Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
1. The 1890s and early 1900s were not only a phase of moderate struggle in India, but also in South Africa. In what ways did Gandhiji’s South African experience prepare him for leadership in India? Elucidate. (250 words)
Difficulty level: Easy
Reference: A Brief History of Modern India by Rajiv Ahir (Spectrum Publishers)
Why the question:
The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.
Key Demand of the question:
The methods used by Indians in their struggle in South Africa, and Gandhiji’s experience in the course of that struggle.
Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.
Structure of the answer:
Begin your answer by writing briefly what problems Indians in South Africa faced, at around the time of Gandhiji’s arrival in the country.
List out the tools of protest/struggle used during the moderate phase of struggle in the Indian National Movement, then with respect to South African Indians. Mention various agitations undertaken by Gandhi while in Africa. Mention their impact.
Write what some of the learnings for Gandhi were in leading Indians against authorities in power (ex: he learnt how to handle religious diversity).
End your answer by briefly writing how well known Gandhiji already was among a few leaders and masses by when he returned to India.