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[MISSION 2022] SECURE 2022 : Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 7 October 2021

 

 

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

1. It was from the latter part of 1927 that the curve of the mass anti-imperialist upsurge began to take a marked upward turn. What were some of the events that led up to the Civil Disobedience Movement? Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference:  India’s Struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra.

Why the question:  

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:  

To list important events that took place 1927 onwards up to the start of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start with a summary of what happened following the Non-Cooperation Movement up to 1927.

Body:

In first part, write how the British government’s actions (in 1927) proved to be the spark that lit the fire (Civil Disobedience Movement).

Proceed to write how a new wave of youth embraced the idea of becoming freedom fighters, were influenced by socialism. Do not forget to mention the Nehru report, the reaction of youth to this report, Jinnah’s 14 points, Delhi manifesto etc.

Conclusion:

Write that the ignorance by the British government of Gandhi’s 11 point-demand triggered the start of the civil disobedience movement.

 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2. The League of Nations was a toothless tiger since its inception and hence was bound to be an utter failure. Comment. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: History of modern world by Jain & Mathur.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about composition and powers of the League of nations and to write about its successes and failures.

Directive word:

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Introduction: 

Write briefly about the background of the formation of the League – the first world war.

Body:

In the first part, write what the League’s aims were. Proceed to write what its successes were. In the final part, write what its failures were.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting the league’s legacy, viz. it being the first attempt at creating an international body that was meant to pursue peace, and that it was the precursor to the UN.

 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues

3. India’s Global Gender Gap Index rating, 2021 indicates that the phenomena of ‘motherhood penalty’ strongly prevails in the employment sector. Examine the causes for the same and suggest some measures to address this issue. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

India’s 2021 Global Gender Gap Index ranking, wherein it has slipped 28 places since 2020 to No. 140 out of 156 nations ranked. 

Key Demand of the question:  

To understand the term ‘motherhood penalty’ and also to give suggestions to resolve the issue.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining motherhood penalty.

Body:

First, mentioning some ground reality of hiring trend, pay structure and promotion trend of women and especially mothers in India. mention the gender disparity prevalent in workspace in terms of women especially mothers being considered as Care givers, to be less talented and participating in their duties assigned.

Next, indicate the lacunae in the Maternity Benefit Act in terms of extending paid leaves only for the mothers and keeping paternity benefits and leaves at a minimal low.

Next, suggest measures such as day care benefits in work space, acknowledging care duties of men in the household and ensuring equal pay in workspace etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by saying that the gender gap actually leads to a loss of GDP especially when the scenario is grim in the post covid situation and this calls for swift action.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

4. Discuss the purpose of Anti-Defection law in India and its efficacy in our parliamentary democracy especially in the recent times of MP/MLAs following a trend of party hopping. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Recently the Calcutta High Court has given West Bengal Assembly Speaker Biman Banerjee a deadline of Thursday, October 7 to pass an order in the defection case involving MLA Mukul Roy. Also, the anti-defection proceedings are going on in Jharkhand, Rajasthan and in the Lok sabha.

Key Demand of the question: 

To understand the intent of Anti Defection laws and the invoking of their provisions in the recent past.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning the schedule of the Constitution describing Anti-defection law.

Body:

First, mention the context of introduction of anti-defection law in 1985.

Next, mention the conditions in which a legislator would be considered as a defector.

Next, citing examples discuss the increasing trends of many legislators changing parties and delayed initiation of proceedings against them by the Presiding officers. Discuss the efficacy of the law to prevent such defections.

Conclusion:

Conclude by mentioning that the law must provide for a timely action against any such defector in order to maintain its relevance.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

5. The post-pandemic commodities boom and efforts to reduce coal mining to tackle the climate crisis have driven global coal prices sky high. Analyse the causes for the impending Coal crisis in India and necessary steps to mitigate it. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference:  Economic Times

Why the question: 

Coal-fired power stations have an average of four days’ worth of stock of the fuel, according to the latest data, and more than half the plants are already on alert for outages.

Key Demand of the question: 

To mention the reasons serious coal shortage for power production in India and also suggest effective steps to surpass the same.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving facts regarding the coal shortage and the dependency ratio of power production plants on coal as their source.

Body:

Firstly, highlight the various factors leading to low coal production such as certain coal mines being dormant and some being affected by the cyclones in the eastern parts of the country and low coal exports.

Next, suggest various measures such as promotion of hydro power generation, other sources of power and incentivising coal based plants to produce more by promoting the spot prices of power in the energy exchange.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing that with advancement of technology, the power consumption needs would further increase and a robust plan with a heavy inclination towards clean energy is the need of the hour.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance;

6. When morality is not in consonance with a law, what should prevail – the moral principle or the law? (150 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Abstract Thursdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To debate as to what should prevail if morality is in conflict with the law.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start the answer by mentioning the relationship between morality and law.

Body:

Explain that the popular conception of the connection between law and morality is that in some way the law exists to promote morality, to preserve those conditions which make the moral life possible.

Write about the reason for conflict. They conflict most often because morality gives you a sense of what is right and wrong or acceptable and what is not according to human nature. Law commands obedience not out of a sense of right or wrong but out of necessity. Substantiate the above with examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude by underscoring that Morality forms the foundation, the pre-condition, for laws. Put another way, laws do not have the necessary foundation or reason to be, if there is no such thing as morality.

 

Topic: Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information

7. Do you think Whistleblowing is ethically justified? (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Abstract Thursdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the act of whistle blower and how it can have both perspectives.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain what is whistle blowing.

Body:

The discussion in such questions can be best explained using examples, students must explain in what way whistle blowing can prove to be unethical or ethical depending on situation.

Explain What are the moral and ethical justification of whistleblowing? – whistleblowing is morally required when it is required at all; people have a moral obligation to prevent serious harm to others if they can do so with little costs to themselves. Give examples to justify your points.

Debate whether whistleblowing is an act of ethical practice?

Conclusion:

Conclude with a fair and balanced opinion.


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