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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 12 October 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

1. Chandrashekhar Azad’s idea of nationalism may not have matched with that of Mahatma Gandhi but his contributions for the cause of Indian independence remain immense. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: A Brief History of Modern India by Spectrum Publishers.

Why the question: 

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the contributions of Chandrashekhar Azad to India’s struggle for independence.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Write in brief about Chandrashekhar Azad and his unparalleled patriotism.

Body:

First, mention the differences between the ideologies and methodologies of Gandhi and Azad.

Next, write in detail about the various contributions of Azad to India’s struggle for independence – In spreading patriotism, HRA, HSRA etc.

Conclusion:

Summarise the immortal legacy of Azad.

Introduction

As a freedom fighter, Azad died young, at the age of 24, but not before creating a stir with other revolutionaries such as Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev. The four men were part of the radical Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA), which had grown disillusioned with the non-violence struggle.

“If yet your blood does not rage, then it is water that flows in your veins. For what is the flush of youth, if it is not of service to the motherland,” Chandra Shekhar Azad had said once.

Body

Azad’s idea of nationalism differed from Gandhiji’s

  • Chandrashekhar Azad was deeply troubled by the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in Amritsar in 1919. In 1921, when Mahatma Gandhi launched Non-Cooperation movement, Chandrasekhar Azad actively participated in revolutionary
  • He received his first punishment at the age of fifteen. Chandra Shekhar was caught while indulging in revolutionary activities. When the magistrate asked him his name, he said “Azad” (meaning free).
  • From then on Chandrashekhar assumed the title of Azad and came to known as Chandrashekhar Azad.
  • Chandrashekhar Azad vowed that he would never be arrested by the British police and would die as free man.
  • After the suspension of non-cooperation movement, Chandrashekhar Azad was attracted towards more aggressive and revolutionary ideals.
  • He committed himself to complete independence by any means. Chandrashekhar Azad and his compatriots would target British officials known for their oppressive actions against ordinary people and freedom fighters.
  • The HRA was later revamped under the leadership of Azad and Bhagat Singh and rechristened as the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA). Azad was the All-India coordinator of the newly-formed group while Bhagat Singh was its general secretary.
  • Azad became greatly influenced by the trade unionism and communism of its times.

Contributions to Freedom Struggle

  • Azad actively participated in the Non-cooperation movement and was punished by the colonial government. Chandrashekhar Azad was sentenced to fifteen lashes. With each stroke of the whip the young Chandrasekhar shouted “Bharat Mata Ki Jai”.
  • He was disappointed when Mahatma Gandhi suspended the movement in 1922 and Azad joined the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) formed by Ram Prasad Bismil, Chatterji, Sachindra Nath Bakshi and Sachindra Nath Sanyal.
  • He quickly rose through the ranks and became one of the main strategists of the Hindustan Republican Association.
  • On August 9, 1925, acting under the banner of the Hindustan Republican Army he successfully mounted the organisation’s first major operation, the train raid at Kakori.
  • He rose into prominence after the 1925 Kakori Train robbery and the assassination of the assistant superintendent of police John Saunders in 1928.
  • On 27 February 1931, Azad was killed in a gun battle with two police officers at Allahabad’s Alfred Park (the park has since been renamed Chandrashekhar Azad Park in his honour).
  • After Azad and Bhagat Singh, most HSRA revolutionaries joined the Communist Party of India. Azad and his comrades’ sacrifices radicalised the anti-colonial struggle and spread socialist consciousness in North India.

Conclusion

The ideology professed by Azad about socialism and absolute equality may not have come to fruition. However, India as a welfare state must try to achieve substantive equality and remove barriers of development for the weaker sections. This is when Azad’s vision of free India will materialise into reality.

 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2. The continental system which was designed to subjugate Britain economically had fundamental flaws which ultimately led to the downfall of Napoleon. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how the continental system played a part in the downfall of Napoleon.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining continental system.

Body:

First, write about the design of continental system and how its major target was to cripple Britian Economically.

Next, write about the limitations of continental system with respect to its design, implementation, aspects of under estimation the economic prowess of Britain etc which led to its failure.

Next, mention other factors that were responsible for the downfall of Napoleon.

Conclusion:

Conclude by mentioning to what extent continental system was responsible for the downfall of Napoleon.

Introduction

Continental System, in the Napoleonic wars, the blockade designed by Napoleon to paralyze Great Britain through the destruction of British commerce. The decrees of Berlin and Milan proclaimed a blockade: neutrals and French allies were not to trade with the British. However, it proved largely ineffective and eventually led to Napoleon’s fall.

Body

The Continental System had some success in hurting British trade and economic interests. By some estimates, British trade declined by as much as fifty percent. It also benefited some parts of the French manufacturing sector by acting essentially as a protective tariff, making British imports unavailable or unaffordable in France and its territories. This stimulated the growth of some local manufacturing and many French capitalists and industrialists made large profits as a result of the embargo on British goods.

Flaws in the Continental System

  • It killed many trade based industries and deeply hurt the economies of major French ports such as Marseilles. Moreover, the Continental System could not be strictly enforced.
  • It was an impossible scheme. Every country was not expected to bear the innumerable stresses by following this scheme.
  • French navy was not so powerful to control the vast sea.
  • Most of the European countries including France depended British goods and they could not possibly live without these goods. But after the supply of these articles was stopped, people had to face great difficulties and they began to oppose this scheme vehemently. In 1807 Napoleon himself purchased fifty thousand overcoats from Great Britain through Holland at the time of the battle of Eyleau.
  • The smuggling of goods became widespread in the entire Europe and Napoleon could not check this black marketing due to his weak navy.
  • Portugal and Spain also did not join this scheme and extended their cooperation to England.

Conclusion

Napoleon’s ambition to implement the continental system dragged him to the peninsular war which he called “an ulcer that destroyed me”. The Portuguese and Spaniards turned and united against him at the battle of Trafalgar. This defeat proved to the world that Napoleon could be defeated, over 20,000 of his soldiers surrendered and it also weakened Napoleon’s military strength. This led to the downfall of Napoleon in 1815 . Thus, the continental system entangled Napoleon into disastrous Moscow campaign which was the turning point in his military and political career in France and Europe.

 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, Social empowerment.

3. Social evils such as child marriage has a multidimensional impact not only on the girl child but on the society as a whole. Elaborate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

India has the largest number of brides in the world – one-third of the global total.

Key Demand of the question:

To highlight the ill impacts of child marriage in Indian society

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving statistics about child marriage in India and also the legal stand against it.

Body:

Mention about the educational, health, economical and many other dimensions of development of a child that is being hindered by the ill issue of Child marriage and also mention few laws and organisations that are against such ills.

Also mention the various steps taken by the government to prevent the social evil of child marriage.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that elimination of Child marriage is one of the global agenda (SDG goal) and way forward India must take to achieve it.

Introduction

Child marriage usually refers to a social phenomenon practiced in some societies in India, where a young child (usually a girl below the age of fifteen) is married to an adult man. Recent analysis by UNICEF points out that one in three of the world’s child brides live in India. It has also warned India against the increase in child marriages owing to the adversaries of COVID-19.  To achieve the commitment of ending child marriages by 2030, it becomes important to integrate the COVID -19 responses with child marriage elimination efforts.

Body

Impact on Girl child

  • child marriage is one of the worst and deadliest forms of sexual and gender-based violence against girls.
  • Child marriage kills more than 60 girls a day globally and six girls a day in South Asia, according to a new analysis released on the International Day of the Girl Child.
  • When a girl is married at an early age, she normally tends to have more children and unwanted pregnancy.
  • The report also claimed over an estimated 22,000 girls a year are dying from pregnancy and childbirth resulting from child marriage.
  • With school closures, health services under strain or closed, and more families being pushed into poverty, women and girls face an increased risk of violence during lengthy lockdowns.
  • A further 10 million girls are now expected to marry by 2030, leaving more girls at risk of dying
  • Young girls exercise less influence and control over their children and have less ability to make decisions about their nutrition, health care and household management.
  • Girls who get married at an early age are often more susceptible to the health risks associated with early sexual initiation and childbearing, including HIV and obstetric fistula
  • Young girls who lack status, power and maturity are often subjected to domestic violence, sexual abuse and social isolation.
  • Early marriage almost always deprives girls of their education or meaningful work, which contributes to persistent poverty.

Societal impacts

  • Child Marriage perpetuates an unrelenting cycle of gender inequality, sickness and poverty
  • Getting the girls married at an early age when they are not physically mature, leads to highest rates of maternal and child mortality
  • Due to desire for a male child, young girls and women are forced to conceive as many times as she can till, she gives birth to a male child.

Way forward

  • Increase social awareness:
    • Children need to be made aware of their human rights and must be taught to refuse and speak up once such an incident is taking place.
    • The media also needs to adopt a more proactive role in generating awareness towards this heinous ritual.
    • Changing social norms and attitudes towards girls.
  • Develop strong support systems to keep girls in school. Provide scholarships where necessary and encourage teachers to support girls.
  • Strengthen and establish community networks and partnerships involving girls clubs, teachers, elders, local government officials, women and youth groups, community and religious leaders, etc. that jointly work towards ending early marriage.
  • Strengthen the role of the judicial system particularly the police, judges, and persecutors through training on enforcement of the law against early marriage.
  • Efforts should be made to give-up the factors motivating child marriages, all efforts should aim at changing the gender biased attitudes of parents and society by imparting proper education on one hand and eradicating poverty on the other.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

4. Critically analyse the performance of National Green Tribunal (NGT) in upholding its mandate. Do you think the endowment of Suo-motu powers to NGT is a step in right direction? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The Supreme Court has declared the National Green Tribunal’s (NGT) position as a “unique” forum endowed with suo motu powers to take up environmental issues across the country.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the limitations of NGT in upholding its mandate and will the grant of Suo moto powers change that.

Directive word: 

Critically analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a brief introduction on context for introduction of NGT and its mandate

Body:

First, mention some of the landmark environmental reforms brought in through NGT.

Next, list out its shortcomings such as appeals against NGT rulings in High Court and Supreme Court leading to long delays through litigation, lack of overall environmental expertise of the members of tribunal. 

Next, bring out the positive aspects such as the power of NGT to suo-motu take up causes in order to protect the environmental sanctity in the country. Mention the drawbacks of the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to leverage functional capacity of the NGT and do full justice in its environmental mandate.

Introduction

The National Green Tribunal (NGT) was established in 2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act. It is a specialized environmental court that deals with cases relating to environmental protection and the conservation of forests. It has judicial powers that allow it to exclusively decide civil environmental matters. The tribunal is guided by principles of natural justice and is not bound by the mainstream code of civil procedure. The Supreme Court has declared the National Green Tribunal’s (NGT) position as a “unique” forum endowed with suo motu powers to take up environmental issues across the country.

Body

Performance of NGT

  • The NGT has been recognized as one of the most progressive Tribunals in the world.
  • This jurisprudential leap has allowed our country to enter a rather exclusive group of nations which have set up such institutions with broad powers.
  • In the Almitra H Patel Vs Union of India case, it directed states to implement Solid Waste Management Rules and prohibited open burning of waste on lands.
  • Many Projects which were approved in violation of the law such as an Aranmula Airport, Kerala; Lower Demwe Hydro Power Project and Nyamnjangu in Arunachal Pradesh; mining projects in in Goa; and coal mining projects in Chhattisgarh were either cancelled or fresh assessments were directed.

Limitations of NGT

  • The jurisdiction of NGT is curtailed as Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972and Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 is not under its ambit.
  • This restricts the jurisdiction area of NGT and at times hampers its functioning as the crucial forest rights issue is linked directly to the environment.
  • The sanctioned strength of 10 each under judicial and expert members are not filled. The lack of human and financial resources has led to high pendency of cases – which undermines NGT’s very objective of disposal of appeals within 6 months.
  • The option of appeals has nullified the purpose of reducing burden on the higher courts.
  • The justice delivery mechanism is also hindered by a limited number of regional benches.

Is endowment of Suo-motu powers to NGT a step in the right direction?

  • The Supreme Court recently declared that the National Green Tribunal is vested with suo motu powers to take cognizance on the basis of letters, representations and media reports
  • This could allow the NGT to play a more effective role in environmental protection.
  • However, the need for suo moto powers itself reiterates the idea that a judicial body must ‘swoop in’ to protect constitutional values, if the legislature or the executive is ill equipped to perform their functions.
  • The Tribunal would have a direct effect on the functioning of executive bodies, such as the Municipal Corporation in the present case.
  • Unlike orders based on petitions, cases taken up suo moto would allow the tribunal itself to decide what issues it should consider and to what extent it can infringe on the executive’s domain.

Way forward

  • There is an immediate need to set up new regional benches. Further, these should be based in a place that has the highest forest cover or large mineral deposit.
  • Appeal may be provided against the order of the NGT before a larger Bench of the Tribunal before the matter reaches to the Supreme Court or High Court.
  • Vacancies in NGT, needs to be filled as soon as possible.
  • There is a need for the central and state governments to work in collaboration with the NGT for balancing between environment & economy.
  • NGT should also identify institutions and experts who can help it to scientifically estimate environmental damages/compensation/fines on a case-to-case basis.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

5. The Covid Pandemic has reiterated the need for “Right to Health” in India. Critically examine its feasibility in India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Kailash Satyarthi, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2014 called on the Parliament of India to take immediate measures to make necessary amendments to the Constitution to declare health care a Fundamental Right.

Key Demand of the question:

To mention the steps needed to implement Health as a Right in India and to mention its impact

Directive word:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a brief about health care in India.

Body:

First, mention the need for Right to Health that would promote the health of various weaker sections of the society and also boost economic development. Further link the benefits of better healthcare systems to that of various existing schemes like Ayushman Bharath.

Next, bring out the impediments to declare health care a Fundamental Right.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting that Right to Health is only a detailed interpretation of Right to life that is already a constitutional right.  

Introduction

Amidst the pandemic, the frantic cries for oxygen, hospital beds, medicine and even a place to cremate their own, laid bare our failure to extend dignity in both life and death. This was compounded with the loss of income, debt, food insecurity, and illiteracy. That is the situation of lakhs of families in India today. The most profound loss is of people’s faith in the ability of the country’s healthcare system to protect them. It is the primary responsibility of government to reinstate this faith.

Body

Making Health as fundamental right will be of immense help

  • If health is a fundamental right, it will give a spine to the entire health ecosystem, empower doctors and healthcare workers, and ensure transparency, inclusivity, and accountability.
  • Moreover, it will pave the way for special legislation, capable institutions, increased budgets, medical training and research, wellness and prevention, and outreach of services.
  • It instils immense confidence and positivity amongst the citizens.
  • In a country where 63 million people slip back into povertydue to catastrophic healthcare costs, it is hard not to see the logic of legally mandating health as a right, and thereby empowering the citizen to hold the state accountable for it.
  • By declaring health as a fundamental right, the government would be compelled to think seriously about the pollution aspect or the environmental impactwhen, say, granting permissions for new industries or framing development policies.

Challenges in making health a fundamental right

  • India has never spent more than 2% of its GDP on healthcare.
  • And healthcare facilities across the country straddle different levels of efficiency and sufficiency.
  • The impact of COVID-19 has shaken even States like Kerala and Tamil Nadu that traditionally did well in the area of healthcare.
  • A 2019 NITI Aayog report highlighted that states in India had unequal public health systems.
  • This imbalance was primarily due to restricted technical expertise and fiscal constraints.
  • While fiscal dependence of states on the centre continues to be a major challenge, if the subject of health was moved to the Concurrent List, it would lead to excessive bureaucracy, red tape and institutional constraints.

Conclusion

It is time India declared the right to health a fundamental right. Strong health laws will help build societal resilience to future pandemics and public health emergencies. Emergency responses can’t come at the cost of neglect of human rights obligations. It is critical then that the right to health be implemented, using the principles of transparency, proportionality and solidarity. The COVID19 experience has also demonstrated the importance of a decentralized/polycentric response – India’s co-operative federalism, therefore, must be strengthened.

Value addition

Need for making healthcare a fundamental right

  • The right to equalityguaranteed under Article 15 upholds non-discrimination on the basis religion, race, caste, gender, place of birth, etc.
  • However, the dismal investment in public healthfor decades has made healthcare a privilege available to a few.
  • The constitutional right to health is critical to breaking discriminatory structuresthat will otherwise continue to perpetuate inequality in all spheres of life, including education, opportunity, wealth, and social mobility.
  • The judicial interpretation of the right to life and liberty under Article 21in several judgments as inclusive of health was crucial, but has its limitations.
  • The universal access to healthcare is now as achievable as it is indispensable. The rights of people are not stagnant, and must evolve as the country evolves.
  • Ayushman Bharatis an ambitious scheme with great potential, but there is a difference between a rights and a service-delivery model of development.
  • India has never spent more than 2% of its GDP on healthcare. And healthcare facilities across the country straddle different levels of efficiency and sufficiency.
  • The impact of COVID-19 has shaken even States like Kerala and Tamil Nadu that traditionally did well in the area of healthcare.
  • There are other dimensions to making health a fundamental right. For example, Delhi is the world’s most polluted city. In winter especially, you can barely venture out in the morning smog without catching an infection.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

6. The space industry in the country has the ability to foster a thriving ecosystem of entrepreneurs and private businesses. Comment in the light of launch of Indian Space Association (ISpA). (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Prime Minister Narendra Modi today launched Indian Space Association (ISpA), an industry body aspiring to be the voice of the country’s space sector.

Key Demand of the question: 

To analyse the role of private sector as a partner with the government to harness space technology and innovations for social welfare.

Directive word:

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning ISRO being the prime entity for space research so far allowing very limited space for other private parties to pitch in.

Body:

First, highlight the possible positive outcomes of letting in the private sector to bring in innovations in the space sector.

Next, suggest few examples that would link the use of space technology in public welfare and also boosting of security through better navigation and geolocation capabilities.

Also, discuss the employment opportunities this move would bring in, by giving opportunities to startups in this sector.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that the government being an enabler in the space research sector would bring in the best of all stakeholder’s capabilities to the table.

Introduction

Indian Space Association or ISpA is a premier industry association of space and satellite companies. In line with the recent measures taken to expand the role of private players in the space sector, the Indian Space Association aims to serve as a body that brings public and private entities together so that they can work in tandem for the expansion of the Indian space programme.

India is lagging in harnessing the power of private innovation in the space domain. This not only limits the exploitation of space for economic development, but has serious national security implications.

Body

Potential of private sector in the space sector

  • Today, the space industry is undergoing a paradigm shift, moving from Space 3.0 to Space 4.0, driven by changes in motivations, actors, roles, and technologies.
  • While Space 3.0 has been characterized by large government investments and public-public collaborations, Space 4.0 is a more democratized and accessible field with more public-private and private-private collaborations.
  • It entails the emergence of a plethora of small to medium-sized private companies.
  • As military uses of space and prestige projects like Moon-landing emerged, major private sector entities already in the aviation industry like Boeing and Lockheed won space contracts in the US.
  • Significant expansion of satellite-based telecommunication, navigation, broadcasting and mapping, and lent a significant commercial dimension to the space sector.
  • As the digital revolution in the 21st century transformed the world economy, the commercial space sector has begun to grow in leaps and bounds.
  • The global space business is now estimated to be around $ 400 billion and is expected easily rise to at least trillion dollars by 2040.
  • One example of the rise of private sector companiesin the space sector is SpaceX run by the US entrepreneur Elon Musk. Hired for a resupply mission for the space station, it now launches more rockets every year than NASA.
  • The entry of private sector has begun to drive down the cost-per-launch through innovations such as reusable rockets.
  • India, however, is quite some distance away from adapting to the unfolding changes in the global space business.
  • In its early years, India’s space programme that was constrained by lack of resources found innovative ways of getting ahead in space.
  • Although the ISRO encourages private sector participation in the national space programme, its model is still very 20th century — in terms of governmental domination.

Challenges for private space entities in India:

  • Monopoly: In India ‘Space’ means Indian Space Research Organisation. Globally the technology is highly protected because of its dual use capability. Even if it was not, it would be prohibitively expensive.
  • Funding: A major challenge in setting up a space business in India is funding. Space industry is capital intensive and upstream activities come with a long gestation period.
  • Investor’s Dilemma: The lack of clarity among the investors and lack of the ecosystem required for significant contribution is a challenge for the investors.
  • Lack of Regulation: India is a party to the Outer Space Treaty, where one of the fundamental requirements laid upon states is the supervision of space activities within its borders, the country did not have any formally legislated laws. This is a potential roadblock for commercialization.
  • Growth Challenges: Scaling up, international marketing and funding are challenges.
  • Lack of Support: The Indian ecosystem has neither incubation support nor pointers to seek support of leaders such as ISRO for space start-ups.
  • Political and bureaucratic hurdles limit private space operations in India.
  • Low in-house capacity of ISRO restricts them to very few launches in a year. Privatization can offload 30-40% of the work and help them work more efficiently.

Way forward:

  • India should have national space activities legislation which takes on board all stakeholders.
  • A public-private partnership (PPP) model can be looked into to realise ISRO’s workhorse Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), with a joint venture between ISRO and the private sector.
  • In the UK, space ventures are treated as a complement to big organizations and not a competitor. This should be encouraged in India too.
  • A supportive international partner and likeminded local partners helps to set up a space business.
  • The idea should be to let the private industry build their own facilities after gaining enough expertise.
  • ISRO has built a space technology park spread over 25 acres in Bengaluru where the entire range of facilities have been set up for use by the industry.

Conclusion

The private sector already supplies majority of the sub-systems in satellite manufacturing. This can be further scaled up into other activities with proper regulation and partnership of the ISRO and private sector. The country must deregulate the space sector to encourage private enterprise if we are to compete in the new space economy.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: ethical issues in international relations and funding;

7. According to you, what constitutes international ethics? (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To establish how international morality ease suffering during the pandemic and help the world as a whole move on and rebuild together.

Directive:

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining international morality.

Body:

Start by explaining what is International ethics – moral principles, customary International Law, Human rights, Cooperation, Non-aggression etc. Cite examples to substantiate your points.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing about the importance of international morality.

Introduction

International ethics is described as the good that international interactions, exchanges, relations which can bring to all life forms and which can be harmed by unfriendly, hostile, uncooperative behaviours. In simple terms, international ethics is an area of international relations theory which concerns the extent and scope of ethical obligations between states in an epoch of globalization.

Body

In today’s borderless world, there are a lot of interactions at various levels (country, professional, personal). The difference in the value systems and diversity makes Ethics in International relations imperative. Ethics provides guidance to the people in their international affairs.

It basically concerns ethical questions and dilemmas, whether for individuals or societies, that arise in view of economic, technological, legal, political, social, and cultural globalization.

International ethics expand upon personal and professional ethics to include a more extensive set of principles that may apply to groups of people or cultures. They can include such areas and debates as social justice, human rights, caring for the environment across national borders, social responsibility and accountability, and interdependence gained through encompassing a worldview.

It offers insights into how nations and other entities treat other nations and its people. For example, the UN has been promoting various principles of friendly and cooperative and peace related humanitarian international actions by all the member countries.

International ethics guides international relations and resolution of international conflicts such as terrorism, territorial disputes and refugee crisis.

International ethics guides the international environmental efforts to fight against ozone depletion, global warming, etc which are common shared problems and which require actions from many nations who are major contributors to forces generating such problems.

For e.g.: Common But Differentiated Responsibility (CBDR) principle in Paris Climate Deal towards fighting climate change is the result of ethics in international affairs.

Aid/help during natural disasters. E.g.: India’s support during Nepal Earthquake and Development Aid via IMF and World Bank is also guided by ethical principles.

Conclusion

Ethics helps to avoid undue wars, conflicts and provide an ecosystem where there is mutual trust, goodwill, and confidence among all the Countries and helps to foster International Relations.


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