air masses are and the chief characteristics of Air masses.

Body:

First, bring out the classification of Air Masses – various types, their characteristics.

Next, write about the processes behind the formation of air masses – essential conditions for formation of an air mass such as uniformity in meteorological conditions, ample time and plain topography which plays an assisting role.

Next, explain how air masses impact the micro climate – creation of an occluded front, maritime air masses causing rainfall, cyclonic and anti-cyclonic conditions etc. Give examples for these impacts on micro climate.

Conclusion:

Summarise the major impacts air masses.

Introduction

An air mass is a large volume of air in the atmosphere that is mostly uniform in temperature and moisture. Air masses can extend thousands of kilometers across the surface of the Earth and can reach from ground level to the Stratosphere -16 kilometers into the atmosphere. Air masses form over large surfaces with uniform temperatures and humidity, called source region They acquire a distinct identity by their humidity, origin and movement.

Body

Classification of Air masses

 

  • Latitudinal origination: Arctic, Polar, Tropical, Equatorial
  • Source: Continental air mass & Oceanic/Maritime air mass

 

Process of formation of air masses:

  • Where an air mass receives it’s characteristics of temperature and humidity is called the source region.
  • Air masses are slowly pushed along by high-level winds, when an air mass moves over a new region, it shares its temperature and humidity with that region.
  • So the temperature and humidity of a particular location depends partly on the characteristics of the air mass that sits over it.
  • Storms arise if the air mass and the region it moves over have different characteristics.
  • For example, when a colder air mass moves over warmer ground, the bottom layer of air is heated. That air rises, forming clouds, rain, and sometimes thunderstorms.
  • When a warmer air mass travels over colder ground, the bottom layer of air cools and, because of its high density, is trapped near the ground.
  • In general, cold air masses tend to flow toward the equator and warm air masses tend to flow toward the poles.
  • This brings heat to cold areas and cools down areas that are warm.
  • It is one of the many processes that act towards balancing out the planet’s temperatures.
  • Air masses are slowly pushed along by high-level winds.
  • When an air mass moves over a new region, it shares its temperature and humidity with that region.
  • So the temperature and humidity of a particular location depends partly on the characteristics of the air mass that sits over it.

Air Masses: influence on the World Weather

  • Most of the migratory atmospheric disturbances such as cyclones and storms originate at the contact zone between different air masses and the weather associated with these disturbances is determined by characteristics of the air masses involved.
  • Low windspeeds let air remain stationary long enough to take on the features of the source region, such as heat or cold.
  • When winds move air masses, they carry their weather conditions (heat or cold, dry or moist) from the source region to a new region.
  • When the air mass reaches a new region, it might clash with another air mass that has a different temperature and humidity. This can create a severe storm.
  • The properties of an air mass which influence the accompanying weather are vertical distribution temperature (indicating its stability and coldness or warmness) and the moisture content.
  • The air masses carry atmospheric moisture from oceans to continents and cause precipitation over landmasses.
  • Frontal Precipitation – when warn air mass and cold air mass come in contact frontal precipitation occurs. It is widely witnessed in temperate region.
  • The Air masses when pass through warm water or currents acquire their moisture and cause rainfall in coastal regions.
  • The climates of most regions worldwide are affected by air masses.
  • For example, maritime-tropical air sourced over warm waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, primarily between 10 and 30 degrees north of latitude, is the main contributor of precipitation for much of North America east of the Rocky Mountains.
  • They transport latent heat, thus removing the latitudinal heat balance.
  • Desertification:
    • They cause arid conditions when dry air mass is present in a region. Sahel region of Africa is impacted by this.
  • Cyclonic and Anticyclone conditions:
    • When these continental air masses move towards pole side and polar air masses move towards equatorial side both of them form fronts.
    • These cyclonic fronts are responsible for cyclonic storms at temperate regions
  • Stormy cyclones form near the air-mass fronts.
  • The temperate cyclones occur in the mid latitude of both the hemisphere. These cyclones are born along the polar front, particularly in the region of Icelandic and Aleutian sub –polar low-pressure areas in the northern hemisphere.
  • A continental polar air mass originating from the tundra of northern Canada may push southward during the winter.
  • It brings frigid temperatures to the central United States, even as it warms up somewhat on its journey across lower latitudes.
  • While dry in its source region, such an air mass often picks up substantial moisture during an early-winter transit of the Great Lakes, allowing it to dump so-called lake effect snow on leeward coasts
  • Also helps in creation of an occluded front

Conclusion

Air masses spread across massive region up to 1600 km or more. They exercise a considerable influence on the climatic conditions of the region over which they lodge and carry with them distinctive climatic features of their source region.

 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

2. What is frontogenesis? Discuss the inversion of temperature across a front and its impact? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write frontogenesis, frontal inversion and its impact.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define frontogenesis.

Body:

In the first part, write about the various causes/factors for frontogenesis – Horizontal divergence/difluence, Horizontal deformation, Vorticity, Tilting effects, Adiabatic heating etc.

Next, explain the process of frontal inversion. Use a small diagram for better representation.

Next, write about the impacts of frontal inversion – rainfall, visibility etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

Frontogenesis is the generation or intensification of a front. It occurs when warm air converges onto colder air, and the horizontal temperature gradient amplifies by at least an order of magnitude. Whenever a region experiences horizontal convergence (and therefore uplift), any pre-existing gradient will increase. A prerequisite for frontogenesis is that the atmosphere is baroclinic, i.e. that temperature advection occurs.

Body

Inversion of temperature across a front

 

  • Inversion of Temperature is a reversal of the normal behaviour of temperature in the troposphere.
  • Under this meteorological phenomenon a layer of warm air lies over the cold air layer.
  • When the warm and cold fronts meet, then the warm front rises up and being heavier the cold front sinks down. It results in formation of Frontal Inversion.
  • It has considerable slope, whereas other inversions are nearly horizontal. It often takes place in the temperate zone and causes cyclonic conditions which result in the precipitation in different forms.
  • A frontal inversion is unstable and is destroyed as the weather changes.

Effects of temperature inversion

  • Temperature inversion determines the precipitation, forms of clouds, and also causes frost due to condensation of warm air due to its cooling.
  • Dust particles hanging in the air:Due to inversion of temperature, air pollutants such as dust particles and smoke do not disperse on the surface.
  • Stops the movement of air:It causes the stability of the atmosphere that stops the downward and upward movement of air.
  • Less rainfall:Convection clouds cannot move high upwards so there is less rainfall and no showers. So, it causes a problem for agricultural productivity.
  • Lower visibility:Fog is formed due to the situation of warm air above and cold air below, and hence visibility is reduced which causes disturbance in transportation. For instance, coffee growers of Brazil and apple growers and hoteliers of mountain states of Himalayas in India avoid lower slopes.
  • Thunderstorms and tornadoes:Intense thunderstorms and tornadoes are also associated with inversion of temperature because of the intense energy that is released after an inversion blocks an area’s normal convention patterns.
  • Diurnal variations in temperature tend to be very

Conclusion

Thus, Inversions play an important role in determining cloud forms, precipitation, and visibility. Climate change has led to more temperature inversions and the rise of ‘super pollution events’.

 

Topic: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

3. Critically comment on the new phenomena of ageism being crept into mainstream society and the view that higher aged population to be more of a liability than an asset. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

Key Demand of the question:

To understand the phenomena of age related stereotypes in the society especially in workspace.

Directive word:

Critically comment – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘comment’ is prefixed, we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define ageism and its associated features.

Body:

Mention by stating the present trend of more entrepreneurs, innovators & business leads from the younger generation, that the elder generation is often seen as slower, change-resistant, expensive, and ultimately even useless. Mention about the elderly being neglected in many aspects including in their own families and in public policies. Mention about the need to recognise the wisdom and expertise of the so-called aged populace.

Write about the steps that are needed in this regard.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that we must have an inclusive approach to ensure a balanced, well-functioning society.

Introduction

Ageism is stereotyping and/or discrimination against individuals or groups on the basis of their age. This may be casual or systemic. Every second person in the world is believed to hold ageist attitudes – leading to poorer physical and mental health and reduced quality of life for older persons, costing societies billions of dollars each year, according to a new United Nations report on ageism.

Body

Challenges posed by Ageism

  • Ageism is everywhere: from our institutions and relationships to ourselves.
  • For example, ageism is in policies that support healthcare rationing by age, practices that limit younger people’s opportunities to contribute to decision-making in the workplace, patronizing behaviour used in interactions with older and younger people, and in self-limiting behaviour, which can stem from internalized stereotypes about what a person of a given age can be or do.
  • Half the world’s population is ageist against older people.
  • Ageism can change how we view ourselves, can erode solidarity between generations, can devalue or limit our ability to benefit from what younger and older populations can contribute, and can impact our health, longevity and well-being while also having far-reaching economic consequences.
  • Ageism also increases risky health behaviours, such as eating an unhealthy diet, drinking excessively or smoking, and reduces our quality of life.
  • Ageism in India needs to be addressed especially because of its youthful workforce profile.
  • The pandemic has been a pretext for many employers bent on payroll reduction to ease out older employees.
  • In an AARP survey of adults over 45, 61% of respondents said that they had seen or personally experienced age discrimination.
  • A review of academic studies of age bias in hiring and promotion shows that employers may not objectively evaluate job candidates’ potential productivity.

Way forward

  • Three strategies work in reducing or eliminating ageism: policy and law, educational activities and intergenerational interventions.
  • Policy and law can address discrimination and inequality on the basis of age and protect the human rights of everyone, everywhere.
  • Educational activities can enhance empathy, dispel misconceptions about different age groups and reduce prejudice by providing accurate information and counter-stereotypical examples.
  • Intergenerational interventions, which bring together people of different generations, can help reduce intergroup prejudice and stereotypes.

Conclusion

The elderly are the fastest growing, underutilized resource that humanity has to address many other problems. Re-integration of the elderly into communities may save humanity from mindlessly changing into a technology driven ‘Industry 4.0’ which futurists are projecting: an economy of robots producing things for each other. Healthy elderly citizens can share their wealth of knowledge with younger generations, help with child care, and volunteer or hold jobs in their communities.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

4. Robust institutional mechanisms must be constituted in order to maintain the fine balance of public privacy and national security. Analyse this statement in the context of recent Pegasus controversy. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:  

Supreme court has ordered institutionalising a committee to investigate the alleged accusations against the government for the use of Pegasus spyware against its citizens for political benefits.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about trade-off between Public privacy and national security.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning about article 21 ensuring right to privacy as a fundamental duty.

Body:

First, mention that even fundamental rights are not absolute and needs to be reasonably restricted in the context of larger public good such as national security.

Next, bring out the need to institute a body that ensures that the breach of public privacy is only in case of absolute necessity and for a genuine cause. Mention some necessary features of the body needed to ensure the same.

Next, write about the need for accountability for any breach of privacy in the garb of national security.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that the regulatory body would definitely help strike a balance between public privacy and national security

Introduction

The Supreme Court’s much-awaited judgement in the Pegasus case is an important landmark in the history of the fight for the fundamental rights of citizens and institutional protection for them. Pegasus symbolised one of the most serious of such challenges. Revelations in the international media had pointed to extensive surveillance and hacking of citizens’ phones for the past many years with the help of a software from an Israeli company.

The Supreme Court of India has appointed a committee presided by Justice (Retd.) R V Raveendran to inquire into the Pegasus revelations.

Body

Background

  • When damning revelations emerged that many phones of journalists, activists and even doctors and court staff were targets of military-grade spyware designed not only to grab data but also take control of devices, the Government ought to have responded, as some nations did, with alarm and alacrity.
  • Instead, it resorted to a bald claim that illegal surveillance is not possible in India, and that the disclosure of whether or not a particular software suite was used by its agencies would compromise national security.

Balancing public privacy and national security

  • Article 21 under its ambit, provides Right to privacy. Though this right is not absolute, that does not give license to the government to abrogate the same under the pretext of national security.
  • Surveillance, or even the knowledge that one could be spied upon, affects the way individuals exercise their rights, warranting the Court’s intervention.
  • There is no omnibus prohibition on judicial review merely because the spectre of national security is being raised.
  • The Court deemed unacceptable the Government’s refusal to shed any light on a controversy that involves possible violation of citizens’ rights and made it clear that national security considerations cannot be used by the state “to get a free pass”.
  • The Court has approached the issue as one that raises an “Orwellian concern”, recognising that intrusive surveillance not only violates the right to privacy but also has a chilling effect on the freedom of the press.

Need for accountability

  • The Supreme Court’s decision to set up a committee under a former judge of the court, Justice R V Raveendran, to investigate the charges of illegal surveillance and hacking, under its own supervision, is welcome because it will hopefully bring out the truth and fix responsibility.
  • An important feature of the court’s decision is that it has rejected the government’s offer to set up a committee to probe the matter.
  • The government has been evasive and was unwilling to provide the information that the court wanted, and tried to hide behind the excuse of national security. The court has done well to reject this, and this should be relevant in other cases also where the government has tried to curb the rights of citizens.
  • The committee will also make recommendations for enactment of legal measures and other steps for better protection of rights.

Conclusion

The power of the state to snoop in the name of national security into the “sacred private space” of individuals could not be absolute as reiterated by the state. The Court-supervised panel appears to have the required expertise and independence, but its success in unravelling the truth may depend on how much information it can extract from the Government and its surveillance agencies.

 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

5. Energy cooperation is one of the foundations of India and Russia relationship’s special and privileged strategic partnership but there is much more potential left to be harnessed by both sides in this aspect. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

At the 6th Eastern Economic Forum (EEF) in Russia’s Vladivostok, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi in a virtual address said, “India-Russia energy partnership can help bring stability to the global energy market.”

Key Demand of the question:

To write about Enerergy cooperation in India-Russia ties and steps that are needed to engage further.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about the India and Russia relationship’s special and privileged strategic partnership and its various components.

Body:

First, write the historical context and development of energy cooperation between India and Russia. Write in detail various aspects and dimensions of energy cooperation between both ountires.

Next, write about the shortfalls and reasons for limited growth between India and Russia.

Next, write about steps that are required for deeper engagement and cooperation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

India has been at the forefront of the transformation of global energy and striving to diversify its trade relations. With its abundant energy sources and appetite for trade diversification, Russia could be an ultimate long-term partner. In September, at the 6th Eastern Economic Forum (EEF) in Russia’s Vladivostok, Indian Prime Minister in a virtual address said, “India-Russia energy partnership can help bring stability to the global energy market.”

With Russia China axis growing stronger, there have been some political apprehensions from Indian side for stronger ties with our long weather friend. This needs to be overcome to reinvigorate better coordination.

Body

Energy cooperation between India-Russia

  • Joint-ventures: One of the examples of cooperation between the two countries in energy transformation is the joint venture between India’s Reliance Industries Ltd. and Russia’s Sibur, the country’s largest petrochemicals producer.
    • Set up in Jamnagar, Gujarat, the venture now leads the first butyl and halogenated butyl rubber production facility in South Asia.
    • Russia’s Gazprom and India’s ONGC Videsh Ltd. (OVL) and the Indian Oil Corporation signed separate memorandums of understanding at Vladivostok.
  • Technology transfer: Sibur, is bringing to India unique technology, which is not commercially available in the market and the most advanced in terms of ecological footprint.
    • The project will tremendously support the growth of India’s auto industry by securing uninterrupted critical raw material supply.
  • Nuclear cooperation: Russian companies have been involved in the construction of six nuclear reactors in the Kudankulam nuclear power project at Tamil Nadu.
    • Of these, unit 1 and unit 2 have been operating at total capacity.
    • Furthermore, India and Russia secure the potential of designing a nuclear reactor specifically for developing countries, which is a promising area of cooperation.
    • Eg: Roopur nuclear plant in Bangladesh.

Reasons for limited growth

The current bilateral exchange rate needs to accelerate for India to grasp its potential from energy transformation.

  • India’s growing proximity to the United States: Rapidly expanding ties and growing defence relationship between India and US and, India joining quadrilateral group led by the US has led to a strategic shift in Russia’s foreign policy.
    • For Russia it has been a period of great hostility with West, thus pushing it to align with China.
  • One-dimensional trade: Trade has been one-dimensional i.e. defence based. The trade in 2017-18 was $10.7 billion, which is far below potential in comparison to India’s trade with China ($89.7 billion), the United States ($74.5 billion).
  • Leaning with China: Increasing strategic military relations between Russia China also impacted India Russia relations. Russia has sold advanced military technology to Beijing, endorsed China’s One Belt One Road.
    • There has also been concern about Moscow leaning toward Beijing in forums like the BRICS.
  • Distance and language barriers: With Afghanistan turmoil, the future of INSTC is in limbo. Easier routes to Russia can elevate energy cooperation. There is also language barrier that exists which hinders better partnership in energy and renewables.

Steps for deeper engagement beyond

  • Improving trade relations: In 2017 trade between both countries increased by 20%. Two countries decided to reach USD 30 billion investment goal by 2025. In this direction, India Russia Strategic Economic Dialogue was started in 2018.
  • India participated in Eastern Economic Forum (2020) which aims to support the economic development of Russia’s resource rich Far East.
    • Also, India has extended a $1 billion line of credit for the development of this region.
    • Also, proposal for maritime route between Chennai and Vladivostok has been made.
  • FTA: There are talks of the signing of an FTA between Indian and the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU).
  • Strengthening Energy and science & technology cooperation: Cooperation in development of oil in Russia including its arctic shelf and joint development of projects on the shelf of the Pechora and Okhotsk Seas.
    • g. Vankorneft and Taas-Yuryakh in Russia and the participation of the PJSC Rosneft oil company in the Essar Oil capital.
  • Indispensable partner: Unknowns of climate change and threats of a new pandemic suggest that the country should accelerate its energy transition. Russia, one of the key global players across the energy market, could emerge as an indispensable partner for such a transition.

Conclusion

To meet its growing energy demand and succeed in green transformation, India needs approximately U.S.$500 billion of investments in wind and solar infrastructure, grid expansion, and storage to reach the 450 GW capacity target by 2030. Therefore, more efforts are needed to expand cooperation with such partners as Russia.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

6. Radicalisation is a major threat to internal security of the country. Examine the issue and the various counter radicalisation strategies to tackle it. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

In a speech before the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, Prime Minister identified radicalisation as the greatest threat to the security and safety of all member countries.

Key Demand of the question:

To analyse the various issues associated with radicalisation and also the measures to counter the same.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by stating how radicalisation in the present times is very subtle, organised, programmed and structured.

Body:

First, bring out the root cause of the issue involving socio-political demands of the radical groups with few examples.

Next, mention the threats posed by the radical groups on the common public.

Next, examine the counter radicalisation measures to address the issue and few suggestions

Conclusion:

Conclude by giving a way forward to the issues mentioned above.

Introduction

The word “radical” refers to change in the fundamental nature of something, thus Radicalism is set of beliefs or actions of people who advocate thorough or complete political or social reform. Radicalisation refers to the process of an individual’s transformation from a moderate, law-abiding citizen into an active, anti-state, violent extremist.

The recent arrest of multiple suspects in the ISI terror module case shows that the threat of radicalisation in India is pervasive and increasing exponentially.

Body

Radicalisation – a major threat to internal security of country

  • In a speech before the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, Prime Minister of India identified radicalisation as the greatest threat to the security and safety of all member countries.
  • Radicalisation is not a new phenomenon, but it is increasingly a challenge, with new technologies and the growing polarisation of society making it a serious threat throughout India.
  • The problem of radicalisation in India is well past its primary stages and has entered a second stage with more defined characteristics.
  • We have enough evidence from reports of various investigative agencies across the country that the process is now subtle, systematic, organised, programmed and structured.
  • Terrorist acts are carried out by people who are motivated by a wide variety of ideological viewpoints, who have gone through different radicalization processes, and who have unique grievances or life experiences that lead them toward radicalization to terrorism.
  • This, in turn, makes it difficult to target prevention and intervention efforts toward any one “vulnerable” population.
  • Radicalization to terrorism can be motivated by extremist groups/ideologies, or it can occur at an individual level (commonly referred to as “lone wolf terrorism”).
  • Some extremist organisations have also been known to target schools, universities and places of worship, such as mosques.
  • Prisons can also be fertile ground for radicalisation, due to the closed environment.
  • Deprived of their social networks, inmates are more likely than elsewhere to explore new beliefs and associations and become radicalised, while understaffed prisons are often unable to pick up on extremist activities.

Steps needed to deal Radicalism in India:

  • The Indian state should develop and enforce de-radicalisation, counter-radicalisation and anti-radicalisation strategies at a pan-India and pan-ideology level on a war footing.
  • Such attempts must be informed by the fact that the battle against radicalisation begins in the minds and hearts much before it manifests in terms of violence.
  • Any programme aimed at deterring or reversing radicalisation must focus on the ideological commitment that enables the violence, rather than the violence or the justification of violence itself.
  • There should be sufficient evidence behind banning any organization. This is necessary to avoid court cases. Also, Intelligence Agencies, Law Enforcement Agencies and Judicial Courts need to act in unison on this matter.
  • Once government identifies any radicalist organization, it needs to take hold of their physical and financial resources.
  • Efforts must be made to first stem the flow of propaganda from across the Indian borders.
  • Second, a uniform statutory or policy framework to deal with radicalisation, de-radicalisation and its associated strategies should be developed.
  • Third, arrested and convicted individuals must not only be prosecuted and punished as a measure of deterrence or retribution but their reformation and rehabilitation must also be prioritised.
  • Fourth, counter-radicalisation strategies involving the rehabilitation, re-education and re-integration of those undergoing radicalisation must be developed and implemented.
  • Fifth, anti-radicalisation measures aimed at the prevention of radicalisation must be executed.
  • The last measure should include the promotion of the syncretic nature of religions in India through the development of counter-narratives, promotion of constitutional values and virtues, promotion of sports and other activities in schools and other educational institutions aimed at mainstreaming the youth.
  • The corner stone for radicalization is poverty, deprivation and isolation and lack of employment and standard education opportunities, these to be addressed by the government and policies to be formulated for inclusive participation and facilitation of all means for their development.
  • Political executive plays an important role in drawing the youth into decision making and giving responsibility for the development of the community.
  • Social media to be regulated when such info of such activities to be held and to draw a legalized guide lines to regulate in due means without contradicting the privacy of an individual.
  • Developing a nuanced understanding of the process of radicalisation as well as its characteristics can help guide the Action Plan in effectively meeting such challenges.

Conclusion

Radicalisation becomes problematic only where it has the propensity to lead to violence. Radicalisation is a danger to internal security and polarises the Indian society deepening the sectarian differences. Thus it is imperative to fight radicalisation on all fronts. Initiatives like UDAAN they must be inclusive in nature and drag youth from all sections ,Nehru yuva kendra to be given impetus in such areas to involve youth in all capacity ,cultural and sports activities so there are less chances for them to get influenced from such ideological goals.

Value addition

Types of Radicalisation:

  • Right-Wing Extremism: It is characterized by the violent defence of a racial, ethnic or pseudo-national identity, and is also associated with radical hostility towards state authorities, minorities, immigrants and/or left-wing political groups. E.g.: Ku Klux clan in USA.
  • Politico-Religious Extremism: It results from political interpretation of religion and the defence, by violent means, of a religious identity perceived to be under attack (via international conflicts, foreign policy, social debates, etc.). Any religion may spawn this type of violent radicalization. E.g.: ISIS using Islam as an alibi.
  • Left-Wing Extremism: It focuses primarily on anti-capitalist demands and calls for the transformation of political systems considered responsible for producing social inequalities, and that may ultimately employ violent means to further its cause. It includes anarchist, Maoist, Trotskyist and Marxist-Leninist groups that use violence to advocate for their cause. E.g.: Naxalism in India.
  • Internet Radicalization: Internet is used by terrorist as an effective tool for radicalisation and terror financing. Terror groups use the internet to advocate the use of violence to further a religious, ideological or political cause.

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