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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 25 October 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

1. The balancing act of solar and terrestrial energy flows defines the energy balance of the planet. Earth’s heat balance is an extremely important factor in making the Earth liveable. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain the concept of heat balance and its importance.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define the concept of heat budget in brief.

Body:

First write about that the sun is continuously radiating energy, the earth as a whole does not accumulate or lose heat. It maintains its temperature. This is popularly known as heat budget or heat balance of the earth. This can happen only if the amount of heat received in the form of insulation is equal to the amount lost by the earth in the form of terrestrial radiation.

Next, briefly explain the different ways of heating and cooling of the atmosphere.

Next, mention the how the heat balancing makes the life possible on earth.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising the importance of heat balancing.

Introduction

Temperature differs from one part of the world to the other. Since Insolation is the basic source of energy for the atmosphere, the distribution of insolation would determine the temperature of the earth. Thus latitude, altitude, distance from sea, features of the surface, nature of the landscape are some important factors that affect the distribution of temperature.

Body

The earth as a whole does not accumulate or lose heat. It maintains its temperature. This can happen only if the amount of heat received in the form of insolation equals the amount lost by the earth through terrestrial radiation. This balance between the insolation and the terrestrial radiation is termed as the heat budget or heat balance of the earth.

 

Various Factors that cause temperature distribution:

  • The latitude of the place
  • The altitude of the place
  • Distance from the sea
  • The air- mass circulation
  • The presence of warm and cold ocean currents
  • Local aspects such as Soil devoid of vegetation.

Importance of Heat Budget of the Earth

  • Earth’s heat balanceis and extremely important factor in what makes the Earth habitable.
  • The fact that the Earth can respond to slight changes in the amount of incoming radiation to maintain a fairly stable temperature is a result of Earth’s energy budget.
  • This phenomenon is also closely connected to flows on the Earth, and the Solar energy to the Earth.
  • Essentially all of the energy the Earth receives is in radiant energy that originates from the Sun.
  • The temperature of the Earth is a balancing act, with greenhouse gases in the atmosphere contributing to a planet that is inhabitable.
  • Changing factors such as these result in a very small, but significant energy imbalance on the Earth.
  • This energy imbalance continues to grow as a result of human activities, and the energy imbalance amounts to approximately

Conclusion

Thus, the temperature distribution determines the climate of a particular area. Global warming and climate change effects are altering the temperature distribution, thus affecting the climate across the globe.

 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

2. The earth’s atmosphere is a multi-layered cake, each layer having its own specific traits and functions. Elaborate. (250 words).

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To how the regions of the atmosphere are divided on the basis of temperature, the explanation of each layer along with the reasons how they are significant for us.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Write about the temperature classification and atmosphere can be divided into troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere and the thermosphere.

Body:

Draw a neat labelled diagram of the layers of atmosphere which will help you save up on words as well as provide an opportunity to mention in more facts and details.

Explain the above layers and how they are significant for us. For instance, flights fly in tropopause to evade turbulence, the significance of ionosphere for radio communication etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising the importance of atmosphere.

Introduction

The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surrounds the planet. On Earth, the atmosphere helps make life possible. Besides providing us with something to breathe, it shields us from most of the harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation coming from the Sun, warms the surface of our planet by about 33° C (59° F) via the greenhouse effect, and largely prevents extreme differences between daytime and nighttime temperatures.

Body

Earth’s atmosphere has a series of layers, each with its own specific traits. Moving upward from ground level, these layers are named the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere. The exosphere gradually fades away into the realm of interplanetary space.

Layers of atmosphere

  • Troposphere
    • This is the lowest part of the atmosphere that is the part we live in. It contains most of the weather – clouds, rain, snow. In this part of the atmosphere the temperature gets colder as the distance above the earth increases, by about 6.5°C per kilometre. The actual change of temperature with height varies from day to day, depending on the weather.
    • The troposphere contains about 75% of all of the air in the atmosphere, and almost all of the water vapour (which forms clouds and rain). The decrease in temperature with height is a result of the decreasing pressure
    • The lowest part of the troposphere is called the boundary layer.  This is where the air motion is determined by the properties of the Earth’s surface.
    • The top of the troposphere is called the tropopause. This is lowest at the poles, where it is about 7 – 10 km above the Earth’s surface. It is highest (about 17 – 18 km) near the equator.

 

  • Stratosphere
    • This extends upwards from the tropopause to about 50 km. It contains much of the ozone in the atmosphere. The increase in temperature with height occurs because of absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun by this ozone. Temperatures in the stratosphere are highest over the summer pole, and lowest over the winter pole.
    • By absorbing dangerous UV radiation, the ozone in the stratosphere protects us from skin cancer and other health damage.
  • Mesosphere
    • The region above the stratosphere is called the mesosphere. Here the temperature again decreases with height, reaching a minimum of about -90°C at the “mesopause”
  • Thermosphere and Ionosphere
    • The thermosphere lies above the mesopause, and is a region in which temperatures again increase with height. This temperature increase is caused by the absorption of energetic ultraviolet and X-Ray radiation from the sun.
    • The region of the atmosphere above about 80 km is also caused the “ionosphere”, since the energetic solar radiation knocks electrons off molecules and atoms, turning them into “ions” with a positive charge. The temperature of the thermosphere varies between night and day and between the seasons, as do the numbers of ions and electrons which are present
  • Exosphere
    • The region above about 500 km is called the exosphere. It contains mainly oxygen and hydrogen atoms, but there are so few of them that they rarely collide – they follow “ballistic” trajectories under the influence of gravity, and some of them escape right out into space.
  • Magnetosphere
    • The earth behaves like a huge magnet. It traps electrons (negative charge) and protons (positive), concentrating them in two bands about 3,000 and 16,000 km above the globe – the Van Allen “radiation” belts.
    • This outer region surrounding the earth, where charged particles spiral along the magnetic field lines, is called the magnetosphere.

Conclusion

It is the unique attribute of the Earth’s atmosphere that allows it to be a habitable place for humans, animals, microbes and plants. The human impact on the Earth’s atmosphere and climate remains a major issue in ecological politics today, and presents a problem that could threaten the planet for years.

 

Topic: Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

3. It is said that one form of communalism fattens another form of communalism. Comment in the light of recent events in Bangladesh and its repercussions and reactions in India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

The post Durga Puja violence against Hindus in Bangladesh has found disturbing resonance in neighbouring Tripura.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how communalism escalates by sharp reactions and ingrained bigotry.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define communalism.

Body:

First, write about the reasons contributing to Communalism; Vested political interests, Rise of communal organisations, Politicization of local problems, Religious fundamentalism etc. Mention how there is a interplay among the factors which leads to escalation of communal clashes. Substantiate with examples.

Discuss the impact of communalism on Indian society; impact on social fabric, economy, polity etc.

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward for eradicating communalism.

Introduction

Communalism is characterised by a strong allegiance to one’s own ethnic group rather than to society as a whole. the basis of allegiance may be varied such as language, ethnicity, region, religion etc. In India, communalism as a social phenomenon is characterized by the religion of two communities, often leading to acrimony, tension and even rioting between them. Communalism essentially leads to violence as it is based on mutual religious hatred.

Body

Background

  • The post Durga Puja violence against Hindus in Bangladesh has found disturbing resonance in neighbouring Tripura.
  • It is a cause for concern that after nearly two decades of relative peace, the Northeast has started to simmer again.
  • Old fault lines — of land, language, ethnicity, faith — have once again started to shape political mobilisations in the region.

Ramification of Communalism

  • Genocides: With mass killings, the real sufferers are the poor, who lose their house, their near and dear ones, their lives, their livelihood, etc. It violates the human rights from all direction. Sometimes children lose their parents and will become orphan for a lifetime.
  • Affects the Social fabric: It causes hatred among different religious sections in the society and disrupts the peaceful social fabric of our society.
  • Ghettoization and refugee problem are other dimensions of communalism induced violence, whether it’s inter country or intra country.
  • Communal Violence: Sudden increase in violence against any particular community causes mass exodus and stampede which in turn kills many number of people. For example, this was seen in the case of Bangalore in 2012, with respect to people from North eastern states, which was stimulated by a rumour.
  • Apart from having effect on the society, it is also a threat to Indian constitutional values, which promotes secularism and religious tolerance. In that case, citizens don’t fulfil their fundamental duties towards the nation.
  • It becomes a threat for the unity and integrity of the nation as a whole. It promotes only the feeling of hatred in all directions, dividing the society on communal lines.
  • Minorities are viewed with suspicion by all, including state authorities like police, para-military forces, army, intelligence agencies, etc. There have been many instances when people from such community have been harassed and detained and finally have been released by court orders guilt free. For this, there is no provision for compensation of such victims, about their livelihood incomes forgone, against social stigmas and emotional trauma of the families.
  • Economic fallout: Economic growth can take place only in environment of peace and tranquillity, communalism creates an atmosphere of intolerance and violence which would impede the flow of goods and capital.
  • The flow of labour from productive activities is diverted to unproductive activities; there is massive destruction of public properties to spread the ideology.
  • The investment attitude towards the country from foreign investor would be cautiousness; they tend to avoid the countries with highly communal country, for not take the risk of end up losing their investment.
  • Barrier for development: Communal activities occurring frequently do harm the human resource and economy of the country. And then again it takes years for the people and the affected regions to come out the traumas of such violence, having deep impact on minds of those who have faced it. They feel emotionally broken and insecure.
  • Terrorism and Secessionism: As seen during the Khalistan movement in Punjab.

Steps to check the growth of Communalism:

  • Economic:
    • Poverty is one of the major factors for communal violence. Poverty alleviation measures are thus important for promoting communal harmony.
    • Eradicating the problem of unemployment among the youths, illiteracy and poverty and that too with honesty and without any discrimination.
    • Reducing educational and economic backwardness of minorities like Muslims.
    • This can uplift their socio economic status and reduce their deprivation compared to Hindus
  • Social:
    • The religious leaders and preachers should promote rational and practical things through religion promoting peace and security.
    • Children in schools must be taught through textbooks and pamphlets to maintain brotherhood and respect for all religions
    • Creating awareness in the society about the ill effects of communism through mass media
  • Political:
    • Political communism should be avoided recent Supreme court’s directives
    • Identification and mapping of riot prone areas. For Example, Delhi police used drones to monitor to maintain vigil during communal festivals
    • Media, movies and other cultural platforms can be influential in promoting peace and harmony.
    • Social Media should be monitored for violent and repulsive content and taken off immediately.
  • Recommendations of Committee on National Integration
    • Joint celebration of community festivals
    • Observing restraint by Hindus while taking processions before the mosques
    • Formation of peace and brotherhood communities at local level to prevent anti-social elements from engaging in communal riots
    • Respect for religious customs, rituals and practices

Conclusion

Communalism cannot be accepted as the necessary evil in the society. It is detrimental to the development, social change, democracy and the federal feature of the State. Jawaharlal Nehru had pointed out the issue and termed it as the greatest danger. And so he said that anyone who loves India would hate communalism and anyone who hates India would love communalism.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

4. India’s carefully calibrated strategy in the Central Asian region is guided by mutual reciprocal interests both in economic and strategic terms. However, the recent events have brought up new challenges to India interests. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The dramatic developments in Afghanistan have catalysed new geostrategic and geoeconomic concerns for the region. The evolving situation has also thrown up renewed challenges for India’s regional and bilateral ties with Central Asia and the Caucasus, prompting India to recalibrate its rules of engagement with the region.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about economic and strategic importance of central asia to India and also how the recent changes in Afghanistan will affect it.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of historical context of India’s relations with central Asia.

Body:

In the first part, mention the economic considerations of India in that region – India for priority development projects in energy, healthcare, connectivity, IT, agriculture, education, etc.

Next, write about long-term security threats emanating out of the region especially in regard to the recent changes witnessed in Afghanistan.

Also, mention India’s ‘Connect Central Asia Policy’, role of INSTC and Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) in the above-mentioned aspects.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to better manage ties.

Introduction

India’s relation with Central Asia has a long history. The two regions have shared deep cultural linkages with each other over two millennia in terms of people to people contact, trade, and commerce. The close trade and cultural linkages between the Indian subcontinent and Central Asia, whose beginnings can be traced to the Indus valley civilization, tapered after India’s partition in 1947 as New Delhi found itself without a direct land corridor to the region.

The recent dramatic developments in Afghanistan have thrown up renewed challenges for India’s regional and bilateral ties with Central Asia.

Body

India’s engagement in the CAR

  • India reset its ties with independent republics in Central Asia, a strategically critical region, post break-up of Soviet Region.
  • India provided financial aid to the region and established diplomatic relations.
  • The Strategic Partnership Agreements (SPA)was signed with Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan to stimulate defence cooperation and deepen trade relations.
  • New Delhi’s‘Connect Central Asia’ policy of 2012, aimed at furthering India’s political, economic, historical and cultural connections with the region.
  • India signed MoUs with Iran in 2015 to develop the Chabahar port in the Sistan-Baluchistan province that was in the doldrums from 2003.

Recent developments in India-CAR relations

  • The External Affairs Minister attended the 6th Foreign Ministers’ Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) in Nur Sultan.
  • India extended a credit line of $200 millionfor the support of development projects and signed an memorandum of understanding (MoU) on High-Impact Community Development Projects (HICDP).
  • Incumbent EAM become the first Indian External Affairs Minister to visit
  • India supported efforts for a peaceful solution of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia under the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe’s (OSCE) Minsk group.

Challenges faced by India in the relations with CAR

  • India’s efforts were stonewalled by Pakistan’s lack of willingness to allow India passage through its territory.
  • The growing geostrategic and security concerns regarding the BRI’s China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and the violation of India’s sovereignty is another challenge.
  • The Taliban re-establishing its supremacy over Afghanistan has also exposed the weaknesses of coalitions such as SCO.
  • The SCO has been used by most member countries for their own regional geostrategic and security interests, increasing the trust-deficit and divergence within the forum.

Way forward

  • Most of the Central Asian leaders view India’s Chabahar portas an opportunity to diversify their export markets and control China’s ambitions.
  • They have admitted New Delhi into theAshgabat Agreement, allowing India access to connectivity networks to facilitate trade and commercial interactions with both Central Asia and Eurasia, and also access the natural resources of the region.
  • Rising anti-Chinese sentimentswithin the region and security threats from the Taliban allow New Delhi and Central Asia to reimagine their engagement.
  • Central Asian countries have been keen to have India as a partner as they have sought to diversify their strategic ties.
  • India needs clear recalibration of its regional engagement with Central Asian countries.

Value addition

Significance of Central Asian countries to India

  • The Central Asian region (CAR) is considered to be the part of India’s “extended neighborhood.”
  • CAR has become the site of great power tussles over energy resources in the recent past.
  • The geostrategic position of CAR as an access point between Europe and Asia is of greater significance in terms of trade.
  • China’s deep inroads in the Central Asian republics in terms of investment is also a concern.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

5. Examine as to why missile defense remains vital for India’s effort to maintain its strategic stability. How can India take advantage of ongoing ‘missile race’ between China and U.S?  (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

US officials expressing shock at this development and comparing China’s hypersonic missile tests to a “Sputnik moment”, a Cold War reference.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about rationale behind India’s missile defense programmed and how India can benefits from the ongoing missile friction from U.S-China.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start the answer by writing the core components of India’s missile development programme.

Body:

First, write about the various reasons which prompt India to have such an elaborate missile in their Arsenal – Threats in India’s neighbourhood, proliferation of Missiles in India’s neighbourhood, and the policies being followed by India’s adversaries, chances unauthorized or accidental launch etc.

Next, write about the escalating missile crisis between U.S-China. Write how India to could take advantage out of it and steps that are needed in this regard. Add, how India’s membership of Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) will help in this regard.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward

Introduction

The Indian ballistic missile defence program aims to develop multi layered ballistic missile defence system for protecting the Indian Territory from ballistic missile attacks. The advancements in Technology has allowed various countries to develop anti-ballistic missiles for destroying the incoming ballistic missiles before they hit the ground.

Body

Importance of Ballistic Missile Defence System of India

  • India has faced the threat of ballistic missile attacks since the early 90s from China and Pakistan. The increase in tensions with Pakistan after the deployment of M-11 missiles by Pakistan forced India to think about development anti-ballistic missile defence system.
  • After the nuclear test of India conducted in May 1998, Pakistan also tested nuclear weapons due to which the threat of nuclear weapons and missile delivery systems intensified. The Kargil War of 1999 between India and Pakistan further increased this tension.
  • India began the development of anti-ballistic missile system in late 1999 in light of Pakistan eschewing of a nuclear no first use policy. The development of ballistic missile defence system accelerated after USA vetoed India’s attempt to acquire Israeli Arrow-2 interceptor missile in 2002.
  • The ballistic missile defence system consist of two land and sea based interceptor missiles, viz. The Prithvi Air Defence for high altitude interception and the Advanced Air Defence for lower altitude interception.
  • India tested the Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) missile in November 2006, and the Advanced Air Defence (AAD) in December 2007. After the test of PAD missile, India became the fourth country to develop an anti-ballistic missile system after USA, Russia and Israel.
  • The ballistic missile defence program consists of two phases. The first phase enables the intersection of missiles up to 2000 km, and the second phase will be able to intercept missiles up to 5000 km range.
  • India is developing two new anti-ballistic missiles that can intercept the intermediate range ballistic missiles. The Missile will be similar to the Terminal High Altitude Area Defence missile of USA.
  • Hypersonic technology has been developed and tested by both DRDO and ISRO. Recently, DRDO has successfully flight-tested the Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle (HSTDV), with a capability to travel at 6 times the speed of sound.
  • Hypersonic Wind Tunnel(HWT) test facility of the DRDO was inaugurated in Hyderabad. It is a pressure vacuum-driven, enclosed free jet facility that simulates Mach 5 to 12.

Current Status

  • Reports have expressed shock at Beijing’s missile development.
  • It is compared to China’s hypersonic missile tests to a “Sputnik moment”, a Cold War reference recalling how the Soviet Union surprised the world in 1957 by being the first to put an artificial satellite in orbit.
  • Indeed, Washington’s unwarranted public consternation on the count of China’s hypersonic missile tests may well be part of its defence establishment’s political-bargaining process.

The current trajectory of US-China relations opens three important opportunities.

  • New Delhi should seize an emerging interest in arms control to reframe the issue from non-proliferation to non-use of nuclear weapons.
  • India is ideally placed to champion a Global No First Use (GNFU) treaty as the first step. Beijing, like India, has a no-first-use policy, and a post-Trump Washington is likely to be more receptive to the idea.
  • A window of opportunity is opening up and Indian diplomacy is well capable of seizing it.
  • Even as China, Russia and the US develop hypersonic missiles and their counter-defences, Space Situational Awareness (SSA) becomes extremely important.
  • With the recent liberalization of India’s space industry, Indian companies can aim to acquire a competitive advantage in the tracking of space objects, both from the ground as well as from space.
  • Not only is an independent SSA crucial for space defence, but it has the potential to become strategic technology that other countries will require.
  • New Delhi can take advantage of space reforms by focusing public investment in the physics, materials and engineering of anti-satellite and hypersonic systems.
  • The point is not so much to emulate the path chosen by China or the US, but to acquire enough of a knowledge base in key technology areas that keep options available.

Conclusion

As an advocate of minimum credible deterrence, as long as China remains vulnerable to India’s nuclear weapons, the size and sophistication of Beijing’s arsenal need not concern us too much. The bigger China’s arsenal, the bigger the problem for Beijing. New Delhi has wisely achieved strategic deterrence without getting into an arms race. We should stay the course.

 

Topic: Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

6. Critically analyse the role of Financial Action Task Force (FATF) in implementing anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing (AML/CFT) measures to stop criminals and terrorists from abusing the financial system. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The global terror financing watchdog, Financial Action Task Force (FATF), has added Turkey, along with Jordan and Mali, in its revised list of “jurisdictions under increased monitoring”.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the performance of FATF in implementing anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing (AML/CFT) measures

Directive word: 

Critically analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about the aims and objectives of FATF.

Body:

First, write about the various ways FATF tackles money laundering and terror financing – blacklist and grey list, measures like – Economic sanctions from IMF, World Bank and ADB etc, Reduction in international trade and international boycott etc.

Next, write about the successes and limitations of the above methodology of FATF. Write further steps to taken in this regard especially in the light of recent events.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is an inter-governmental body established in 1989 on the initiative of the G7 countries to develop policies to combat money laundering. In 2001, its mandate expanded to include terrorism financing. It monitors progress in implementing the FATF Recommendations through “peer reviews” (“mutual evaluations”) of member countries. The FATF Secretariat is housed at the OECD headquarters in Paris.

Owing to Pakistan’s failure in fully implementing all the action points, it was once again retained on the ‘grey list’ following the conclusion of the latest FATF plenary on October 2021.

Body

Role of the FATF:

  • The FATF has developed a series of Recommendations that are recognised as the international standard for combating of money laundering and the financing of terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
  • They form the basis for a co-ordinated response to these threats to the integrity of the financial system and help ensure a level playing field.
  • First issued in 1990, the FATF Recommendations were revised in 1996, 2001, 2003 and most recently in 2012 to ensure that they remain up to date and relevant, and they are intended to be of universal application.
  • The 2003 Forty Recommendations require states, among other things, to:
    • Implement relevant international conventions
    • Criminalise money laundering and enable authorities to confiscate the proceeds of money laundering
    • Implement customer due diligence (e.g., identity verification), record keeping and suspicious transaction reporting requirements for financial institutions and designated non-financial businesses and professions
    • Establish a financial intelligence unit to receive and disseminate suspicious transaction reports, and
    • Cooperate internationally in investigating and prosecuting money laundering
  • The FATF monitors the progress of its members in implementing necessary measures, reviews money laundering and terrorist financing techniques and counter-measures, and promotes the adoption and implementation of appropriate measures globally.
  • In collaboration with other international stakeholders, the FATF works to identify national-level vulnerabilities with the aim of protecting the international financial system from misuse.
  • The FATF’s decision making body, the FATF Plenary, meets three times per year.

Challenges faced by FATF:

  • First, the task of establishing a world-wide anti-money laundering network. This strategy is designed to expand and strengthen the regional bodies of the FATF.
  • The second major challenge confronting the FATF is how best to manage its agenda in order to ensure that its countermeasures remain up-to-date, comprehensive and effective. International co-operation between financial regulators and law enforcement has been identified as cardinal to this goal
  • Despite Pakistan’s failure to fulfil its task list, the FATF President has made it clear that they are not considering placing Pakistan on the ‘black list’, as they say it “continues to cooperate”.
  • In light of the developments in Afghanistan, and concerns over the growth of transnational terror groups such as al-Qaeda and ISIL, as well as JeM and LeT taking advantage of the Taliban takeover to build new safe havens and financing networks, there are higher chances of money laundering and its related effects.

Way forward

  • FATF must ensure that the investigation of Pakistan is not an open-ended process, and is brought to a credible and effective conclusion at the earliest.
  • FATF must keep its commitment from 2001, when it added terror financing to its mandate, to prevent all terror groups from accessing these funding networks.

Conclusion

The FATF is therefore a “policy-making body” which works to generate the necessary political will to bring about national legislative and regulatory reforms in these areas. As of now there are only two countries in the blacklist — Iran and North Korea — and seven on the grey list, including Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Syria and Yemen.

Value addition

Objectives of the FATF:

  • To set standards and promote effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures for combating money laundering, terrorist financing.
  • To tackle other related threats to the integrity of the international financial system.
  • Act against illegal money.
  • Identify cash couriers.
  • Financial sanctions against designated terrorists.
  • Deprive designated persons of their resources.

FATF and India:

  • Recent proposal that Pakistan put back in the greylist could affect Pakistan’s credit rating. This will adversely impact its ability to raise loans from major international financial institutions to service existing debt.
  • This will become even more difficult as compared with the previous listing, given the adversarial relationship with the US and the latter’s influence in major financial institutions. Pakistan will not have adequate resources to fund terrorism
  • The decisions of the United Nations Financial Action Task Force (FATF)are about using the threat of economic punishment to move Pakistan away from funding terrorists operating against Afghanistan and India
  • Being on the grey list would mean that Pakistan’s transactions are closely monitored. This would further cripple the country’s economy as companies across the world would hesitate from doing business with Pakistan.
  • The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank too would avoid giving loans to Pakistan.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance;

7. Moral philosophies create a clear vision of the moral standpoints which leads us in an ethical direction. Elaborate. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Philosophical Mondays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how Moral philosophies guide our moral compass to describe conscience, our inner sense of right and wrong offers a framework to guide our actions.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by describing what you understand by moral compass (conscience) which governs the actions you take in day-to-day life.

Body:

Elaborate on how the moral philosophies aids in deciding what right from is wrong. Use examples to substantiate your points. Example, Rights Theory that obligates us to respect the rights of others and live up to our obligations towards them.

Another Example is to utilitarian perspective to do maximum good for maximum people.

Conclusion:

Complete the answer by bring out how the moral compass prevents us acting purely from self-interest and helps us live a life of integrity.

Introduction

Ethical thinking is vital part of human history. It can be religious or theoretical or geared toward practical application. Moral philosophy is concerned with what is morally good and bad and morally right and wrong.

Body

Moral compass is the person’s ability to judge what is right and wrong and act accordingly. Some people also define it as a set of values that guides our decision-making, affects our actions, and defines us as a person.

In essence, a moral compass is just as its name suggests. It points us in the right direction. Even if all of us have different definitions of right and wrong, our moral compass provides an objective standard. It doesn’t just help us see what is right and wrong. It also helps us see what must be done for the greater good even if it may not be beneficial for us.

Without our moral compass to guide us, it’s so easy to just do whatever is convenient for us – never mind if it’s right or wrong. It becomes so easy to stretch the truth whenever it benefits us or do things without thinking of the consequences – both for us and for others. We become selfish, greedy monsters who only care about our own needs and wants.

For Example:

Utilitarianism– ethical doctrine pioneered by Jeremy Bentham and J.S. Mill.

  • It is defined as the doctrine of ethics which advocates that actions are right if they are useful for the benefit of the majority and that an action is right so far as it promotes happiness.
  • Utilitarian ideas are fundamental to modern ethical theory and remain firmly ensconced in contemporary intellectual life.

Seven Social Sins of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

  • Politics without Principles:Gandhi said when politicians give up the pursuit of Truth, they, or in the case of parties, would be doomed.
  • Wealth without Work:Gandhiji’s idea originates from the ancient Indian practice of Tenant Farmers (Zamindari).
  • Pleasure without Conscience:This is connected to wealth without work. People find imaginative and dangerous ways of bringing excitement to their otherwise dull lives.
  • Knowledge without Character:Our obsession with materialism tends to make us more concerned about acquiring knowledge so that we can get a better job and make more money.
  • Commerce without Morality:As in wealth without work we indulge in commerce without morality to make more money by any means possible.
  • Science without Humanity:This is science used to discover increasingly more gruesome weapons of destruction that threaten to eventually wipe out humanity.
  • Worship Without Sacrifice:True religion is based on spirituality, love, compassion, understanding, and appreciation of each other whatever our beliefs may be — Christians, Jews, Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists, Atheists, Agnostics etc. Gandhi believed whatever labels we put on our faith, ultimately all of us worship Truth because Truth is God.

John Rawlstheory of social justice

  • Attempts to solve the problem of distributive justice. Rawls derives two principles of Justice: the liberty principle and the difference principle. Rawls explains that each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others. Etc.

Conclusion

While the change in civilisations and evolution of societies experienced disruption in the social harmony in different time periods, they also contributed to the strengthening of social harmony. While the moral compass of society has evolved with the changing societies, in essence, it has attempted to enhance the well-being of all.


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