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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 05 October 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

1. Delineate the process of colonisation embarked upon by the European countries during the phase of new Imperialism witnessed in the latter half of nineteenth century. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: History of modern world by Jain & Mathur

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

The sequence of colonisation by European countries in late 19th century and early 20th century (phase of new imperialism).

Directive:

Delineate – describe the issue/matter with accuracy or in detail in a chronological order..

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin your answer by writing how colonisation in new imperialism was different from earlier colonisation – new areas such as those in continental Africa were being colonised now.

Body:

First, mention the causes behind rise of this new phase of imperialism.

Next, write about the European countries and the areas they occupied in chronological manner, and any conflicts they had amongst each other and how they resolved such conflicts (ex: scramble for Africa) or not (ex: conquest of Tunis by France, much to the chagrin of Italy).

Next, write about the impact of the above.

Conclusion:

Write what New Imperialsim led to – the World Wars and eventually decolonisation.

Introduction

New Imperialism or ‘Neo-Imperialism’ as such can be identified as the second wave of imperialism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, as distinct from the earlier wave of European colonization from 15th to early 19th centuries. This was a result of Industrial Capitalism.

Body

Causes behind the rise of new imperialism

  • Political factors: The rise of Absolute Monarchies in Italy and Germany, post-unification in 1870s. This absolutism increased the aggression on part of the state.
  • Industrialization increased their hunger, as well as potential, to build their colonial empire. The rulers also saw Imperialism as a tool to maintain political control at home.
    • There was surplus money from trade as well as profits from mass production, after Industrial Revolution.
    • This money was re-invested for capital formation.
    • Development of rail and transport increased market in colonies as well.
    • The factories’ demand for raw material increased, which led to a search for raw material outside national boundaries.
  • Nationalism: Nationalism rose after the French Revolution (1789). In the era of Industrial Revolution, it soon manifested in form of economic rivalry among the nation states.
    • National rivalries were further fuelled by nationalist ideas propounded by the nationalist thinkers.
    • In Britain, France, Germany and Italy, nationalism resulted in demands for expansion of colonial empires during 1868-72.
  • Religious factors: Other factors like aspirations of Christian Missionaries to spread Christianity and the notion of White Man’s burden to spread superior civilization in the backward colonies also played a role.

Colonisation by European powers during the new phase

  • King Leopold II of Belgium patronized the explorers and was the first to establish a colony in central Africa. In 1876, he had brought Congo under his control
  • France established its empire in North-West Africa. After colonizing Algiers (1830), part of Gambia, and Tunis (1881) it longed for control over Morocco. Germany also vied for the same.
    • In 1912, France made Morocco its Protectorate and Morocco ceased to be independent.
  • British had colonies in the south, the east and western Africa. Its colony of Gold Coast (Ghana) in the West was rich in Cocoa, while Nigeria had large oil reserves.
    • Egypt was of special interest to the British due to the Suez Canal, which provided for a shorter sea-route to its Asian colonies, especially India.
  • From 1882 to 1884, Germany was able to colonize South West Africa, the Cameroons and Togoland in Equatorial Africa and German East Africa.
  • In 1911, Italy occupied Libya from the weak Ottoman Turkey. In 1935, Italy attacked Ethiopia and took it under its control.
  • By 1914 whole of Africa was scrambled among Britain, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy and Portugal, except for Abyssinia (where the Italians were defeated by the nationalists in the 1876 Battle of Adowa), and Liberia.

Impact on the colonies

  • White settlers became elites and exploited the Black natives: The European settlers were elites in Africa and they enjoyed luxuries of living, which they could not afford back home.
    • The European settlers, like the Boers in South Africa, became wealthy and powerful in Africa.
    • They controlled the government and denied Africans any political right.
    • In almost every colony, the lands of Africans were taken away for cultivation and mining by settlers with Blacks working as slaves.
  • Slavery: Slave Trade made many Africans forcefully leave their homes to never come back. It destroyed many families.
    • The local Africans traded in the local slave markets.
    • They formed the workforce on the European plantations in Africa.
    • The psychological impact of slavery was an inferiority complex, that was systematically injected into the society, with even the Church supporting the notions of Master and Slave Race.
  • Mass killings by Colonial powers: . Many Africans were killed by the European military while resisting the loss of their lands, slavery, unfavourable treaties offered by the Europeans and the imposition of European culture.
    • Whole villages were destroyed if the inhabitants refused to agree to the demands of the Colonists.
    • Belgium Congo probably witnessed the first Genocide of the modern era.
  • Policy of Divide and Rule: The scramble for Africa divided Africa into colonies with arbitrary boundaries, which did not follow the logic of geographical continuity, cultural unity or economic viability.
    • This resulted in colonies having multiple tribes, with very different cultures.
    • For example, in Rwanda, Belgium followed this policy and after independence the country witnessed constant tribal violence.
    • In 1994, this process culminated in the worst genocide in recent history as the Hutu tribesmen massacred millions of Tutsi tribe members.
  • Extreme neglect of Education and Health: The colonists and white settlers ensured that the native blacks did not get educated.
    • Higher education, in particular, was neglected.
    • Wherever the policy of Apartheid was followed, Africans were given inferior education in separate schools.
    • Statistically speaking, the gross enrolment ratio at levels of primary, secondary and higher education was very low at time the African nations became independent.
  • Economic development hurt: These factors prevented economic development, and indigenous entrepreneurship, in any significant form, could not develop in Africa.
    • The policy of Mercantile capitalism followed by the Colonists hurt the economy of Africa. Africans did not get the market price for the mineral resources, which were exported out of Africa.
    • The Colonists ensured that no indigenous industry develops and Africa remains an exporter of raw material and importer of finished goods manufactured in European factories.

Conclusion

The expansion of European nations as empires (also known as new imperialism) can be seen as a key cause of World War I, because as countries like Britain and France expanded their empires, it resulted in increased tensions among European countries. After the world war I, the allies divided the colonies of the fallen axis powers amongst themselves.

 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2. With reference to the decolonisation of Cyprus, why did enosis not take place? What role has the United Nations played in Cyprus since 1964? Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: History of modern world by Jain & Mathur

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the decolonisation of Cyprus and the role played by U.N in it since 1964.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Write what the situation in Cyprus was at the time of its decolonisation, and what enosis means (unification of Cyprus with Greece).

Body:

Frist, discuss the process of decolonisation in Cyprus – mention the efforts that were taken to politically mobilise the people, Cyprus Emergency, Turkish Cypriots  and how it found itself divided soon after.

Next, write about the reasons for as to why enosis did not take place.

Next, Proceed to discuss the role played by the UN since its independence especially emphasising on the peace keeping.

Conclusion:

Highlight recent developments (efforts to reunite, then the latest news – election in self-declared Turkish republic of northern Cyprus, of an anti-unification nationalist)

Introduction

Cyprus is an island nation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea and ever since the Turkish invasion in 1974, has been partitioned into the Greek-majority Republic of Cyprus (ROC) and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC).

The ROC, which occupies two-thirds of the island, is internationally recognised while the TRNC, which occupies one-third of the north, is only recognised by Turkey. In 2004, the ROC joined the European Union.

Body

Background

  • Cyprus is located south of Turkey and southeast of Greece. Like India, it too was a British colony. From 1571 until 1878, the island was under Ottoman rule.
  • In 1914, the British annexed the island and ruled until 1960, granting independence to Cyprus under a power-sharing constitution between its Turkish and Greek inhabitants.
  • When the Republic of Cyprus gained independence in 1960 from the United Kingdom, a power sharing partnership agreement between the two communities was laid out in its newly-minted constitution.
  • Three years later, however, Cypriot President Archbishop Makarios III attempted to change the constitution, and Turkish Cypriots were expelled from the government.
    • This caused intercommunal violence to break out.
  • In 1964, the United Nations established the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) to prevent further violence, and a political separation took effect along ethnic lines.
  • This political stalemate endured until 1974, when a coup d’état – backed by Greece – ousted Makarios’ government.
  • He was replaced with a hardliner regime, one which sought “Enosis,” the unification of Cyprus with Greece.
  • Such a union was explicitly illegal per the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee; as one of the Guarantors under the treaty, Turkey, deployed troops to the northern part of the island.
  • By August of 1974, the Turkish military had taken control of over a third of Cyprus’ territory.
  • While a ceasefire was quickly brokered, the political separation became physical as well, with thousands of people relocating based on their ethnicity (Turkish Cypriots fled North, while Greek Cypriots fled south).

Enosis: Why it did not happen

  • In the early 1970s, the idea of enosis remained attractive to many Greek Cypriots, and Greek Cypriot students condemned Makarios’s support for an independent unitary state.
  • In 1971 the pro-enosis paramilitary group EOKA B was formed, and Makarios declared his opposition to the use of violence to achieve enosis.
  • EOKA B began a series of attacks against the Makarios government, and in 1974, the Cypriot National Guard organised a military coup against Makarios that was supported by the Greek government under the control of the Greek military junta of 1967–1974.
  • Rauf Denktaş, the Turkish Cypriot leader, called for military intervention by the United Kingdom and Turkey to prevent enosis.
  • Turkey acted unilaterally, and the Turkish invasion of Cyprus began. Turkey has since occupied Northern Cyprus.
  • In 1983, Rauf Denktas, the Turkish Cypriot politician and barrister, declared the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and went on to serve as the first president of the breakaway territory.
  • At the time, the UN Security Council denounced the new government as “invalid” and in violation of the 1960 Treaty.

Role of UN in Cyprus dispute

  • The United Nations intervened after the invasion and with the country effectively partitioned, established a buffer zone called ‘Green Line’.
  • Today, UN troops patrol the Green Line and barbed wire and trenches run through the capital, Nicosia.
  • In the 38 years since Turkish Cypriots declared Northern Cyprus a Turkish republic, UN-led peace talks have been unsuccessful.
  • Greek Cypriots have usually batted for the reunification of the island while their Turkish counterparts have pushed for a two-state solution.
  • In 2004, the Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot communities voted in a referendum to decide whether to implement a reunification plan negotiated under UN Secretary General Kofi Annan.
    • While the Turkish Cypriot community voted to implement the plan, the Greek Cypriot community rejected it.
  • The current negotiations process continues under the terms set forth by the February 2014 Joint Statement.
    • Major negotiation issues include questions of political power-sharing, property and territory, security guarantees, and the use of energy resources in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • In April this year, UN-led talks sought to resume negotiations to reunify Cyprus but hit a dead end.

Conclusion

The U.S., Turkey, and Greece have long pushed for the Turkish Cypriots and Greek Cypriots to resolve their disputes over the years. While these governments are beholden to a variety of internal interest groups on the matter, there is no doubt that the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities and their international partners only stand to benefit from a peaceful resolution to this decades-old issue.

 

Topic: urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

3. Without taking the impacts of climate change into consideration, today’s urban development gains may be wiped out tomorrow. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Maharashtra announced that 43 cities across the State will join the UN-backed ‘Race to Zero’ global campaign, which aims to create jobs while meeting goals of climate change and sustainable development.

Key Demand of the question:  

To write about the importance of incorporating the impact of climate change in our urban development plans and taking steps to tackle it.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Citing the recent IPCC report – mention the growing concerns of climate change.

Body:

First, in brief, how climate change is impacting modern cities and its predicted impact in the future. Substantiate with examples. Also, mention how the progress made so far maybe be nullified due to the impact of climate change.

Next, write about the steps that are needed in this regard to address it – Climate planning and city planning, Stakeholders and participation, Vulnerability assessment, Monitoring and evaluation etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The IPCC fifth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2015) predicts India and other tropical countries to have increased impacts of climate change particularly increased cyclone events, storm surges and extreme rainfall. Several Indian cities are in coastal areas or geographically vulnerable regions prone to natural hazards. And the urban poor that settle in environmentally vulnerable areas of cities with limited access to basic services are particularly vulnerable to impacts of climate change and natural hazards.

Body

Impact of climate change on modern cities

  • The built environment of cities accounts for 70 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions while consuming two-thirds of the world’s energy, according to C40 Cities.
    • From infrastructure failures to food and resource shortages to deaths, the effects of climate change are vast
  • Rising global temperatures causes sea levels to rise, increases the number of extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and storms, and increases the spread of tropical diseases.
    • All these have costly impacts on cities’ basic services, infrastructure, housing, human livelihoods and health.
  • With extra heat, the actual built environment of a city is affected. Past power grids failing, excessive heat can cause asphalt to melt, rail tracks to expand and airports to hold planes due to tarmacs being too hot.
  • Floodwaters can wash away roads, erode bayous and river banks, and push through bridges. And flooding from natural disasters isn’t expected to slow.
  • The pandemic that hit the world, is also said to be an effect of climate change as barriers between humans and pathogens are narrowing with deforestation.
    • Covid-19 like events will only worsen and the most affected are cities due to their dense populations.
  • Coastal flooding, sea-level rise, and cyclones are discussed less often despite India’s long coastline and highly vulnerable coastal cities and infrastructure.

Measures in place to tackle climate change in cities

  • Front-runners in this space have been cities such as Ahmedabad, which has had a Heat Action Plan (HAP) since 2010, its success evident from reduced heat mortality.
  • Combining infrastructural interventions (for example, painting roofs white) and behavioural aspects (building public awareness on managing heat), the model has now been scaled up to 17 cities across the country.
  • Nature-based solutions such as mangrove restoration in coastal Tamil Nadu and urban wetland management in Bengaluru have demonstrated how restoring ecosystem health can sustain human systems as well.
    • For example, urban parks provide cooling benefits and wetlands regulate urban floods.
  • In India, there are several successful initiatives on climate actions at city level that are yielding good results such as public transport systems in Ahmedabad, solid waste management in Surat, green spaces in Chandigarh, and improvements in energy efficiency such as adoption of LED streetlights in many cities

Steps to address climate change in cities

  • Climate action plans at city level should be implementable and should have necessary financial, institutional and policy support and should have clear cut short and long term implementable action.
  • The financing needs for climate actions is best taken by mainstreaming climate change risks in urban development planning itself, as a first stage, the master plan development process should consider the hazard, risk and vulnerability.
  • A key step will be collecting data and creating city-level greenhouse gas emissions inventories and identifying hotspots.
    • This will help the government prioritize actions and strategies for climate mitigation.
  • Instead of compartmentalised approach, cross-sector approach is needed.
    • Such a systemic approach promotes outcomes that would not arise otherwise, such as the synergies between public transport sites and housing locations.
    • And importantly, it complements and reinforces existing renewable and energy efficiency policies.
  • On the institutional angle, it would be important to empower the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) to take climate actions.
  • Long term visionary policy is needed to tackle climate change with political commitment.
    • E.g. On September 23, Maharashtra’s Environment Minister announced that 43 cities across the State will join the UN-backed ‘Race to Zero’ global campaign, which aims to create jobs while meeting goals of climate change and sustainable development.

Conclusion

India is becoming increasingly urban. Its cities or city-like villages are sites where the twin challenges of climate change and inclusive development will be won or lost.  While gloom and doom dominate climate reportage, a range of solutions with co-benefits for climate action and development exists. How to leverage these solutions and equip our city planners and citizens to implement them is what we should focus on.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. Amrut 2.0 is a renewed approach towards making the country water secure. Elaborate. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindupib.gov.in

Why the question: 

Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) 2.0 was launched by the Prime Minister and it aims to create water balance plans for all cities.

Key Demand of the question: 

To mention the features of AMRUT 2.0 and how it would address the water issues in the country.

Directive word: 

Elaborate Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Write about aims and objectives of AMRUT 2.0.

Body:

Firstly, mention the salient features of AMRUT 2.0

Next, highlight the various water issues plaguing the nation.

Next analyse on the important action points in AMRUT 2.0 to address the earlier mentioned issues – Recycle and reuse of treated wastewater, fresh water bodies will be protected from getting polluted, Aquifer Management system etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by mentioning that a multi-stakeholder approach is the need of the hour to resolve the water crisis in the country.

Introduction

AMRUT was launched as the first water focused Mission in 2015, with a total Mission outlay of ₹1,00,000 crore. The Mission caters to 500 major cities covering 60% of the urban population.

Now, taking the transformations further, AMRUT2.0 aims to make around 4,700 towns / cities ‘water secure’. It will build upon the progress of AMRUT to address water needs, rejuvenate water bodies, better manage aquifers, reuse treated wastewater, thereby promoting circular economy of water. The total outlay of AMRUT 2.0 is ₹2,97,000 crores, including central share of ₹76,760 crores

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AMRUT 2.0: Salient features

  • The Objective of AMRUT 2.0 is to provide 100% coverage of water supply to all households in around 4,700 ULBs, by providing 2.68 crore urban household tap connections, thereby benefitting around 10.7 crores people.
  • It will provide 100% coverage of sewerage and septage in 500 AMRUT cities, by providing 2.64 crore sewer connections/ septage connections.
  • Rejuvenation of water bodies and urban aquifer management will be undertaken to augment sustainable fresh water supply.
  • Recycle and reuse of treated wastewater is expected to cater to 20% of total water needs of the cities and 40% of industrial demand.
  • Under the Mission, fresh water bodies will be protected from getting polluted to make natural resources sustainable.

Water issues plaguing the nation

  • India has 4 % of the world’s freshwater which has to cater to 17 % of the world’s population.
  • As per NITI Aayog report (CWMI) released in June 2019, India is facing the worst-ever water crisis in history.
  • Approximately 600 million people or roughly around 45 % of the population in India is facing high to severe water stress.
  • As per the report, 21 Indian cities will run out of their main source of water i.e. groundwater by 2020.
  • Nearly 40 % of the population will have absolutely no access to drinking water by 2030 and 6 % of India’s GDP will be lost by 2050 due to the water crisis.

Addressing above issues through AMRUT 2.0

  • The mission will upscale from 500 cities covered under AMRUT with 1 lakh+ population to all 4,372 cities, covering 100% urban India.
  • It will promote circular economy of water through formulation of City Water Balance Plan for each city, focusing on recycle/reuse of treated sewage, rejuvenation of water bodies and water conservation.
  • Digital economy will be promoted through being a Paperless Mission.
  • Pey Jal Survekshan will be conducted in cities to ascertain equitable distribution of water, reuse of wastewater and mapping of water bodies w.r.t. quantity and quality of water through a challenge process.
  • Technology Sub-Mission for water will leverage latest global technologies in the field of water.
  • The Mission seeks to promote Aatmanirbhar Bharat through encouraging Startups and Entrepreneurs. It will lead to promotion of GIG economy and on-boarding of youth & women.
  • Urban Water Information System through NRSC will be developed, leading to Aquifer Management system.
  • Information, Education and Communication campaign will spread awareness among masses about conservation of water.
  • Target based capacity building program will be conducted for all stakeholders including contractors, plumbers, plant operators, students, women and other stakeholders.

Conclusion

Decentralised approach, with a key focus on water conservation, source sustainability, storage and reuse wherever possible. A participatory approach is needed in water governance. AMRUT 2.0 has a reform agenda, with focus on strengthening of urban local bodies and water security of the cities. This is the need of the hour.

Value Addition

Amrut Phase-I

  • 14 crore water tap connections have been provided taking total connections to 4.14 crore in AMRUT cities.
  • Credit rating work has been completed in 470 cities. Of which, 164 cities have received Investable Grade Rating (IGR), including 36 cities with rating of A- or above.
  • Rs 3,840 crore has been raised through Municipal Bonds by 10 ULBs. The Online Building Permission System has been implemented in 2,471 cities including 455 AMRUT cities.
  • This reform has helped improve India’s rank in Ease of Doing Business in construction permits to 27 in Doing Business Report (DBR) 2020 of World Bank from 181 in 2018.
  • 89 lakh conventional streetlights have been replaced with energy efficient LED lights, leading to estimated energy savings of 195 crore units per annum & reduction in CO2 emission by 15.6 lakh tons per annum.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

5. Pulses are important in the diets of people for nutritional benefits and in sustaining agriculture production systems. India should continue concerted efforts towards achieving self-sufficiency in pulses. Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Down to Earth 

Why the question:

India has made remarkable progress in enhancing production of pulses during the past 15 years. During 2005-06, the total production of pulses in India was 13.38 million MT, which increased to 25.58 million MT during 2020-21.

Key Demand of the question: 

To write about the importance of pulses in nutritional security and agriculture.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning the rapid growth witnessed in the production of pulses in India in the recent years.

Body:

First, write about the nutritional benefits of pulses for a country like India.

Next, write about how cultivation of pulses leads to sustainable agriculture systems – improved resilience to climate change, adaptability to new niches (early maturity and  heat tolerance), efficient seed production etc.

Next, suggest measures that are further needed to achieve self-sufficiency.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Pulses occupy an important place in Indian agriculture. They provide protein and fibre, and are a great source of vitamins and minerals such as iron, zinc and magnesium. In India, pulses are grown over an area of 2.38 crore hectares with a total production of 1.86 crore tonnes. The average yield of pulses in India is about 735 kg/hectare. Pulses are generally grown in irrigated as well as rainfed area and belong to Leguminosae family. Madhya Pradesh is the leading state in India in pulses, in terms of cultivated area and productivity.

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Nutritional benefits:

  • Pulses provide protein and fibre, as well as a significant source of vitamins and minerals, such as iron, zinc, folate, and magnesium, and consuming half a cup of beans or peas per day can enhance diet quality by increasing intakes of these nutrients.
  • In addition, the phytochemicals, saponins, and tannins found in pulses possess antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects, indicating that pulses may have significant anti-cancer effects.
  • Pulse consumption also improves serum lipid profiles and positively affects several other cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as blood pressure, platelet activity, and inflammation.
  • Pulses are high in fibre and have a low glycaemic index, making them particularly beneficial to people with diabetes by assisting in maintaining healthy blood glucose and insulin levels.
  • Emerging research examining the effect of pulse components on HIV and consumption patterns with aging populations indicates that pulses may have further effects on health.
  • Including pulses in the diet is a healthy way to meet dietary recommendations and is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases.

Environment benefits:

  • Pulse crops are important components of production systems that are resilient to climate change.
  • Pulses are able to convert nitrogen in the atmosphere into compounds in the soil. This process is known as nitrogen fixation.
  • Including pulses in intercropping farming systems and cultivating them as cover crops not only reduces the need for synthetic fertilizers, but also helps reduce soil erosion, thus contributing to the creation of healthy soils.
  • Healthy soils, are in turn, better able to retain moisture and facilitate the uptake of nutrients by plants.
  • Pulses in general need lesser water compared to rice, wheat and sugarcane. This in turn helps in conserving the dwindling ground water resources and help the dry-land farming grow.
  • The reduced need for synthetic fertilizers indirectly reduces the level of greenhouse gases released in the atmosphere.
  • Pulses also promote higher rates of accumulation of soil carbon than cereals or grasses.
  • Including pulses in intercropping farming systems and cultivating them as cover crops creates a more diverse environment at the field level.
  • This, in turn, supports a broader range of insects and “wildlife” above ground and in the range of bacteria and fungi in the soil.
  • The presence of this broader range of insects and microbial life provides for a more resilient “ecosystem” that helps keep harmful insects, diseases and pathogens in check, thus reducing the need (to) use pesticides.
  • There are hundreds of different varieties of pulses and only a limited number of these are widely grown.
  • It is from this diversity that climate-resilient varieties (which are adaptive) to changes in temperature and have the ability to grown in poor soils or under drought conditions can be derived.
  • Since climate experts suggested that heat stress will be the biggest threat to bean production in the coming decades, the improved pulse varieties will be of critical importance, especially for low-input agricultural production systems.

Way forward:

  • New research efforts should be initiated to achieve a breakthrough in the productivity.
  • Innovative ideas need to be implemented instead of conducting routine research and material evaluation.
  • Scientists to work for development of shorter duration, widely adaptable and biotic and abiotic stress resistant varieties to boost the production of pulses.
  • Modernization of pulse breeding programme, supporting genetic gains through transgenic technology, enhancing biological nitrogen fixation through development of super nodulating plant types and breeding short duration varieties for achieving self-sufficiency in pulses.
  • Extension workers and agriculture technology information centers should work more towards development and dissemination of newer technologies.

Conclusion

India need to produce 40-50 lakh tonnes of additional pulses for meeting the domestic requirement and this can be possible only if we develop high yielding short duration, drought and insect-pest resistance varieties of pulses. The important role that pulses can play in sustainable crop production systems, in particular through their contribution to improved soil fertility and to agro-biodiversity along with providing a balanced and healthy diet as evidenced by their use by the World Food Programme and other food aid initiatives makes it a naturally optimal choice.

 

Topic: Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

6. Military and Naval exercises with friendly nations have become a necessary tool in India’s defence diplomacy. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

India is set to host its largest naval exercise, Ex Milan, early next year for which 46 countries have been invited.

Key Demand of the question: 

To understand the role of soft diplomacy for India in its International affairs and regional geopolitics

Directive word:

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Introduction: 

Begin by describing India’s geographic location and the corresponding potential and the need for military exercises.

Body:

First give a few instances of few military exercises with friendly nations in the recent past such as Malabar exercise, Yudh Abhyas etc.

Next, stress on the potential outcomes of such exercises such as for Naval exercises, it would improve the operational turnaround and improve logistics of the armed forces in the region and also improve Maritime Domain Awareness.

Next mention that the benefit ranges from inter-operability to demonstration of capabilities, developing trust, comradery and familiarity between militaries.

Conclusion:

Conclude by mentioning that such exercises are a key to confidence building measure (CBM) and an indication of the faith reposed by India on another nation or a group of member nations.

Introduction

India is set to host its largest naval exercise, Ex Milan, early next year for which 46 countries have been invited. There has been huge increase in the Navy’s engagements in the Indo-Pacific with several countries keen on exercising with India. There are several demands for trilaterals in the region which the Navy is prioritising considering its operational requirements and relationships with the countries

From the Malabar naval exercise to Yudh Abhyas, these exercises help establish India’s military capabilities and is also a great way of securing allies, which will help in times of need.

Body

Military and Naval exercises: Benefits

  • Better Coordination: It facilitates better coordination between the militaries, observation of enemy’s tactics, and familiarisation with new technologies, enabling on-the-job training of each other’s crews.
  • Disaster relief: These are useful in case of joint military operations be it in war or in operations other than war such as humanitarian aid and disaster relief.
  • Potent tool as deterrent: According to a 2021 study, joint military exercises between allies deter adversaries.
  • Shows diplomatic stance and alignment: Perhaps, the most important advantage of joint military exercises is ‘strategic signalling’.
    • A joint exercise with one or more nations serves the purpose of signalling to a third country of the influence we have in the region and a demonstration of our resolve to further our diplomatic objectives.
  • Soft Power: On the intangible side, military exercises promote brotherhood and camaraderie between soldiers and militaries.
    • Besides goodwill, it is a tool for projection of a nation’s soft power

Outcomes of joint exercises for India

  • India has realised the potential of joint military exercises as part of military diplomacy. In the last decade or so, India has undertaken army joint exercises with 18 countries, naval exercises with 14 countries and air force exercises with eight countries.
  • The objectives for joint military exercises are different, it ranges from inter-operability to demonstration of capabilities, developing trust, comradery and familiarity between militaries.
  • The location of exercises in itself is an indication of deep engagement and trust with the partners.
    • Eg: The naval exercises between India, Japan and the US in the Sea of Japan obviously is a signal directed to China.
  • These exercises also act as a platform to assess weapons, equipment and a display of technology that can be made available to allies.
  • Such exercises are also seen as an assurance that a critical supply of spares and accessories will be guaranteed during a possible conflict.
  • However, there is also a criticism against holding war games with one expert stating that they are of a simple basic variety which doesn’t provide any value addition to the Indian force.
    • Eg US, South Korea exercises irking North Korea and triggering new arms race.

Way forward

  • There is still plenty of room for improvement for India in this area.
  • The defence diplomacy of India is still not in complete sync with its foreign policy. It has not been used as a tool to fulfil our foreign policy objectives.
  • India needs to understand as once said by John F Kennedy, “Diplomacy and defence are not substitutes for one another, either alone would fail”.
  • India needs to understand this philosophy as the present age of smart power.
  • To be the major player in the world India will have to combine its hard power and soft power into effective strategies to achieve the best results.

Value  Addition

These are some of the famous exercises that the armed forces participate in:

  • Yudh Abhyas with the US
  • Maitree Exercise with Thailand
  • Shakti with France
  • INDRA with Russia
  • KAZIND with Kazakhstan
  • DUSTLIK with Uzbekistan
  • Malabar with Australia, India, Japan and US
  • RIMPAC with Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Denmark, France, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Philippines, South Korea Singapore, Thailand, Tonga, the UK and US
  • COBRA-GOLD with Asia-Pacific countries
  • In the recent past, the Malabar Naval games have gained significant media attention owing to the rise of Quad collective..

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker- sections.

7. Non-partisanship in public administration is an essential precondition for ensuring that regardless of their political orientation, citizens are treated fairly and in an equitable manner. Discuss. (150 Words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Key Demand of the question:

trace the link between non-partisanship in public administration and equality amongst citizens.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by highlighting the importance of neutrality and non-partisanship in public administration.

Body:

Begin by talking about values which are important to the level of justice and continuity in public administration with suitable examples.

Mention about how public servants must be accountable to the government for the effective delivery of its programs.

Then finally talk about responsiveness of the administration to the government of the day within the law and the how constitution is key to the effective implementation of government policies in an equitable manner.

Conclusion:

Complete the answer by suggesting ways for neutrality in public administration in an increasingly polarizing world.

Introduction

Non-partisanship is not being specifically owned or affiliated with any group, party or cause. Non-partisanship can be called as political neutrality. Non-partisanship implies that the administrator is to do his/her task without any fear of or favour to any political party.

Body:

A bureaucrat is needed to be politically neutral:

  • Neutrality depicts that public officials are not slaves to either the politicians or any other authority other than the moral authority of the Constitution.
  • It shows that the principle of neutrality implies a measure of independence both from the partisan interests of the government of the day and the exogenous agenda that prompts certain social groups to cow others down to humiliating vulnerability.
  • Bureaucracy should be neutral in terms of ideology and politics. So that there will not be an affinity to a particular class or ideology.
  • For a genuine public official, commitment to constitutional principles is not only a lifelong project but, more importantly, it can be carried out without any political or ideological mediation.
  • If bureaucracy won’t be neutral then it cannot lend its whole-hearted support to the existing political system, and to the economic and political system if any radical changes are introduced.
  • Without neutrality, there can be a close nexus between bureaucracy and large-scale enterprises which could further lead to crony capitalism.
  • By and large, the spirit of neutrality imbedded by civil servants enables them to perform their duties in a detached and impartial manner.

Impartiality and Non-partisanship which determine the foundation of a non-partisan public service. These are:

  • Recruitment, promotions or even terminations should be completely free of any kind of political influence and done purely on merit basis.
  • All public officials should perform their duties in an impartial manner.
  • Kenneth Kernaghan has put forth a model of political neutrality which suggests the following:
    • Politics and policy are completely separate from administration. While politicians take policy decisions, it is the public officials which put them in execution.
    • All public officials are recruited purely on merit basis and not depending on any political inclination or affiliation.
    • Public officials do not engage in any partisan politics.
    • Public officials do not express their personal views on government policies and administration.
    • Public officials give correct and objective advice to their political masters.
    • All policies are implemented with full zeal and enthusiasm keeping all personal biases at a side.
  • The major advantage of this value is that it removes all scope of controversy that a public servant may encounter during his time of service. Neutral nature of work will keep issues away from public fanfare.
    • Ex: If a public servant gives permission for holding rally to a particular political party and denies the same for another, it will create controversy. By maintaining neutrality this can be avoided.
  • In multi religious and multicultural society such as India there are many issues that arise between two groups, which may result in tension. The public official must exercise his duty by maintaining distance from both the parties in order to maintain peace.
    • Ex: Religious procession is one of the many events where different groups show their strength. During this time the public official must be ready to take rational decisions without favouring one party over the other.
  • Government is ruling body that needs to maintain distance from getting involved too closely with public. If that barrier is broken, the value and dignity of the position will be compromised.
    • Ex: Members of UPSC should keep distance from candidates who they know personally. If any links are established, then reputation of the body will be under threat.

Conclusion:

Impartiality and Non-partisanship both form essential foundational values for civil services. While impartiality ensures equality without any bias and prejudices in the general, non-partisanship ensures a neutral approach in politics and a solid commitment to the government


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