GS Paper 3
Topics Covered: Conservation-related issues.
The Male Tiger (name T23) has been responsible for the death of four persons in villages around Mudumalai Tiger Reserve (TN). Efforts to capture the animal had been unfruitful and after locals protest, TN Chief Wildlife Warden has ordered to hunt the Tiger T23 as a last resort
Major causes of Human-Animal conflict:
- Encroachment: People are increasingly encroaching into the country’s traditional wild spaces and animal sanctuaries, where people compete with wildlife for food and other resources.
- Unsustainable development: Animal usual corridors blocked by highways, railway tracks, and factories. This results in ecological dislocation of sorts, wherein endangered wild animals like tigers either cause distress or land themselves in trouble
- Failure of government measures: ‘Human-Wildlife conflict mitigation measures are dysfunctional, haphazardly implemented, and therefore not effective
- Location of animals outside protected areas: Wildlife experts estimate that 29 percent of the tigers in India are outside the protected areas. Wildlife experts claim that territorial animals do not have enough space within reserves and their prey do not have enough fodder to thrive on.
Impact of Human-Animal Conflicts:
Government Initiatives to reduce the man-tiger conflicts are:
Sonitpur Model: WWF India had developed the ‘Sonitpur Model’ during 2003-2004 by which community members were connected with the state forest department. They were given training on how to work with them to drive elephants away from crop fields safely. Afterward, crop losses dropped to zero for four years running. Human and elephant deaths also reduced significantly.
Advisory for management of Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC) approved by Standing Committee of National Board of Wildlife (SC-NBWL):
- Empower gram panchayatsin dealing with the problematic wild animals as per the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
- Utilize add-on coverage under the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojnafor crop compensation against crop damage due to HWC.
- Augment fodder and water sources within the forest areas.
- Other measures:The advisory prescribes inter-departmental committees at the local/state level, adoption of early warning systems, creation of barriers, dedicated circle wise Control Rooms with toll-free hotline numbers which could be operated on a 24X7 basis.
Did you know about the WWF and UNEP report on Human-wildlife conflict ? Read Here
- What are Human-Wildlife conflicts?
- What measures has the government taken regarding this?
- Which International organization is working to mitigate the conflict?
- Who implements the measures?
- What Powers does Wildlife Board have?