InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically.
Table of Contents
GS Paper 1:
1. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan.
GS Paper 2:
1. Anticipatory bail.
2. International Monetary and Financial Committee.
GS Paper 3:
1. Tamil Nadu Urban Employment Scheme.
2. World Food Day.
3. International E-Waste Day.
4. Kunming Declaration on biodiversity conservation.
Facts for Prelims:
1. DLX1 PROTEIN.
2. Exercise Cambrian Patrol.
GS Paper 1
Topics Covered: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
204th birth anniversary of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was recently observed.
- He was born on October 17, 1817.
Who was Sir Syed Ahmad Khan?
Sir syed Ahmed khan was a teacher, politician,social reformer etc.
He was also the founder of Aligarh muslim university.
Why has he been controversial?
Sir syed Ahmed khan has often been criticised as the father of Two nation theory which led to the formation of two seperate nations i.e. India and Pakistan.
- It is erroneously believed by some historians that the Hindu-Muslim divide in India was the by-product of the two-nation theory which supposedly had its origin in Sir Syed’s ideology.
Was “two-nation” theory in existence during his times?
“Nationalism” as a consciously-held idea was a 20th century phenomenon even in Europe, from where it was imported to India.
Eminent historian Anil Seal has rightly pointed out that during Sir Syed’s times, “there were no two nations, there was not even one nation, there was no nation at all.”
- Till 1898, when Sir Syed breathed his last, there was nothing like an Indian “nation”, nor did the founding fathers of the Indian National Congress make such a claim.
- Sir Octavian Hume, the founder of the Congress, talked of “a congeries of communities”, not a nation.
Sir Syed’s concept of nation:
- Sir Syed’s concept of nation was inextricably woven with secular ideals.
- Sir Syed believed in a multiculturalism under which all cultural communities must be entitled to equal status under state.
Rationale behind the Establishment of Aligarh Muslim University:
The main reason behind the establishment of this institution was the wretched dependence of the Muslims. Their religious fanaticism did not let them avail the educational facilities provided by the government schools and colleges. It was, therefore, deemed necessary to make some special arrangement for their education.
The August Offer was an offer made by Viceroy Linlithgow in 1940. What were the key recommendations made in it? Reference: read this.
- About Sir Syed Ahmad Khan.
- His contributions to Nationalism.
- Contributions in the field of education.
- About “two- nation” theory.
Discuss the role played by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in educating the youth of the country.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper 2
Topics Covered: Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
The Supreme Court has held that a superior court can set aside an anticipatory bail order if there was enough material to suggest that factors like gravity of the offence and the role of the accused in the crime were not considered by the lower court.
The concept of anticipatory bail:
- The provision of anticipatory bail under Section 438 was introduced when CrPC was amended in 1973.
- As opposed to ordinary bail, which is granted to a person who is under arrest, in anticipatory bail, a person is directed to be released on bail even before arrest made.
- Time limit: The Supreme Court (SC) in Sushila Aggarwal v. State of NCT of Delhi (2020) case delivered a significant verdict, ruling that no time limit can be set while granting anticipatory Bail and it can continue even until the end of the trial.
- It is issued only by the Sessions Court and High Court.
- The reason for enactment of Section 438 in the Code was parliamentary acceptance of the crucial underpinning of personal liberty in a free and democratic country.
- Parliament wished to foster respect for personal liberty and accord primacy to a fundamental tenet of criminal jurisprudence, that everyone is presumed to be innocent till he or she is found guilty.
- HCs and SC are given powers to grant anticipatory bail to the accused because of the premium that the Constitution places on the right to liberty guaranteed under Article 21.
- The grant or rejection of an application under CrPC has a direct bearing on the right to life and liberty of an individual. Therefore, the provision needs to be read liberally, and considering its beneficial nature. The courts must not read in restrictions that the legislature have not explicitly provided for.
- In doing so, the court may also exercise its powers under Article 142 of the Constitution to pass such an order.
Need for such protection:
An accused, besides being an accused, may also be the primary caregiver or sole breadwinner of the family. His arrest may leave his loved ones in a state of starvation and neglect.
- In the 1980 Gurbaksh Singh Sibbia vs State of Punjab case, a five-judge Supreme Court bench led by then Chief Justice Y V Chandrachud ruled that 438 (1) is to be interpreted in the light of Article 21 of the Constitution (protection of life and personal liberty).
Do you know about the substantive Rights that Flow From Article 21? Read here
- Various rights under Article 21.
- What is a bail?
- What is an anticipatory bail?
- Differences between bailable and non-bailable offences.
- Conditions for Granting Anticipatory Bail.
- Time limit on anticipatory bail.
Discuss the need for and significance of anticipatory bail.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper 2
Topics Covered: Important International Institutions.
International Monetary and Financial Committee meeting was held recently.
- The meeting was attended by Governors/Alternate Governors representing 190-member countries of the IMF.
The discussions at the meeting centered on “vaccinate, calibrate and accelerate” which is the theme of the Managing Director’s Global Policy Agenda.
- The members of the IMFC elaborated the actions and measures taken by member countries to combat COVID-19 and facilitate economic recovery.
Composition: The IMFC has 24 members, drawn from the pool of 187 governors. Its structure mirrors that of the Executive Board and its 24 constituencies. As such, the IMFC represents all the member countries of the Fund.
Functions: The IMFC meets twice a year, during the Spring and Annual Meetings. The Committee discusses matters of common concern affecting the global economy and also advises the IMF on the direction its work.
At the end of the Meetings, the Committee issues a joint communiqué summarizing its views. These communiqués provide guidance for the IMF’s work program during the six months leading up to the next Spring or Annual Meetings. There is no formal voting at the IMFC, which operates by consensus.
- The IMFC advises and reports to the IMF Board of Governors on the supervision and management of the international monetary and financial system, including on responses to unfolding events that may disrupt the system.
- It also considers proposals by the Executive Board to amend the Articles of Agreement and advises on any other matters that may be referred to it by the Board of Governors.
- Although the IMFC has no formal decision-making powers, in practice, it has become a key instrument for providing strategic direction to the work and policies of the Fund.
What are IMF Quotas? How are they determined? Reference: read this.
- IMFC vs Development Committee- functions and composition.
- Members and governance of IMF.
- Various reports by IMF.
- Funding mechanisms under IMF.
Critically analyse the role, potential and performance of IMF in the present times.
GS Paper 3
Topics Covered: Employment related issues.
Tamil Nadu government has issued orders to implement the urban employment scheme in the state on a pilot basis.
- The scheme is aimed at providing livelihood and social security by increasing job opportunities and through creation and maintenance of public assets.
About the scheme:
This is an urban employment scheme to be implemented by Tamil Nadu Government on the lines of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS).
- It seeks to improve the livelihood of urban poor.
- Unlike other States, the urban population in Tamil Nadu is growing fast and it would reach 60% of the total population by 2036.
- A total of four crore people are now living in urban areas, accounting for 53% of the total population.
But, many of them had lost their jobs because of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Implementation and key features:
- Under the scheme, workers will be used for activities such as desilting of water bodies and maintenance of public parks and other places.
- 50% of the total person-days under the scheme would be earmarked for women.
- Women and men would be paid the same wages for the same unskilled and semiskilled work.
- The TN Urban Employment Scheme is based on the recommendations made by a committee led by former Reserve Bank of India Governor C. Rangarajan.
The scheme was introduced in 2005 as a social measure that guarantees “the right to work”.
- The key tenet of this social measure and labour law is that the local government will have to legally provide at least 100 days of wage employment in rural India to enhance their quality of life.
- Generation of paid rural employment of not less than 100 days for each worker who volunteers for unskilled labour.
- Proactively ensuring social inclusion by strengthening the livelihood base of rural poor.
- Creation of durable assets in rural areas such as wells, ponds, roads and canals.
- Reduce urban migration from rural areas.
- Create rural infrastructure by using untapped rural labour.
The following are the eligibility criteria for receiving the benefits under MGNREGA scheme:
- Must be Citizen of India to seek MGNREGA benefits.
- Job seeker has completed 18 years of age at the time of application.
- The applicant must be part of a local household (i.e. application must be made with local Gram Panchayat).
- Applicants must volunteer for unskilled labour.
Implementation of the scheme:
- Within 15 days of submitting the application or from the day work is demanded, wage employment will be provided to the applicant.
- Right to get unemployment allowance in case employment is not provided within fifteen days of submitting the application or from the date when work is sought.
- Social Audit of MGNREGA works is mandatory, which lends to accountability and transparency.
- The Gram Sabha is the principal forum for wage seekers to raise their voices and make demands.
- It is the Gram Sabha and the Gram Panchayat which approves the shelf of works under MGNREGA and fix their priority.
Did you know that the Indian Constitution does not explicitly recognise the ‘right to work’ as a fundamental right? Then, how is it treated under the Constitution? Reference: read this.
- Under MGNREGA, what are the roles of Gram Sabha, Gram Panchayat, States, State Food Commission, Centre?
- What are job cards, who issues them?
- Who sets up the State Employment Guarantee Fund?
- What is Wage employment?
- Who conducts social audits?
Discuss the key features and significance of MGNREGA.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper 3
Topics Covered: Food Security related issues.
World Food Day is being celebrated every year on October 16 to commemorate the date of the founding of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation in 1945.
The theme for World Food Day this year is “Our actions are our future- Better production, better nutrition, a better environment and a better life.”
World Food Day was established in November 1979, as suggested by former Hungarian minister of agriculture and food Dr Pal Romany. It gradually became a way to raise awareness about hunger, malnutrition, sustainability and food production.
It is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Headquarters: Rome, Italy.
Founded: 16 October 1945.
Goal of FAO: Their goal is to achieve food security for all and make sure that people have regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active, healthy lives.
Important reports and Programmes (Have a brief overview):
- Global Report on Food Crises.
- Every two years, FAO publishes the State of the World’s Forests.
- FAO and the World Health Organization created the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 1961 to develop food standards, guidelines and texts.
- In 1996, FAO organized the World Food Summit. The Summit concluded with the signing of the Rome Declaration, which established the goal of halving the number of people who suffer from hunger by the year 2015.
- In 1997, FAO launched TeleFood, a campaign of concerts, sporting events and other activities to harness the power of media, celebrities and concerned citizens to help fight hunger.
- The FAO Goodwill Ambassadors Programme was initiated in 1999. The main purpose of the programme is to attract public and media attention to the unacceptable situation that some 1 billion people continue to suffer from chronic hunger and malnutrition in a time of unprecedented plenty.
- In 2004 the Right to Food Guidelines were adopted, offering guidance to states on how to implement their obligations on the right to food.
- FAO created the International Plant Protection Convention or IPPC in 1952.
- FAO is depositary of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, also called Plant Treaty, Seed Treaty or ITPGRFA, entered into force on 29 June 2004.
- The Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) Partnership Initiative was conceptualized in 2002 during World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa.
- Did you know that India released a commemorative coin of Rs. 75 denomination to mark the 75th Anniversary of the FAO (16th October 2020)? Read Here
- Do you recall the KISAN RAIL SERVICE of India? Read Here
- About FAO, establishment and objectives.
- Important reports and Programmes.
Write a note on the World Food Programme.
Sources: Indian Express.
GS Paper 3
Topics Covered: Conservation and Pollution related issues.
International E-Waste Day has been observed on October 14 every year since 2018.
- Last year’s Global E-waste Monitor reported that 53.6 MT of waste electronic and electrical equipment were generated in 2019.
- That represented a 21 per cent jump in the five years since 2014 (with e-waste predicted to reach 74 MT by 2030).
- E-waste generation was increasing annually by 2 MT.
- The rise is attributed to a higher consumption rate of electronics, shorter product lifecycles and limited repair options.
Impacts of e-waste:
Toxicity: E-waste consists of toxic elements such as Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Chromium, Polybrominated biphenyls and Polybrominated diphenyl.
Effects on Humans: Some of the major health effects include serious illnesses such as lung cancer, respiratory problems, bronchitis, brain damages, etc due to inhalation of toxic fumes, exposure to heavy metals and alike.
Effects on Environment: E-waste is an environmental hazard causing groundwater pollution, acidification of soil and contamination of groundwater and air pollution due to the burning of plastic and other remnants.
E- waste in India:
- According to the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India generated more than 10 lakh tonnes of e-waste in 2019-20, an increase from 7 lakh tonnes in 2017-18. Against this, the e-waste dismantling capacity has not been increased from 82 lakh tonnes since 2017-18.
- In 2018, the Ministry of Environment had told the tribunal that 95% of e-waste in India is recycled by the informal sector and scrap dealers unscientifically dispose of it by burning or dissolving it in acids.
Efforts by India to manage e-waste:
Laws to manage e-waste have been in place in India since 2011, mandating that only authorised dismantlers and recyclers collect e-waste.
E-Waste Management Rules, 2016:
The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change notified the E-Waste Management Rules, 2016 in supersession of the E-waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2011.
- Over 21 products (Schedule-I) were included under the purview of the rule. It included Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) and other mercury containing lamps, as well as other such equipment.
- For the first time, the rules brought the producers under Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), along with targets. Producers have been made responsible for the collection of E-waste and for its exchange.
- Various producers can have a separate Producer Responsibility Organisation (PRO) and ensure collection of E-waste, as well as its disposal in an environmentally sound manner.
- Deposit Refund Scheme has been introduced as an additional economic instrument wherein the producer charges an additional amount as a deposit at the time of sale of the electrical and electronic equipment and returns it to the consumer along with interest when the end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment is returned.
- The role of State Governments has been also introduced to ensure safety, health and skill development of the workers involved in dismantling and recycling operations.
- A provision of penalty for violation of rules has also been introduced.
- Urban Local Bodies (Municipal Committee/Council/Corporation) have been assigned the duty to collect and channelize the orphan products to authorized dismantlers or recyclers.
Basel Convention on the Control of the Trans-boundary Movement of Hazardous Waste, 1992:
The Basel Convention started to address e-waste issues since 2002 which include, among others, environmentally sound management; prevention of illegal traffic to developing countries and; building capacity around the globe to better manage e-waste.
- The Mobile Phone Partnership Initiative (MPPI) was adopted by the sixth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Basel Convention.
- The Nairobi Declaration on the Environmentally Sound Management of Electrical and Electronic Waste and decision IX/6 adopted by the ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP9) gave a mandate to the Secretariat to implement a work plan for the environmentally sound management of e-waste.
Rotterdam Convention, 2004:
The Convention seeks to promote exchange of information (through Prior Informed Consent) among Parties over a range of potentially hazardous chemicals (includes pesticides and industrial chemicals) that may be exported or imported.
Did you know that India has an e-waste clinic for segregating, processing and disposal of waste from household and commercial units? Where was the first such clinic setup in India?
Sources: down to earth.
GS Paper 3
Topics Covered: Conservation related issues.
The “Kunming Declaration” was adopted by over 100 countries in the ongoing virtual 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD).
Theme of the COP-15: “Ecological Civilization: Building a Shared Future for All Life on Earth”.
- It calls upon the parties to “mainstream” biodiversity protection in decision-making and recognise the importance of conservation in protecting human health.
- By adopting this, the nations have committed themselves to support the development, adoption and implementation of an effective post-2020 implementation plan, capacity building action plan for the Cartagena Protocol on biosafety.
- Signatory nations should ensure that the post-pandemic recovery plans contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, promoting sustainable and inclusive development.
- The declaration expects signatory nations to synchronize Biodiversity plans with the three UN decades program which are on ‘Sustainable Development’, ‘Ecosystem Restoration’, ‘Ocean Science for Sustainable Development’.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) entered into force on 29 December 1993. It has 3 main objectives:
- The conservation of biological diversity.
- The sustainable use of the components of biological diversity.
- The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
The Convention was opened for signature on 5 June 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (the Rio “Earth Summit”).
- This convention is a legally binding framework treaty that has been ratified by180 countries.
- The CBD Secretariat is based in Montreal, Canada and it operates under the United Nations Environment Programme.
- The areas that are dealt by convention are conservation of biodiversity,sustainable use of biological resources and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their sustainable use.
- The convention came into force in 1993. Many biodiversity issues are addressed including habitat preservation, intellectual property rights, biosafety andindigenous people‘s rights.
The declaration made a reference to the ’30 by 30′ target which is a key proposal being debated at the COP15, that would afford 30% of the Earth’s land and oceans protected status by 2030.
- Apart from this, the goal to halve the use of chemicals in agriculture and stop creating plastic waste is also being debated.
Have you heard about the Global Environment Fund (GEF)?
Sources: down to earth.
Facts for Prelims:
Researchers have discovered that a particular gene (DLX1) which plays an important role in the development of jaws, skeleton, and interneurons in the brain has an important role to play in the growth and development of prostate cancer.
Exercise Cambrian Patrol:
- Indian Army team won the gold medal in Exercise Cambrian Patrol organised at Brecon, Wales (UK).
- Ex Cambrian Patrol is referred to as the ‘Olympics of Military Patrolling’ among militaries in the world.
- Organised by the UK Army, it is considered the ultimate test of human endurance and team spirit.
- Dhole is an apex social carnivore in the tropical forests of South and South East Asia.
- Endangered –IUCN.
- CITES – Appendix II.
- Shedule II of wildlife act.
- Disease and pathogens: Dholes are susceptible to rabies, canine distemper, canine parvovirus and sarcoptic mange among others which are usually contracted from domestic village dogs that act as reservoirs.
Why in News?
A recent study has identified 114 priority talukas / tehsils where habitats can be consolidated to enhance population connectivity for the dhole or Asiatic Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus).
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