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[Mission 2022] SECURE SYNOPSIS: 27 October 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

1. What are the various types of condensation? In detail, explain the mechanism behind formation of clouds. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about factors affecting horizontal movement of air, causes behind pressure belts and their distribution.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about the various of condensation witnessed on the planet.

Body:

Explain that temperature, pressure, condensation nuclei and RH has a key role to play in cloud formation. Clouds develop in any air mass that becomes saturated (relative humidity becomes 100%). Saturation can occur by way of atmospheric mechanisms that cause the temperature of an air mass to be cooled to its dew point or frost point, etc.

Explain the role that these elements play in cloud formation using illustrations.

Conclusion:

Summarise the above as a conclusion.

Introduction

Condensation  is  the  change  of  the  physical  state  of  water  vapour  (gas  state)  into  water  (liquid state). Condensation is important to the water cycle as it is responsible for the formation of clouds. For condensation to take place, it is very important that the atmosphere is fully saturated (to reach maximum vapour pressure). Usually, condensation takes place around dust particles or smoke or microscopic bacteria.

Body

Various types of condensation

  • Dew
    • The deposition of water vapour in the form of tiny droplets on the colder bodies by condensation is known as dew.
    • The clear sky, absence of wind.
    • The object on which dew forms must be good radiator and bad conductor are necessary conditions for formation of dew.
  • Front
    • When the temperature of air falls below 0 degrees C before the dew point is reached, the water vapour is directly converted into crystals of ice, and this is called as frost.
    • It is frequently called as a form of sublimation; Forts is injurious to vegetation.
  • Fog
    • Extremely small water droplets suspending in the atmosphere and reducing the horizontal visibility is fog.
  • Mist
    • Mist is less dense fog. The suspended water droplets restrict Visibility between 1000 to 2000 meters or 4 on the coded scale (IMD)
    • The obscurity is known as mist.
    • Relative humidity is at least 75% Mist disappears with rising sun.
  • Rime
    • It is formed when wet fog having super cooled droplets immediately freeze on striking objects like telegraph post having temperature below freezing point.
    • White ice is formed on windward side.
  • Smog
    • The combined effect of smoke and fog droplets may reduce visibility and this phenomenon is called smog.
  • Haze
    • Some solid particles like dust, smoke from fire and industry restrict visibility is haze.

Cloud and its formation mechanism

Cloud can be defined as a mass of tiny water droplets ice crystals OR both condensed on hygroscopic nuclei and suspending in the atmosphere. Clouds and fogs are composed of water droplets or ice crystals or both of the order of size 20 to 60 microns (0.008-0.024 millimetre).

 

Clouds are formed when air contains as much water vapor (gas) as it can hold. This is called the saturation point, and it can be reached in two ways. First, moisture accumulates until it reaches the maximum amount the volume of air can hold. The other method reduces the temperature of the moisture filled air, which in turn lowers the amount of moisture it can contain. Saturation, therefore, is reached through evaporation and condensation, respectively. When saturation occurs, moisture becomes visible water droplets in the form of fog and clouds.

Conclusion

Condensation plays a very significant role in the water cycle and thus helps in maintaining the water balance in the environment. It is also used in various industrial processes by the scientists and engineers for separating mixtures and manufacturing pure substances.

 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

2. What are the factors that impact the rainfall over an area? Examine the impact of air pollution on rainfall patterns in India?(250 words) 

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about factors affecting horizontal movement of air, causes behind pressure belts and their distribution.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving the factors that affect rainfall over an area.

Body:

In the first part write about the factors controlling the distribution of rainfall over the earth’s surface are the belts of converging-ascending air flow (see doldrums; polar front), air temperature, moisture-bearing winds, ocean currents, distance inland from the coast, and mountain ranges.

Next, Explain the change in pattern of rainfall – the erratic behaviour of monsoon rainfall, including the phenomenon of concentrated heavy rainfall on a small number of days, could, at least in part, be attributed to the rising air pollution. Explain that excess aerosols, suspended solid particles like dust, smoke and industrial effluents, in the atmosphere is changing cloud patterns.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward to mitigate the above.

Introduction

The primary source of water for agricultural production for most of the world is rainfall. Three main characteristics of rainfall are its amount, frequency and intensity, the values of which vary from place to place, day to day, month to month and also year to year. Precise knowledge of these three main characteristics is essential for planning its full utilization.

Body

Several factors influence the proportion of effective rainfall in the total received and these may act singly or collectively and interact with each other.

FactorRelevant characteristics
RainfallAmount, intensity, frequency, distribution over area as well as time;
Other meteorological parametersTemperature, radiation, relative humidity, wind velocity;
LandTopography, slope, type of use;
SoilDepth, texture, structure, bulk density, salt and organic matter content;
Soil waterHead, suspended matter, turbidity due to clay or colloids, viscosity, temperature, nature of dissolved salts (Na+, N03);
GroundwaterDepth from surface, quality;
ManagementType of tillage, degree of levelling, type of layout (bunding, terracing, ridging), use of soil conditioners;
ChannelSize, slope, shape, roughness and back water effect;
CropsNature of crops, depth of root system, degree of ground cover, stage of growth, crop rotations,

Impact of air pollution on rainfall patterns in India

  • A recent analysis by Climate Trends, a Delhi based communications initiative building a narrative around climate ambition and low carbon development pathways, highlighted how high pollution levels impacted monsoon patterns in a region.
  • The analysis said with the levels of toxic pollution increasing, in the coming years, monsoon rain may reduce by at least 10%.
  • Rising levels of air pollution adversely impacts  as the concentration of aerosols increases, it leads to warming of the atmosphere but simultaneously cooling of the land surface.
  • The air pollutants block the sun rays and interfere with the heating of the ground. Also, these particles decrease the heat received by the ground as they absorb a fraction of the heat energy within themselves.
  • For instance, the required surface temperature is 40°C, while the presence of air pollution will result in restricting temperature up to 38°C or 39°C.

Conclusion

Although there are wide variations in weather patterns across India, the monsoon brings some unifying influences on India. The Indian landscape, its flora and fauna, etc. are highly influenced by the monsoon. The entire agricultural calendar in India is governed by the monsoon. Due to these reasons, monsoon is often a great unifying factor in India. India needs to invest more resources in better prediction of Monsoon forecast in order to achieve reliability and sustainability.

 

Topic: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

3. Denying individuals matrimonial and other rights that emanate from matrimony solely for their sexual orientation is unjust and unconstitutional. Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: firstpost.com

Why the question:

In his submission in the Delhi High Court, Solicitor General Tushar Mehta argued that ‘spouse’ means either husband or wife and ‘marriage’ is a term associated with heterosexual couples.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about achieving equality in matrimony and other rights for sexual minorities.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of same sex marriage beinig banned as per Art.377 in India and then quashing of the same article legalising same-sex marriage.

Body:

First, bring out the issue that although India has taken an Inclusive step towards the LGBTQIA+ community, it is necessary to understand that there are still many issues associated with actual materialising of same-sex marriage.

Next, stress on the need to recognise same-sex marriage under Hindu Marriage act and special marriage act.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing the need to protect basic human rights of sexual minoritites and need for a well planned statute to empower them legally.

Introduction

The Centre has maintained an adversarial view towards allowing or legalising same-sex marriage, despite a landmark Supreme Court judgment that read down archaic laws criminalising homosexual relations. This will hinder the process of enlarging the rights of LGBTQ+ community in India and providing them dignity of life.

Body

Background: Matrimonial rights of same-sex couples

  • The Supreme Court in Navtej Singh Johar & Ors. vs Union of India (2018) declared that the application of Section 377 IPC to consensual homosexual behaviour was “unconstitutional”.
  • This Supreme Court judgment has been a great victory to the Indian LGBTQIA+ community in their quest for identity and dignity.
  • Recently, the court was hearing a clutch of pleas seeking legal recognition of same sex marriages under the Special Marriage Act and Foreign Marriage Act.
  • In response to this, the Centre has opposed the pleas, saying a marriage in India can be recognised only if it is between a “biological man” and a “biological woman” capable of producing children, strongly opposing the validation of same-sex marital unions.
  • There are many issues that concerns the LGBTQ+ communities including marriage and union, inheritance, adoption, rights under Marriage Acts among others.

Issues surrounding same-sex marriages in India

  • No legal recognition of same-sex marriage: Same-sex marriages are not legally recognized in India even though many countries like USA, UK have legalised it.
    • There is no recognition of union of transgenders, queer etc either.
    • All the rights under laws of Marriage such as protection against dowry, domestic violence etc are not realised by these individuals.
  • Disharmony of rights: Supreme Court, decriminalised sexual relationships between homosexual individuals, wherein their union is allowed.
    • But without recognizing such marriages of willing people, this right will not be substantial.
  • Issue of rights: The rights enjoyed by opposite-sex couples are not enjoyed by same-sex couples. They are prohibited from those rights. For example-
    • The lack of a legal structure around their relationship became increasingly stark when they tried to bring each other on as nominees in insurance and financial plans, just as a married couples did.
  • Likewise, homosexual couples are denied basic necessities that other heterosexual couples take for granted.
    • Same-sex couples cannot become each other’s medical proxy unless they legally make such a provision.
  • Inheritance: They do not naturally inherit the property of their partner after their death unless their right is preserved by a will, which again can be contested in court.
    • Even the simple process of setting up a joint bank account is tedious for queer couples

Measures needed to reform the institution of marriage

  • Revisions needed: Marriage, including religious marriages, cannot be exempt from reform and scrutiny.
    • g.: Through revisions to the Hindu Marriage Act, self-respect marriages were legalised in Tamil Nadu (and later Puducherry).
    • In the same way, the law must expand the institution of marriage to cover all gender and sexual identities, to meet the requirements of the LGBTQIA+ community.
  • Marriage of consenting adults: It is time for India to overhaul its marriage laws to allow marriage between consenting adults irrespective of sexual identity, gender or sex.
  • Creating behaviour change: Issues of marriage needs societal sanction but should not be subjected to societal morality. Politics must not play a role in this scenario.
    • The Supreme Court ruled that the “intimacies of marriage reside inside an inviolable core zone of private” and that “society has no role to play in influencing our choice of spouses”.
    • Likewise, same-sex marriage must be legalised and people must be made aware so that there is acceptance of such marriages and it is normalised.
  • Overhauling the definitions: The terms of bride and groom needs to be changed as per changing trends of the society. When same-sex unions are legalised, it must be applied to marriages as well.

Conclusion

The queer and gender non-conforming people have found an ally in the court, but they would need greater effort on the part of the authorities at various levels, if their rights are to be protected. In any case, any change in law in terms of recognising same-sex relations or understanding self-identification of gender must be complemented by an attitudinal change in society at large.

Government must sensitise the general public and officials, to reduce and finally eliminate the stigma associated with LGBTQ+ community through the mass media and the official channels. School and university students too should be sensitised about the diversity of sexuality to deconstruct the myth of heteronormativity. Heteronormativity is the root cause of hetero-sexism and homophobia.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

4. The developments affecting India’s neighbourhood over the past decade have led India to formulate policy options to secure her national interests, keeping in view the changes occurring in her neighbourhood. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: New Indian Express

Why the question:

There is a widely shared belief that India has to formulate policy options to secure her national interests, keeping in view the changes occurring in her neighbourhood.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the dynamic foreign policy of India suited according to its strategic interests and changing geopolitics.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a brief about India and its neighbourhood and its Neighbourhood first policy.

Body:

First begin by mentioning the various dynamics of India with respect to its neighbours such as Chinese diplomacy with Bhutan, Nepal & Sri Lanka, Taliban control over Afghanistan, Sri Lanka & associated concerns for India, Role of Pakistan in Jammu & Kashmir security issues etc.

Next, deliberate upon the need for a strategic custom made approach with each neighbour such as economic aides, socio-cultural engagements and exchanges, military drills, regional groupings etc

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that India should play to its strength with a deep understanding of regional sensitivities with respect to each of its neighbour.

Introduction

There are worrying trends in India’s neighbourhood such as like the three-step Bhutan-China roadmap to resolve the bilateral border dispute, the attack on Hindu citizens in Bangladesh, the lack of clarity on Nepal relations, the continuing tentativeness to Taliban ties in Afghanistan. India’s cup of woes in the immediate neighbourhood is full, if not overflowing.

Body

India and neighbourhood

  • China: Indo-China border has been fragile since the Galwan clashes last year and there is increasing apprehensions regarding China’s motives.
    • China’s BRI in Nepal, Pakistan and maritime sea routes are a cause for worry due to debt-trap diplomacy and string of pearls theory.
    • India’s backyard is being surrounded by Chinese intrusions through our neighbours and this impacts India’s security.
  • Pakistan: Pakistan-China axis, cross border terrorism, acquisition of nuclear war heads by Pakistan are all red flags for India. Pakistan has been trying to bring issue of Kashmir in every international forum and state-sponsored terrorism in the valley is a major irritant.
    • Pulwama attack and previously Uri and Pathankot incident have deteriorated the relations drastically.
    • The CPEC corridor, all the way to Gwadar with China threatens India’s sovereignty as it passes though Pakistan Occupied Kashmir.
  • Bangladesh: Though ties with Bangladesh have improved with coming of Sheikh Hasina government, issues of Teesta River water sharing, alternative access to north-east and closeness of Dhaka with Beijing remain a cause for worry.
  • Afghanistan: The Taliban takeover has created unstable environment in Afghan nation. Fragile within, a possible state collapse would spawn jihadist terrorism in all directions from which India is unlikely to remain immune.
    • g. Within days of takeover, many ISIS violence and attacks have taken place in Kabul.
  • Sri Lanka: Colombo is heavily dependent on China and has a huge debt burden it owes to China.
    • The Hambantota takeover by China in Indian ocean for 99 years is a case in point. It is a major sea line of communication and is a good vantage point for China upon India.
  • Nepal: Indo-Nepal border is virtually open and lightly policed which is exploited by terrorist outfits and insurgent groups from North Eastern part of India e.g. supply of trained cadres, fake Indian currency.
    • Overtime trust deficit has widened between India-Nepal because of the Indian reputation for delaying implementation of various projects.
    • The establishment of diplomatic relations between Nepal and China and its growing influence in Nepal has resulted in declining traditional leverage of India in Nepal.

Need for strategic approach in neighbourhood

  • Nepal: India should provide an alternative narrative for India-Nepal ties, one that takes into account longstanding people-to-people ties and cultural connect.
    • India should focus on fructifying the potential of hydropower cooperation, which has remained untapped largely due to differing perceptions.
    • India should maintain the policy of keeping away from internal affairs of Nepal, meanwhile in the spirit of friendship India should guide the nation towards more inclusive rhetoric.
  • Sri Lanka: India has taken many high development community projects in Sri Lanka. India has also taken non reciprocal measures such as extending lines of credit etc.
    • g. India housing project is Government of India’s flagship project of developmental assistance to Sri Lanka. Its initial commitment is to build 50,000 houses for those affected by the civil war.
  • China: At the ground-level, we need to visibly reinforce our positions, and move forward to the LAC all along.
    • We should enhance the operational-tempo of the three services as a measure of deterrence. Indian warships should show heightened presence at the Indian Ocean choke-points.
    • The Ministry of Defence should seize this opportunity to urgently launch some long-term “Aatmanirbharta” schemes in defence-production.
    • At the strategic level, the government should consider sustained process of engagement with China at the highest politico-diplomatic
    • The negotiations should seek multi-dimensional Sino-Indian modus-vivendi; encompassing the full gamut of bilateral issues like trade, territorial disputes, border-management and security.
  • Pakistan: International Organizations can be used for building pressure over Pakistan for carrying out anti-terrorist activities like Pakistan’s inclusion on the FATF Grey list makes it harder for its government to access international markets at a time when its economy is weakening.
    • In order to strengthen the bilateral engagements between India and Pakistan need of the hour is to employ perfect balance of soft and hard power diplomacy coupled with international diplomacy.
  • Afghanistan: India should consider appointing a special envoy dedicated to Afghanistan. The envoy can ensure that Indian views are expressed at every meeting, and broaden engagement with the Taliban. This does not mean India is endorsing Taliban.

Conclusion

India’s immediate neighbourhood directly impacts it geopolitically, geo-strategically and geo-economically because of its vicinity. Thus, working with them is important for India to rise as a great power. Emphasis must be on sustainable and inclusive development.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

5. India must take into account concerns regarding ageing dams, and conduct timely safety reviews in order to ensure safety of the structures, and the safety of those who inhabit the areas downstream. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

A report by United Nations University, said that Mullaperiyar dam, situated in a seismically active area, faces a risk of failure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about need to focus on safety and rehabilitation of aeging dams.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about some of the age old engineering marvels of dam constructions in India.

Body:

First, write the concerns of dam maintenance projects such as maintenance of water levels especially in the rainy season, local seismic areas and probabilities of a flash flooding and local landfalls,  the issue of local land acquisition and control over the water resource as a whole and  then different claims by neighbouring states etc

Next, highlight the need to maintain structural integrity of dams and the water needs of all the delta states and need for a collaborative approach.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that consensus to be built among conflicting states in order to achieve synergy with regard to the water resource and its dams.

Introduction

Dams are one of the vital elements for the growth of the country’s economy. In India, over the years, dams have played an important role in fostering rapid and sustained agricultural and rural growth. Substantial investment has been done in building dams and related infrastructure.

India is ranked third in the world in terms of building large dams. Of the over 5,200 large dams built so far, about 1,100 large dams have already reached 50 years of age and some are older than 120 years. The number of such dams will increase to 4,400 by 2050. This means that 80% of the nation’s large dams face the prospect of becoming obsolete as they will be 50 years to over 150 years old.

Body

However, in the past, we have noticed the mismanagement of dams has led to disastrous floods. One of the key roles was played by dams and understanding their role in floods would pave the way for enhancing our readiness.

Consequences of ageing of dams

  • As dams age, soil replaces the water in the reservoirs. Therefore, the storage capacity cannot be claimed to be the same as it was in the 1900s and 1950s.
  • To make matters worse, studies show that the design of many of our reservoirs is flawed.
    • Case Study: In a paper, Supply-side Hydrology: Last gasp, Rohan D’Souza writes that the observed siltation rate in India’s iconic Bhakra dam is 139.86% higher than originally assumed.
    • At this rate, he wrote, “the Bhakra dam is now expected to function for merely 47 years, virtually halved from the original estimate of 88 years”.
  • Similarly, the actual siltation rate observed for the Hirakud, Maithan and Ghod dams are way higher at 141.67%, 808.64% and 426.59%, respectively. Studies in later years showed similar findings.
  • Almost every scholarly study on reservoir sedimentationshows that Indian reservoirs are designed with a poor understanding of sedimentation science.
  • The designs underestimate the rate of siltation and overestimate live storage capacity created.
  • Therefore, the storage space in Indian reservoirs is receding at a rate faster than anticipated.
  • Reservoirs are poised to become extinct in less than a few decades with untold consequences already under way.
  • In June 2018 the central government had approved the proposal for introduction of the Dam Safety Bill, 2018 which aims to develop uniform countrywide guidelines for ensuring the safety of dams.
  • Dam mismanagement also leads to flooding like in 2018 incident in Mullaperiyar dam between Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Safety of Dams

  • The Union Cabinet approved the proposal for introduction of Dam Safety Bill, 2018 in the Parliament.
  • The objective of this Bill is to help develop a uniform, countrywide guidelines for ensuring the safety of dams.
  • The Bill provides for:
    • Proper surveillance, inspection, operation and maintenance of all specified dams in the country to ensure their safe functioning.
    • Constitution of a National Committee on Dam Safety which shall evolve dam safety policies and recommend necessary regulations.
    • Establishment of National Dam Safety Authority as a regulatory body which shall discharge functions to implement the policy, guidelines, and standards for dam safety in the country.
    • Constitution of a State Committee on Dam Safety by State Government.
  • All the institutions that are named in the dam safety bill are already functioning. The Dam Safety Bill will only give these institutions legal backing.
  • This bill will make sure that every state government follows a uniform policy laid down by it.
  • In the Dam Safety Bill, the provisions for the robust functioning of the dam have been laid. As of now, some of the dams have an operational manual. However, most are operating dams from experience. This bill will make it legally binding for all the dams to have a codified manual for the operation as per their need.

Way Forward

  • A Bill seeking to set up an institutional mechanism for surveillance, inspection, operation and maintenance of specified dams across the country has been passed by the Lok Sabha.
  • The provisions of the Bill are proposed to be applied to all damsin the country which have a height of more than 15 metres, or between 10 metres to 15 metres.
  • Among other things, the Bill also seeks to resolve the inter-state issues concerning maintenance and safety of dams as around 92% of dams in the country are on inter-state river basins.
  • The Bill also envisages setting up of a National Dam Safety Authority to be headed by an officer not below the rank of an Additional Secretary, to be appointed by the central government.
  • The main task of the National Dam Safety Authorityincludes implementing the policies formulated by the National Committee on Dam Safety, resolving issues between State Dam Safety Organisations (SDSOs), or between an SDSO and any dam owner in that state, specifying regulations for inspection and investigation of dams.
  • The NDSA will also provide accreditation to agenciesworking on construction, design, and alteration of dams.
  • Since the dam safety is dependent on many external factors, the environmentalists, and the environmental anglein this, needs to be taken.
  • There is a need to strengthen the state irrigation department and the Central Water Commission.
  • It should be ensured that the inspection of damsis done by the respective state governments.
  • State governments should follow the dam safety manual with precision. Especially, where human settlements are scattered all around, the building of dams has to be regulated as per the guidelines.
  • Creation of buffer zone has to be done to protect land near dams from encroachment.
  • However, the growth of population will lead to encroachment, and it would be physically impossible to shift people during calamity. Proper dissemination of information has to be done in the surrounding areas on a real-time basis and regular flushing of water should be carried downstream to keep the river beds dry. Hence, dam safety and proper village, town and city planning have to be integrated.
  • Ensuring “dam safety” should be a continuous exercise. The present catastrophe is more related to, how the dam should be operated when there is heavy rainfall and the water level has reached a critical level.

 

Topic: Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

6. Analyse the growing impacts of climate change on India. Are the steps taken so far adequate enough to tackle the climate change? 250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: New Indian Express

Why the question:

Most of these impacts of climate change can be irreversible and hence cannot be remediated even if greenhouse gas emissions decline dramatically, the IPCC has    said.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the implications of changing climate on various aspects of Indian region and also evaluate upon the Key actions taken by India towards combating and adapting to climate change.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start the answer by writing about the increasing extreme weather events in India.

Body:

First, write in detail the implications of changing climate on various aspects of Indian region such as – food security, Agriculture systems, water security, Energy infrastructure and supply, coastal ecosystem etc. Also explain its effect on human health, social issues, cascading of climatic hazards etc.

Then discuss the key actions taken by India towards combating and adapting to climate change. Evaluate their impact.

Conclusion:

Conclude that If India is to successfully tackle climate change—both in terms of mitigation and adaptation—it will need to address several complex, intertwined challenges- local as well as global.

Introduction

Climate Change is a periodic modification of Earth’s climate brought about due to the changes in the atmosphere as well as the interactions between the atmosphere and various other geological, chemical, biological and geographical factors within the Earth’s system.

Indisputably, the climate of the planet is undergoing changes. The tragedy is that while the vulnerable sections experience the tragic consequences of climate change, the politically and economically powerful ostriches still pretend that everything is fine.

Body

Impacts of Climate Change upon India:

  • One of the major areas that will be extremely vulnerable to climate change in the future is South Asia.
  • India especially will be vulnerable to climate change due to its diverse terrain, rapid use of natural resources due to the current trend of precipitous urbanisation, industrialisation and economic growth.
  • Currently, India, in its effort to protect its fast-diminishing natural resources, is facing environmental and socio-economic challenges.
  • Water and air quality are worsening each day due to environmental pollution.
  • Those that are especially susceptible to climate change are the country’s coastal ecosystems, biodiversity and agricultural productivity.
  • The natural disasters’ increasing frequency and intensity are causing negative effects to the already struggling Indian economy.
  • The adverse effects of such disasters range from poverty, vulnerability to diseases, loss of income and livelihoods.
  • According to the World Bank, an increase of 2°C in the world’s average temperature in the next few decades will only make India’s monsoon more unpredictable.
  • The changing rain patterns in India are predicted to leave many areas flooded and others without water scarcity.
  • More than 60% of India’s agriculture is dependent on rain and the majority of the population are dependent on the agriculture sector for survival. This makes India more vulnerable to climate change.
  • It is estimated that by the 2050s, with a temperature increase of 2-2.5°C, water in the river basins of Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra will be reduced. This may threaten the food security of about 63 million people.
  • The poverty reduction rate will also be slowed down due to the rise in the atmospheric temperature.
  • Poor will be more vulnerable to climate change since many of them are dependent on the rain-dependent agriculture.
  • An increase of 2°C by the 2040s is going to affect crop production and will reduce the crop output by 12%, requiring more imports to meet the domestic demands.
  • Furthermore, the decreasing availability of food can give rise to considerable health issues especially among women and children.
  • The melting glaciers and loss of snow can pose a risk to reliable water resources in India.
  • Main rivers like Ganges, Indus, and Brahmaputra mostly depend on snow and glacial melt water. This makes them vulnerable to global warming.
  • Climate change can further increase the risk of flooding of low areas and threatens agriculture.

Measures taken by the Indian government to combat climate change

  • Nationally Determined Contribution: India is currently setting up voluntary targets in the international forums to commit itself to the mission to combat climate change. It is also playing a major role in climate change mitigation.
  • National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC):The Action plan covers eight major missions on Solar, Enhanced Energy Efficiency, Sustainable Habitat, Water, Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem, Green India, Sustainable Agriculture and Strategic Knowledge on Climate Change.
  • International Solar Alliance (ISA):ISA was jointly launched by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi, and the then President of France, Francois Hollande in Paris on the side-lines of CoP 21 in 2015. The vision and mission of the alliance is to provide a dedicated platform for cooperation among solar resource rich countries that lie completely or partial between the Tropics of Capricorn & Cancer.
  • State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC):State governments have drafted climate strategies aligned with the eight National Missions under the NAPCC. The strategies focus on issues ranging from climate mitigation, energy efficiency, and resource conservation to climate adaptation.
  • FAME Scheme for E-mobility:Union Government in April 2015 launched Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric vehicles (FAME) – India Scheme with an aim to boost sales of eco-friendly vehicles in the country. It is a part of the National Mission for Electric Mobility.
  • Atal Mission for Rejuvenation & Urban Transformation (AMRUT) for Smart Cities.
  • Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana:The scheme provides LPG connections to five crore below-poverty-line beneficiaries. The connections are given in the name of women beneficiaries to reduce their dependence on fossil fuels and conventional fuel like cow dung for cooking food, thus reducing air pollution.
  • UJALA scheme:The scheme was launched by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi in January 2015 with a target of replacing 77 crore incandescent lamps with LED bulbs. The usage of LED bulbs will not only result in reducing electricity bills but also help in environment protection.

 

Limitations of Government initiatives

  • From the recent cases of natural disasters like the Chennai Floods, 2015, 2016 drought, 2019 Kerala floods, etc., it is evident that there are no adequate arrangements made to mitigate them.
  • For instance, in the case of Uttarakhand or the Chennai rains, the arrangements weren’t adequate to allow the flow of rainwater due to the illegal constructions.
  • From the 2016 drought, there were increased deaths, most of them were economically poor and the underprivileged.
  • The government failed to ensure long-term mitigation and the big corporate houses that contribute to large-scale pollution of air and water escape with a mere “corporate social liability” clauses. These are some of the major causes of the devastating impact of these natural disasters.
  • India does not have stringent laws to ensure protection against climate change.
  • The authorities will not be prosecuted for their negligence of duty and the cases that manage to reach the Supreme Court through the public interest litigation were only able to bring about small changes in averting the future crisis.
  • Each year, India is facing the negative impact of climate change and the government is taking measures to address it. Yet the measures taken will not be enough to solve the issue due to poor implementation and lack of accountability.

Conclusion

A democracy truly matures when superficial posturing that conceals the real issues and self-styled celebrations of hypnotising myths fail to impress. Climate change is happening. This should be accepted and not politicised. International cooperation to address climate change is vital to mitigate the adverse impact. Additionally, mitigation must be complemented with climate change-related adaption since mitigation alone cannot address the adverse effects we are facing right now.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire” – William Butler Yates

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote and highlighting importance of education.

Body:

Write about how education is not just about filling the pail – that is – imparting academic or vocational knowledge but rather developing a inquisitive mind and all round development.. Cite examples to substantiate your points.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

The purpose of education is not to add anything from outside or to dispense degrees that enable a student to earn a living. Besides these external outcomes, the purpose of education is to instil the spirits of humanity and virtues to young mind so that they can grow up to become not just responsible citizen of the world but also leading lights that illuminates the humanity around them.

Education should not be restricted just to dispense the curriculum in a mechanical fashion but must ignite minds.

Body

Education – Filling the Pail?

  • Modern education is considered very effective if it succeeds in providing the students a degree which fetches them a good job. It has become very much materialistic.
  • Learning is imparted like in industry on an automated assembly line. The whole idea is to produce students who are armed with a degree and get the best highest paying jobs among other similar institutions.
  • The success of several institutions is judged by their placement records. However, the flip side of such system of pedagogy is like pouring water into a pail, filling student’s brain with information, not knowledge. It is like putting in contents into a memory card. This ultimately leads to students losing interest in their studies and making efforts only to gain good marks in the examinations.
  • Often the over-emphasis on the grading system leads to erosion of values among the students. The relative grading system makes students fierce competitors among themselves instead of becoming willing associates cooperating with each other to gain knowledge.
  • At the extremes, it leads to burn-outs in students and some in the premier institutes even commit suicides not being able to cope up with a system devoid of spirits of human values.

Education – lighting a Fire.

  • Traditional methods of learning have its roots in the earliest endeavours of gaining knowledge and skills for the benefit of the society as a whole. The same philosophy worked in the ancient Indian Gurukul system.
  • Here a student spends considerable part of his life and not just learning but experiencing and contributing to the society around himself. It imparted the beliefs and values that would help in maintaining the system we live in while taking it forward.
  • The education system represented by the teachers must be able to light a fire in the student that should continue lifelong. The love for learning is not just an academic process but a way of life.
  • While filling the bucket is a quantitative aspect, lighting a fire is qualitative in nature. The former has a limit and finite end, the latter has no limits or boundaries just like knowledge.
  • Therefore, an education which lights a fire is much more profound and powerful.

System of Education at the Crossroads

  • The millennial generation and those coming later will be facing the dilemma. With the introduction of vocational studies at every level and the old preference for technological education, there has been no doubt, a giant leap in the field of education as it is practiced today.
  • However, the danger is that, in this process many other thoughts of education such as liberal and alternative education may bear the brunt. The same applies to the study of humanities and certain subjects like the languages and Philosophy may not have any takers.
  • The purpose of education is also to give voice to emotional aspects of life and development of a sensitive personality. The requirement is an all-round development of an individual. Not just mental but also development and growth of spiritual thoughts as well.
  • These developments if not taken up along with the rational development will make for a generation of humanoids who are devoid of any emotional feelings.
  • In fact, many apprehend that this is exactly what is happening as insensitiveness in the world is increasing while the world itself is becoming a global village.

Conclusion

A world without compassion, gratitude and selfless caring of others, will never serve the purpose of any education.


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