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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 October 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

1. Fluvial processes sculpt the landscape, eroding landforms, transporting sediment, and depositing it to create new landforms. Human civilization and ecosystems alike are dependent on fluvial systems. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the erosional and depositional landforms created by the rivers and their economic and ecological importance.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a brief about fluvial landforms as important geomorphic agent.

Body:

Explain both erosional and depositional landforms caused by the water action. Use suitable diagrams and explain various landforms.

Give a perspective of how riverine landforms have sustained civilisations, economic benefits, ecosystem services which we derive out of riverine landforms.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance such landforms in the present day.

Introduction

Fluvial  landforms  are  those  landforms  which  are shaped  and  modified  by  the running water. Running water has sculpted most of the land surface across the world in comparison  to  other  agents  of  erosion  like  wind  or  Glacier.  Streams  are  in  a  constant process of shaping the land surface into newer forms.

Body

Fluvial Erosional Landforms are landforms created by the erosional activity of rivers.

  • River Valley
    • The extended depression on the ground through which a stream flows is called a river valley.
    • At different stages of the erosional cycle, the valley acquires different profiles.
    • At a young stage, the valley is deep, narrow with steep wall-like sides and a convex slope. The erosional action here is characterized by predominantly vertical downcutting. The profile of valley here is typically ‘V’ shaped.
    • A deep and narrow ‘V’ shaped valley is also referred to as gorge and may result due to downcutting erosion or because of the recession of a waterfall (the position of the waterfall receding due to erosive action).
    • As the cycle attains maturity, the lateral erosion (erosion of the walls of a stream) becomes prominent and the valley floor flattens out (attains a ‘V’ to ‘U’ shape).
    • The valley profile now becomes typically ‘U’ shapedwith a broad base and a concave slope.

  • Waterfalls
    • A waterfall is simply the fall of an enormous volume of water from a great height.
    • They are mostly seen in the youth stageof the river.
    • Relative resistance of rocks, the relative difference in topographic reliefs, fall in the sea level and related rejuvenation, earth movementsare responsible for the formation of waterfalls.
  • Potholes
    • The kettle-like small depressions in the rocky beds of the river valleys are called potholes which are usually cylindrical in shape.
    • Potholes are generally formed in coarse-grained rocks such as sandstones and granites.
  • Terraces
    • The narrow flat surfaces on either side of the valley floor are called river terraces which represent the level of former valley floors and the remnants of former (older) flood plains.
    • Sometimes, the river valleys are frequented by several terraces on either side wherein they are arranged in step-like forms.
    • River terraces are generally formed due to dissection of fluvial sediments of flood plains deposited along a valley floor.
  • Structural Benches
    • The step-like flat surfaces on either side of the present lowest valley floors are called terraces.
    • The benches or terraces formed due to differential erosion of alternate bands of hard and soft rock beds are called structural benches or terraces because of lithological control in the rate of erosion and consequent development of benches.
  • Gullies and rills
    • Gulley is a water-worn channel, which is particularly common in semi-arid areas.
    • It is formed when water from overland-flows down a slope, especially following heavy rainfall, is concentrated into rills, which merge and enlarge into a gulley.
  • Meanders
    • A meander is defined as a pronounced curve or loop in the course of a river channel.
    • The outer bend of the loop in a meander is characterized by intensive erosion and vertical cliffs and is called the cliff-slope side. This side has a concave slope.
    • The inner side of the loop is characterized by deposition, a gentle convex slope, and is called the slip-off side.
    • The meanders developed during first cycle of erosion by a stream are called simple meanders. These are formed by lateral erosion.
    • These meanders may be wavy, horse-shoe type or oxbow type.

  • Oxbow lakes
    • Sometimes, because of intensive erosion action, the outer curve of a meander gets accentuated to such an extent that the inner ends of the loop come close enough to get disconnected from the main channel and exist as independent water bodies called as oxbow lakes.
    • These water bodies are converted into swamps in due course of time.
  • Peneplains
    • Peneplains represent low featureless plain having undulating surface and remnants of convexo-concave residual hills. These are, in fact, the end products of normal cycle of erosion.
    • This refers to an undulating featureless plain punctuated with low-lying residual hills of resistant rocks. It is considered to be an end product of an erosional cycle.

Fluvial depositional landforms: Rivers deposit sediments in different parts of their courses and thus form three major types of landforms which are called constructional landforms such as alluvial fans cones, natural levees and deltas.

  • Alluvial fans and cones
    • Alluvial fans and cones due to accumulation of materials are always formed at the base of foothills where there is abrupt drop (de­crease) in the channel gradient.
    • The transporting ca­pacity of the streams decreases enormously at the foothill zones while they leave the mountains and enter the plain topography because of substantial decrease in their velocity consequent upon decrease in channel gradient.
    • Consequently, load consisting of finer to coarser and big-sized materials coming from upstream is deposited at the point of break in slope or foothill zone and thus alluvial fans are formed.
  • Natural Levees
    • The narrow belt of ridges of low height built by the deposition of sediments by the spill water of the stream on its either bank is called natural levee or natural embankment.
  • Delta
    • The depositional feature of almost triangular shape at the mouth of a river debouching either in lake or a sea is called delta.
    • Whether small or large, almost every river forms delta.

Importance of fluvial systems

  • Rivers provide excellent habitat and food for many of the earth’s organisms.
  • River deltas have many different species of wildlife. Insects, mammals and birds use the delta for their homes and for food.
  • River valleys and plains provide fertile soils. Farmers in dry regions irrigate their cropland using water carried by irrigation ditches from nearby rivers.
  • Rivers provide water for hydroelectric power and shipping, as well as supporting stream-side wetlands (riparian areas) that are critical for clean water and provide rich habitat.
  • Rivers provide travel routes for exploration, commerce and recreation.
  • Fluvial geomorphology has important implications for the exploration of placer deposits, and for water-management studies, flood control and river-basin management in general.

Conclusion

For many human populations around the world, river flows are linked to livelihood, identity, sense of place, religious beliefs and ceremonies, language systems, or educational practices. These embedded, reciprocal, and constitutive relationships between humans and rivers remain poorly understood, but can be critically important to assessment and implementation of environmental flows.

 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

2. Volcanic landforms are controlled by the geological processes that form them and act on them after they have formed. Explain various types of Volcanic landforms. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the various intrusive and extrusive landforms associated with volcanism.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning the profound influence, volcanic activities have on the earth’s landforms.

Body:

First, explain the various intrusive igneous landforms associated with volcanoes. Eg lopoliths, phacoliths, batholiths and laccoliths etc.

Next, explain the various extrusive landforms associated with volcanoes such as lava plains and basalt plateaux.  Draw diagram for better representation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance landforms.

Introduction

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. The process is called Volcanism and has been ongoing on Earth since the initial stages of its evolution over 4 billion years ago.

Body

Volcanic landforms are divided into extrusive and intrusive landforms based on weather magma cools within the crust or above the crust. Rocks formed by either plutonic (cooling of magma within the crust) or volcanic (cooling of lava above the surface) are called ‘Igneous rocks’.

Extrusive Volcanic Landforms: These are formed from material thrown out during volcanic activity. The materials thrown out during volcanic activity includes lava flows, pyroclastic debris, volcanic bombs, ash and dust and gases such as nitrogen compounds, sulphur compounds and minor amounts of chlorine, hydrogen and argon.

  • Conical Vent and Fissure Vent :
    • A conical vent is a narrow cylindrical vent through which magma flows out violently. Conical vents are common in andesitic (composite or strato volcano) volcanism.
    • A fissure vent, also known as a volcanic fissure or eruption fissure, is a narrow, linear volcanic vent through which lava erupts, usually without any explosive activity. The vent is often a few meters wide and may be many kilometres long. Fissure vents are common in basaltic volcanism.
  • Composite Cones or Strato volcanoes:
    • They are conical or central type volcanic landforms.
    • Along with andesitic lava, large quantities of pyroclastic material and ashes find their way to the ground.
    • They are accumulated in the vicinity of the vent openings leading to formation of layers, and this makes the mounts appear as composite volcanoes.
    • The highest and most common volcanoes have composite cones.
    • Example: Vesuvius, Mt. Fuji, Stromboli (Lighthouse of the Mediterranean) etc.
  • Shield Volcanoes or Lava domes:
    • These volcanoes are mostly made up of basalt, a type of lava that is very fluid when erupted. They are not steep.
    • They become explosive if somehow water gets into the vent; otherwise, they are less explosive.
    • Example: Mauna Loa (Hawaii).
  • Lava Plains and Basalt Plateaus:
    • Sometimes, a very thin magma escapes through cracks and fissures in the earth’s surface and flows after intervals for a long time, spreading over a vast area, finally producing a layered, undulating (wave like), flat surface.
    • Example: Deccan traps (peninsular India), Snake Basin, U.S.A, Icelandic Shield, Canadian Shield etc.
  • Cinder cone (Tephra cones):
    • Cinder cones are small volume cones consisting predominantly of tephra that result from strombolian eruptions.
    • They usually consist of basaltic to andesitic material.
  • Calderas:
    • After the eruption of magma has ceased from the cones, the crater frequently turns into a lake at a later time.
    • Water may collect in the crater. This lake is called a ‘caldera’.
    • Example: Lake Toba in Sumatra, Crater Lake in Oregon, USA.
  • Mid-Ocean Ridges
    • These volcanoes occur in the oceanic areas. There is a system of mid-ocean ridges more than 70,000 km long that stretches through all the ocean basins. The central portion of this ridge experiences frequent eruptions.
    • The lava is basaltic in nature.
    • Cools slowly and flows through longer distances.
    • The lava here is responsible for sea floor spreading.
    • Example: Mid-Atlantic ocean ridge; extension is seen in the Iceland.

Intrusive Volcanic Landforms: Intrusive landforms are formed when magma cools within the crust. The intrusive activity of volcanoes gives rise to various forms.

  • Batholiths:
    • These are huge mass of igneous rocks, usually of granite.
    • These rock masses formed due to cooling down and solidification of hot magma inside the earth.
    • They appear on the surface only after the denudation processes remove the overlying materials and may be exposed on surface after erosion.
    • Example: Wicklow mountains of Ireland; the uplands of Brittany, France.
  • Laccoliths:
    • These are large dome-shaped intrusive bodies connected by a pipe-like conduit from below.
    • These are basically intrusive counterparts of an exposed domelike batholith.
    • Example: The laccoliths of Henry mountains in the Utah, USA.

  • Lopolith:
    • As and when the lava moves upwards, a portion of the same may tend to move in a horizontal direction wherever it finds a weak plane.
    • In case it develops into a saucer shape, concave to the sky body, it is called Lopolith.
    • Example: The Bushveld lopolith of Transvaal, South Africa.
  • Phacolith:
    • A wavy mass of intrusive rocks, at times, is found at the base of synclines or at the top of anticline in folded igneous country.
    • Such wavy materials have a definite conduit to source beneath in the form of magma chambers (subsequently developed as batholiths). These are called the Phacoliths.
    • Example: Corndon hill in Shropshire, England.
  • Sills:
    • These are solidified horizontal lava layers inside the earth.
    • The near horizontal bodies of the intrusive igneous rocks are called sill or sheet, depending on the thickness of the material.
    • The thinner ones are called sheets while the thick horizontal deposits are called sills.
    • Example: Great whin sill of NE England
  • Dykes:
    • When the lava makes its way through cracks and the fissures developed in the land, it solidifies almost perpendicular to the ground.
    • It gets cooled in the same position to develop a wall-like structure. Such structures are called dykes.
    • These are the most commonly found intrusive forms in the western Maharashtra area. These are considered the feeders for the eruptions that led to the development of the Deccan traps. Cleveland Dyke of Yorkshire, England.

Conclusion

Volcanic activities have a profound influence on earth’s landforms. Solid, liquid or gaseous materials may find their way to the surface from some deep-seated reservoir beneath.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

3. The recent announcement of spring-cleaning exercise by the government to weed out all unnecessary paper work and compliances to relook into existing bureaucratic processes has been long pending. Comment (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

timely and effective disposal of public grievances, references from MPs and State Governments, inter-ministerial consultations, parliamentary assurances, etc. is an important part of the work of Ministries and Departments

Key Demand of the question:

To mention about the need for timely grievance redressal and minimising compliance burden of citizens in the administrative processes.

Directive word:

Comment- here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning key factors of good governance including grievance redressal and effective and efficient administration.

Body:

First, mention that red tapism is one of the major issue in bureaucracy causing citizen dissatisfaction and sometimes even harassment. Many a times there is an opportunity cost on the citizen facing such administrative delays.

Next, highlight the need for removal of obsolete procedures and undue delays and to assign responsibility on the government officials such as introduction of CPGRAMS, Citizen’s Charter etc to improve the governance paradigm.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that the move is much needed and must be closely monitored to boost citizen satisfaction.

Introduction

Red Tapism refers to excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant and bureaucratic and hinders action or decision-making. In other words, these are burdensome rules, providing no added value. It includes unnecessary paperwork, obtaining licenses, having multiple people or committees approve a decision and various low-level rules that make conducting one’s affairs slower, more difficult.

Body

Consequences of Red Tapism

  • Citizen dissatisfaction: Red tape indeed negatively affects citizen satisfaction. Citizens remain dissatisfied due to delayed government processing and cost associated with it. Most of the time citizen’s problems remain unresolved due to red Tapism, leading to a sense of loss of trust in the government’s process.
  • Scheme implementation: Every new governmental scheme gets roadblocks in terms of red Tapism that eventually kills the larger objective by which it was launched. Delayed release of funds, lack of proper monitoring etc. are common associated issues attached to Red Tapism that make policies ineffective.
  • Corruption: A World Bank study found that the higher the level of red Tapism, the higher the level of corruption. Bureaucracy invariably breeds corruption and lowers growth by complicating the normal flow of businesses. Paying a bribe to speed up the handling of the procedure is a typical example of Red Tapism associated corruption.
  • Increased cost of doing business: Red tape is costly, not just in time and money spent filling out forms but also in terms of reduced productivity and innovation in business. This is particularly burdensome to smaller businesses and may even discourage people from starting up a new business.
  • Governance: Due to Red Tapism variable enforcement of contracts and delayed administration lead to delayed justice, especially to the poor. The burden of red tape requirements prevent many to enjoy their rights due to delayed governance and delayed distribution of welfare measures. For example, delayed wage payments under MGNREGA impact timely benefits to por.

Measures to reduce Red Tapism

  • Reforming laws: Reducing administrative burdens should be a part of making good laws. This objective also contributes to making administrative cultures more responsible and service-oriented. For example, Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code has helped in reducing Red Tapism regarding insolvency of a business unit, enhancing overall business sentiments. Further many redundant laws have been scrapped, making India achieving a 63rd spot in World bank’s Ease of doing business.
  • Involving states: Governments also need to consider ways in which sub-national levels of government can be incorporated into the administrative simplification and regulatory quality process. Administrative simplification programmes have focused primarily on regulations emanating from the central government. However lower levels of government can be responsible for imposing significant administrative burdens and requirements on businesses and citizens.
  • Reduce the paperwork: Computers have already made many of the government services faster. It is a way forward to decrease the red tape. Capacity building in IT and communications is required at all the levels of the government, top to bottom. For example, the government has launched National Investment Promotion and Facilitation Agency known as Invest India that helps investors looking for investment, to reduce red Tapism. Another such initiative is paperless green clearance that will reduce paperwork and is environmentally friendly.
  • Skill development: There are officials who are not skilled enough to make government processing faster. It is important to train them properly on the subjects and appoint skilled people.
  • Incentives: A lot of government employees at the lower level (Group-C and Group D) are underpaid. They find no incentive to work efficiently. Efforts must be made to honour workers for their good work and punishing for not achieving timely efficiency.

Conclusion

Red Tapism hinders good governance and the country’s economic progress. It leads to a culture of corruption and inefficiency. Efforts must be made to make rules and regulations simple with emphasis on reducing delays in government work culture.

 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

4. Discuss the significance of New Quadrilateral Economic forum in the current global geopolitical scenario. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question: 

India, Israel, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the United States decided to launch a new quadrilateral economic forum through a virtual meet.

Key Demand of the question: 

To have an understanding of the New Quadrilateral Economic forum.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin the answer by mentioning about the Abraham Accords that has led to the formation of the New Quadrilateral Economic forum.

Body:

Give an account of various aspects as a consequence of the forum such as scope for major infrastructure projects, improving trade, transportation, technology, combating climate change, energy cooperation, and increasing maritime security in the West Asian and Asian region.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that the accord is of high significance in order to resume long-pending negotiations among the signing parties and also synergise the efforts of the countries.

Introduction

The first virtual summit of the foreign ministers of the US, India, Israel and UAE was recently held. At the end of the meet, the four nations agreed to form a new international economic forum to utilise the “unique array of capabilities, knowledge and experience” that each offers. The group is already being dubbed the ‘New Quad’ or the ‘Middle-Eastern Quad’ on the lines of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD).

Body

Significance of New Quadrilateral Economic forum in the current global geopolitical scenario

  • The group is intended as an “international economic forum”that will work on furthering the economic and political ties between the four countries.
  • Experts believe the new group is important for greater cooperation of the countries involved in keeping the Middle East stable.
  • Some of the areas that the countries had highlighted during their talks include improving trade ties, cooperation in maritime security of the region, joint discussions for global public health, and joint infrastructure projects focused on transportation and technology.
  • The four countries have a “unique set of capabilities, knowledge, and experience” that can be used to create a new network of cooperation.
  • The countries also recognised that there are many overlapping interests between them. Especially in the field of energy, climate, trade, and regional security.

Potential to India

  • The partnership will aid India’s strategic desire to adopt a regional foreign policy strategy towards West Asia.
  • Beyond trade, there is potential for India, UAE and Israel to collaborate on many areas — from semiconductor design and fabrication to space technology.
  • With the new alliance, India can use this platform to harness various opportunities like Big data, AI, Quantum computing, export its products in their market etc.
  • The group will help to focus on non-military issues like trade, energy, and environment and on promoting public goods.
  • The platform will help India to pursue wide-ranging minilateral partnerships in the region. With major powers like France, Russia, China drawn to this region, the alliance will help India to shape its position in changing the geopolitics of this region.
  • It suggests India is now ready to move from bilateral relations conducted in separate silos towards an integrated regional policy.
  • As in the Indo-Pacific, so in the Middle East, regional coalitions are bound to widen Delhi’s reach and deepen its impact.
  • The UAE is vital for India’s energy security and is also home to more than three million Indians.
  • The UAE has been an interlocutor for India when it comes to Pakistan.

Conclusion

This engagement has thus opened up a new opportunity for India to go for deeper engagement with Israel without risking its relations with the other Arab states of the Persian Gulf. In the evolving scenario, there seems much scope for a profitable trilateral synergy, but India cannot take its preponderance as a given. There is much to be done in realizing the full potential of the “Indo-Abrahamic Accords”.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Investment models.

5. Why is India known as the Pharmacy of the world? Critically analyse the potential that Public-Private partnerships (PPP) hold in pharma sector, so that, India can go beyond manufacturing just generic drugs. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate.

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Recently, the ICMR chief commented that the Covaxin development has proved that India is more than pharmacy of world

 Key Demand of the question: 

To write about the India as the pharmacy of the world and the innovation potential of India in pharmacy sector through PPP mechanism.

Directive word: 

Critically analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving statistics related to development of pharmaceutical products/sector in India.

Body:

First, write about reasons as to why India is known as the pharmacy of the world.

Next, Mention about India’s edge in terms fructifying PPP model in pharma sector – low-cost skilled manpower and a well-established manufacturing base in the pharma sector. Discuss the emergence of India as amongst the biggest exporters of vaccines with world-class R&D facilities and qualified manpower being a transitional shift from being tagged as mere global generic drug producer by harnessing technological developments such as Artificial Intelligence, digital therapeutics etc.

Next. Mention the limitations and bottlenecks of the above – dependence on exports for API, lack of expertise, funding issues.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that PPP ventures bring the best of both the parties viz Government and Private and presents a great opportunity for India to gain prominence in the global scenario.

Introduction

There is an opportunity for the Indian pharmaceutical industry to play a larger role in global drug supply-security. In 1969, Indian pharmaceuticals had a 5 per cent share of the market in India, and global pharma had a 95 per cent share. By 2020, it was the reverse, with Indian pharma having an almost 85 per cent share and global, 15 per cent.

Body

India – Pharmacy of the world:

  • Potential of Pharma sector: The Indian pharmaceutical industry, valued at $41 billion, is expected to grow to $65 billion by 2024 and $120-130 billion by 2030, noted the new Economic survey.
  • Rise in exports: During April-October 2020, India’s pharmaceutical exports of $ 11.1 billion witnessed a growth of 18 percent against $ 9.4 billion in the year-ago period.
  • Positive growth: Drug formulations, biologicals have consistently registered positive growth and the highest increase in absolute terms in recent months.
    • This led to a rise in its share to 7.1 percent in April-November 2020 from 5 percent in April-November 2019, making it the second-largest exported commodity among the top 10 export commodities.
    • This shows that India has the potential to be the ‘pharmacy of the world’”, the survey said.
  • Significant advantage: The availability of a significant raw material base and skilled workforce have enabled India to emerge as an international manufacturing hub for generic medicines.
  • Further, India is the only country with the largest number of USFDA compliant pharma plants (more than 262 including APIs) outside of the US.
  • Capacity: The COVID-19 pandemic has shown that India can not only innovate but also rapidly distribute time-critical drugs to every part of the globe that needs it.
  • Global leader: Presently, over 80% of the antiretroviral drugs used globally to combat AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) are supplied by Indian pharmaceutical firms.

 

Potential that Public-Private partnerships (PPP) hold in pharma sector

  • PPPs are partnerships between public sector entities and private sector companies set up to harness the partners’ complementary expertise and resources to accomplish a specific mission.
  • PPPs, in the past, were socially-driven and arose because both private and public sector stakeholders recognized the urgency and the need to tackle the global burden of neglected diseases.
  • For instance, public-private partnership has led to the development and approval of the drug ravidasvir – an entirely new chemical entity – for use as part of a new combination treatment for hepatitis C.
  • Public-private partnerships are playing an increasingly important role within the pharmaceutical industry as a means of enriching product pipelines and boosting R&D productivity.
  • Development of Covaxin has instilled self-confidence in us that India is now much more than the pharmacy of the world.
  • They are a promising approach to addressing the current challenges in pharmaceutical innovation because they bring together positive aspects of the public and private sector players.
  • Such partnerships can help to improve R&D productivity and boost the R&D pipelines of the pharmaceutical industry.
  • More importantly, they can make impactful contributions towards a solution to address the many challenges faced by healthcare systems around the world.

Conclusion

There  is  an  air  of  optimism  surrounding  PPPs  in  India.  Used  judiciously  and  fitted  to  local  circumstances, they clearly have the potential to drastically change the healthcare landscape in India.  PPPs  will  survive  only  if  the  interests  of  all  stakeholders  are  taken  into  account.  This  means detailing specific roles, rights and responsibilities, establishing clear standards, providing training for public sector managers, active dissemination of information, and constantly refining the process to make the system more efficient. The public sector has to lead by example, and be willing to redefine itself and work with the private sector. The latter must in turn be willing to work with the public sector to improve mutual cooperation and understanding.

 

Topic: Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money laundering and its prevention.

6. Analyse the threats posed by weak federal structure, social and financial divisions in the society and emergence of overarching social media on the Internal security of India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Difficult

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Recently, National Security Strategies Conference was chaired by Home Minister and various lacunae in the legal and administrative sphere that were an impediment in investigating Cyberattacks were discussed.

Key Demand of the question:

Directive word: 

Comment- here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by highlighting the need for a comprehensive internal security policy considering the factors of federal dynamics, social media, financial and social disparity of the society

Body:

Frist, explain with examples various threats such as left-wing extremism, communal riots, farmers agitation against the union laws without taking the state’s views, cybercrimes etc that are all consequence of the above-mentioned factors being inadequately addressed as part of our security policy.

Next, suggest steps that are needed in this regard to tackle these problems. Mention various recommendations of reports to substantiate your points.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that Internal Security policy must take up a comprehensive approach with a deep understanding of the sensitive role of various factors that may disrupt the security of the nation.

Introduction

Despite India having a national security council since 1999, it lacks a comprehensive coordinated policy on national security. India continues to face many complex threats and challenges to its national security, a few of which are predictable and well-defined.

India suffers from the crucial issue of coordination required to formulate and address the issues of national security in the absence of political consensus in the country on national security issues as how to treat challenges from Pakistan and China.

Body

National Security Threats

  • Political instability and internal social disharmony
  • Naxalism: Naxal violence is related to the intensity of the feeling of people of their deprivation and their commitment to take revenge against those who ae believed to be responsible for such a denial. The presence of Naxals in the country reveals the loopholes in the law and order of the country which has failed to curb the menace.  
  • Terrorism and nexus with organized crime: Recently, the US Congressional report on terrorism stated that Pakistan is home to at least 12 groups designated as Foreign Terrorist Organisation (FTO).
  • Cyber-crime and cyber security: The maximum number of cyber-attacks on official Indian websites are from China followed by the US and Russia. The cyber-attacks from China made up 35% of the total number of cyber-attacks on official Indian websites, followed by US (17%), Russia (15%), Pakistan (9%), Canada (7%) and Germany (5%).
  • Religious wars and caste crimes
  • Coastal and border security
  • Insurgency in North-East and militancy in J&K

Challenges in National security system

  • Reforms is the manpower policy: Major reforms is the manpower policy of the Government is required for intelligence and security agencies. It has been repeatedly recognised that these services should not be treated as ‘normal’ bureaucracies.
  • Difficulty in coordination: The departmental interests are very strong and it becomes difficult to synchronise them. There is no common understanding among various segments of the government of what national security constitutes.
  • No political consensus: There is no political consensus in the country on national security issues. For instance, there is no consensus on how to treat challenges from Pakistan and China. The government’s policies on these issues have fluctuated.

Various Committee Recommendations

Kargil Review Committee: The committee pointed out loopholes in Intelligence, Counter-terrorist operations, Border Management, Defence Budget and Modernisation, National Security Management and Apex Decision Making.

Naresh Chandra Task Force: It observed that the linkages between the ministry of external affairs and the Ministry of Defence “were untouched”, and “deficiencies remain in critical areas of defence procurement”.

The Hooda document: There is a need to adopt the Gen. Hooda’s National security strategy document after internal consultations.

  • This strategy recognises the centrality of our people. We cannot achieve true security if large sections of our population are faced with discrimination, inequality, lack of opportunities, and buffeted by the risks of climate change, technology disruption, and water and energy scarcity.
  •  “Assuming our rightful place in global affairs”, “achieving a secure neighbourhood”, “peaceful resolution of internal conflicts”, “protecting our people” and “strengthening our capabilities”.
  • On the issue of military jointmanship, it recommends that “the three services should undertake a comprehensive review of their current and future force structures to transform the army, navy and air force into an integrated warfighting force.”
  • It argues that it would take “a cultural change in the way the DRDO is currently operating” to improve domestic defence production.

Way forward

Build an effective military deterrence

  • India needs to progressively improve its military capabilities in conventional as well as non-conventional war-fighting mechanisms, soft power and demonstrated power.
  • Military deterrence needs to be backed by comprehensive national power: political will, strong economy, social cohesion, vibrant industrial base, supportive public information system, and strong technology and innovation culture.

Integration and Jointness

  • The future conflicts would be short, intense, and multi-dimensional and hybrid in nature and straddle land, sea, air, space, and cyber and information domains.
  • Therefore, we will not have the luxury of delayed decision-making, delayed mobilisation and delayed application of forces.

Integrated organisations would certainly help us become effective operationally, with the ability to ensure synergistic application of all available resources for that operation in the very limited window of opportunity.

Defence Industry and Capability

  • There is a need to holistically and pragmatically review the existing system of defence production in India, with a greater focus to boost indigenous manufacturing to achieve self-reliance with quality products.
  • To produce state-of-the-art weapon systems in India, innovation has to be accorded with a very high priority and private sector participation needs to be enhanced, with substantial investment in R&D to revolutionise our industry.

Border Management Strategy

  • The aim of border management strategy should be to effectively maintain the territorial integrity of the borders and to take care of the multifaceted threats and challenges along each border.
  • Besides utilising technology to manage borders (smart management), there is a need to have clarity in responsibility, command and control, authority and accountability for each border, more importantly, the borders under dispute.

Cyber and Space Domains: 

While looking at the offensive aspects of cyber-warfare, it is important to first take actions to protect our networks from cyber-attacks. The militarization of space is yet another dimension that needs to be explored for military purposes.

Conclusion

India has to use all instruments of its national power—political, economic, diplomatic, military, social, technological, psychological, and cultural—in a coordinated manner to address its security concerns. This can happen only if we put an end to turf wars between different elements of national power, and look at the national security with a national outlook.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“The great secret of true success, of true happiness, is this: the man or woman who asks for no return, the perfectly unselfish person, is the most successful.” ― Swami Vivekananda

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote and highlighting its core meaning about selflessness.

Body:

Write about how true happiness and success can come from being selfless – lack of greed, being compassionate, less expectations, less focus on material aspects. Cite examples to substantiate your points.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

“Selflessness” is characterized by low levels of self-centeredness and a low degree of importance given to the self.

Body

True meaning of selflessness in matters of public service

  • Holders of public office should take decisions solely in terms of the public interest.
  • They should not do so in order to gain financial or other material benefits for themselves, their families or their friends.
  • Selfish motivation often discourages public servants from taking initiative and helping others unless these activities are directly rewarded, which can be detrimental to their long-term performance, reputations, and careers.
  • But many times a civil servants want to perform his duty selflessly but fail to do so due to external obstacles.
  • The external obstacles can be political interference, non-cooperation from the seniors and colleagues, rigid institutional structure, etc.
  • People do not have much control over their external factors but he can maintain integrity and probity at the individual level and can take steps for the betterment of the organization rather than surrendering to the situation and working against one’s conscience.

Significance of selflessness

  • Selfless service keeps the civil servant away from any kind of corruption.
  • A selfless civil servant can maintain absolute integrity because it is difficult to lure him/her by offering monetary or non-monetary gains to get some undue favor.
  • A selfless person will always keep the public interest in mind while carrying out the duties. Expectation of selflessness from civil servant doesn’t provide the ground for denial of rewards for her performance. It rewards in terms of pay, promotion and public appreciation which can differentiate between the performer, mediocre and non-performer.
  • Better remuneration, timely promotion, and rewards for carrying duties beyond the obligations make the spirit of selflessness and public service more sustainable.
  • A civil servant is supposed to carry out his/her duties selflessly due to following reason: Selfless service keep the civil servant away from any kind of corruption. A selfless civil servant can maintain absolute integrity because it is difficult to lure him/her by offering monetary or non-monetary gains to get some undue favour.
  • Selfless person will always keep the public interest in mind while carrying out the duties. Expectation of selflessness from civil servant doesn’t provide the ground for denial of rewards for her performance.
  • It the rewards in terms of pay, promotion and public appreciation which can differentiate between the performer, mediocre and non-performer. Better remuneration, timely promotion and rewards for carrying duties beyond the obligations make the spirit of selflessness and public service more sustainable. Therefore any public service management policy should keep all these thing in mind.
  • Selfish motivation often discourages public servants from taking initiative and helping others unless these activities are directly rewarded, which can be detrimental to their long-term performance, reputations, and careers.

Conclusion

A person who doesn’t keep the thought in mind while carrying out his/her duties” what is there in it for me” is considered as selfless service. It was clearly explained in Bhagavad Gita by the sloka “Karmanye vadhikaraste ma phaleshu kadachana” which means we should keep doing our action without worrying about the rewards.


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