InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically.
GS Paper 2
Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
Chief Justice of India has mooted to form a Panel headed by High Court Chief Justice to probe any complaint received from Common man of “atrocities” committed by the bureaucracy, especially police officers
Need for Such a Panel
- Police have been in the spotlight for committing serious crimes:
- Gorakhpur (UP): The police officers in Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh have been accused of causing the death of a businessman during a raid in a hotel.
- Thoothukudi (Tamil Nadu): Nine policemen were involved in the custodial deaths of the father-son duo P. Jayaraj and J. Benicks for violating Covid19 Curfew in June last year.
- Agartala (Tripura): DM Shailesh Kumar Yadav was recorded on video physically manhandling citizens during the lockdown and was later suspended by the state government
- The politicization of Bureaucracy: CJI made the oral observation that Bureaucrats act with impunity with one government but have to “payback with interest” when there is a regime change
- ‘Targets of political vendetta’: Bureaucrats and especially Police officers find themselves being targeted by the new government. This impacts their efficiency, trust, and impartiality in the system.
- g. ADG of Police Gurjinder Pal Singh in Chhattisgarh had sought protection from arrest in Supreme Court in various criminal cases, including sedition, extortion, and criminal intimidation, arraigned against him by the current government.
Atrocities by Police have emerged as human rights concern as it:
- Violates Fundamental Rights of citizen:
- Article 21: Custodial violence is against the fundamental right to life and dignity.
- Article 19: Use of Section 506 of IPC to get non-bailable remand for the accused is against the Fundamental Right to Freedom.
- Article 20(3): Adopting third-degree tortures and methods to extract the information from the accused is in clear violation of Article 20 (3) of the Constitution of India.
- Article 22: Right to counselis also a fundamental right under Article 22(1) of the Indian constitution, but custodial violence violates it.
- Violates Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: No one shall be subjected to torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment.
- Violates ‘Rule of Law’: 60% of all arrests made by police were “unnecessary” (National Police Commission (3rd Report))
- Violates the maxim “Salus Populi Est Suprema Lex” i.e. the safety of the people is the supreme law
Challenges in curbing the misuse of power by Bureaucrats:
- India has not criminalized custodial violence: India also does not have an anti-torture legislation
- Non-implementation of SC Prakash Singh case (2006) order: Also, Recommendations of the 2nd ARC and the Supreme Court for constituting independent complaint authority to inquire into the cases of police misconduct have not been implemented by most of the States.
- Police force lacks accountability and impunity: Only the executive can sue a police officer and any inquiry against the officer need prior government approval.
- Perception of quick justice: 80% of police personal believe the use of violence by them is justified while 50% of citizens also believe so (“Status of Policing in India Report, 2019” by Common Cause)
- Underfunded, under-trained and understaffed Police force: Even the money under the Modernization of Police Forces (MPF) Scheme have not been fully utilized (Bureau of Police Reforms and Development (BPR&D) data)
- This leads to undue pressure on police to solve the case without having the requisite resources to do it.
- Nearly 12% of police personnel never receive human rights training (Common Cause and CSDS-Lokniti, report)
Measures to curb misuse of power by Bureaucrats:
- Law commission report implementation:
- 273rd report: those accused of committing custodial torture – be it policemen, paramilitary and military personnel – should be criminally prosecuted instead of facing mere administrative action.
- Legal Measures:
- Section 197 of CrPC should be amended: This will ensure that prosecutors do not need the permission of the government before pursuing charges against police in cases such as arbitrary detention, extrajudicial killings, torture, and other criminal acts.
- Administrative Measures:
- DK Basu judgment (1987) guidelines of SC should be strictly implemented: E.g. notifying the next of kin of the arrested person, medical examination of the accused was made mandatory, preparing memo at the time of arrest in front of a witness, etc.
- Judicial measures: Magistrate’s Role: magistrates must prevent overreach of police powers by inspecting arrest-related documents and ensuring the wellbeing of suspects by directly questioning them.
- Monitoring and implementation of DK Basu by independent and balanced civil society individuals at each level, under court supervision, will help in minimizing it.
- Adequate training to the police force: Training on modern, non-coercive techniques for suspect and witness interviewing and questioning as well as on respecting human rights aspects.
- CCTVs inside police stations, use of Body cameras (as is done in the U.S. and the U.K.) can ensure police restraint.
Did you about Right to Counsel in Custody? Read Here
- What is Custodial Violence?
- Which fundamental Rights do atrocities by Police violate?
- What are legal and Constitutional Safeguards?
- Recommendations of Various Committees to police the Bureaucrats?
Discuss the significance of Implementation of DK Basu judgments with respect to custodial deaths in India? (15M) Secure compilation page 23
GS Paper 2
Topics Covered: Population and associated issues, poverty, and developmental issues.
The government has launched the 2nd phase of the Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban and Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) to make cities free of garbage, ensuring safe water, and not allow any untreated water discharge into any of the rivers in the country.
Achievement till now:
- 100% Open Defecation Free (ODF)
- 70% of wastes in Indian Cities are being processed (from 20% back in 2014): India is processing about one lakh tonne of waste every day.
- Behavioral Changes: Cleanliness has become a great campaign. PM cited that Children no longer throw Toffee wrappers around but keep them in the pocket to be disposed of in the dustbin later
- National Respect and Pride: The successes of the two missions have given citizens respect, dignity, pride in collective ambition, and unmatched love for the motherland.
- Enhanced finances: Allocation of the fund to the Urban Development Ministry increased from 25 lakh Crore (2007-2014) to 4 lakh Crore (2014-2021)
Key Points of the Mission:
Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 (SBM-U)
- To make all cities 100% ‘garbage free’ from current 70%
- Ensure grey and black water management in all cities other than those covered under AMRUT
- Make all urban local bodies as ODF+ and those with a population of less than 1 lakh as ODF++
- Focus on source segregation of solid waste by utilizing the principles of 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle)
- Scientific processing of all types of municipal solid waste and remediation of legacy dumpsites for effective solid waste management
- 100% coverage of water supply to all households in around 4,700 urban local bodies by providing about 68 crore tap connections
- 100% coverage of sewerage and septage in 500 AMRUT cities by providing around 64 crore sewers/ septage connections
- Adopt the principles of Circular Economy (Generating wealth from waste using 3Rs)
- Promote conservation and rejuvenation of surface and groundwater bodies
- Data led governance in water management
- Technology Sub-Mission to leverage latest global technologies and skills
- ‘Pey Jal Survekshan’: To promote competition among cities
Do you know how women contribute to the success of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan? Read Here
Learn About SBM 1.0
- What are the targets and timelines for Swachh Bharat Abhiyan 2.0 and Amrut 2.0?
- Which ministries will be involved in its implementation?
- What will be the contribution of the State government and their responsibilities?
- What parameters will be used to monitor the scheme?
GS Paper 2
Topics covered: Indian Constitution- Significant feature- Citizenship
Context: New guidelines introduced by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) to simplify the process of renunciation of citizenship for Indians who wish to do so.
- Some of the simplified provisions in the new guidelines include- Uploading of documents online and completion of the process of renunciation within 60 days
- The new form also has a provision mandating the Indian citizen to indicate the reason for renouncing the citizenship
- The uploaded documents have to be submitted to the District Magistrate in case of citizen living in India or an Indian Mission abroad. The applicant will be interviewed before issuing the final certificate
- Also, the guidelines specify that as per the Citizenship act, 1955- “every minor child of that person shall thereupon ceases to be a citizen of India”.
- Concern with the guidelines: The guidelines are not clear if minors would also lose citizenship if only one of the parents gives up her/his Indian citizenship.
- How can citizenship be acquired in India?
Figure: Provisions related to acquiring citizenship
- The citizenship act, 1955 prescribes three ways of losing citizenship:
- By renunciation:
- Any citizen of India of full age and capacity can make a declaration renouncing Indian citizenship
- Such declaration may not be accepted during war.
- Even the minor children of the person who renounces citizenship stands to lose their Indian citizenship. However, when their children attain the age of eighteen, he may resume Indian citizenship
- By termination:
- If a citizen of India voluntarily acquires the citizenship of another country, then he loses the citizenship of India
- However, this provision does not apply during times of war
- By deprivation: Compulsory termination of Indian citizenship by the Central government, in the following conditions:
- Obtained the citizenship by fraud
- Citizen has shown disloyalty to the Constitution of India
- Citizen has unlawfully traded or communicated during the times of war
- Within 5 years of naturalization, the said citizen is imprisoned for a term of two years
- Citizen has been ordinarily resident out of India for a period of 7 years
- Provisions related to citizenship in the constitution
- Acts and policies associated with citizenship
- Features related to citizenship Amendment Act, 2019
- Ways of acquiring citizenship and losing mentioned in the various acts
- Persons of Indian Origin (PIO)- features associated with
What are the major concerns expressed against CAA, 2019?
Source: The Hindu
GS Paper 2
Topics covered: Issues related to Health
Context: A study conducted recently observed that it is crucial to have a good control over blood pressure and cholesterol and not just good control over blood sugar level to combat Type 1 diabetes
Other observations made in this study
- Patients who have T1D have reduced life-span even with insulin being administered to them
- Subjects who were able to control all the three had better glycemic and blood pressure control, more favourable lipid profiles and lower prevalence of complications which helped them to increase their life-span compared to those who could not control all the three
- T1D prevalence in India: India is home to more than 95,000 children with T1D, reported to be the highest in the world, according to the 9th International Diabetes Federation Atlas
- What is Type 1 diabetes? In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas (a small gland behind the stomach) progressively reduces the amount of insulin (the hormone that regulates blood glucose levels) it produces until it stops producing any at all. If the amount of glucose in the blood is too high, it can, over time, seriously damage the body’s organs.
- Difference between Type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Figure: Difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes
- National Programme for prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and strokes (NPCDCS):
- It was launched in 2010in 100 districts across 21 States, in order to prevent and control the major NCDs.
- The main focus of the programme is on health promotion, early diagnosis, management and referral of cases, besides strengthening the infrastructure and capacity building.
- The funds are being provided to States under NCD Flexi-Pool through State PIPs of respective States/UTs, with the Centre to State share in ratio of 60:40 (except for North-Eastern and Hilly States, where the share is 90:10).
- ‘Fit India’ movement was launched recently to highlight the need to stay healthy amid rising instances of lifestyle disorders and non-communicable diseases (NCDs).
- What is diabetes?
- Different types of diabetes and the differences between them
- Risk factors related to this disease
- Programmes or policies related to this
Examine the steps taken by the government to combat the rising diabetes cases in India
Source: The Hindu
GS Paper 2
Topics covered: International relations
Context: China’s display of air force against Taiwan. Display of military power like this has been on the rise by China against Taiwan
- China has claimed Taiwan through its “one China” policysince the Chinese civil war forced the defeated Kuomintang, or Nationalist, to flee to the island in 1949 and has vowed to bring it under Beijing’s rule, by force if necessary.
- While Taiwan is self-governed and de facto independent, it has never formally declared independence from the mainland.
- Under the “one country, two systems” formula,Taiwan would have the right to run its own affairs; a similar arrangement is used in Hong Kong.
- Presently, Taiwan is claimed by China, which refuses diplomatic relations with countries that recognize the region.
- Although they do not have formal diplomatic ties, Taiwan and India have been cooperating in various fields.
- India has refused to endorse the “one-China” policy since 2010.
- Location of Taiwan and its historical background.
- Regions being administered by China under One China policy.
- Is Taiwan represented at WHO and the United Nations?
- Countries in South China Sea.
- Qing dynasty.
Write a note on India- Taiwan bilateral relations.
Source: The Hindu
GS Paper 3
Topics Covered: Conservation-related issues.
The Male Tiger (name T23) has been responsible for the death of four persons in villages around Mudumalai Tiger Reserve (TN). Efforts to capture the animal had been unfruitful and after locals protest, TN Chief Wildlife Warden has ordered to hunt the Tiger T23 as a last resort
Major causes of Human-Animal conflict:
- Encroachment: People are increasingly encroaching into the country’s traditional wild spaces and animal sanctuaries, where people compete with wildlife for food and other resources.
- Unsustainable development: Animal usual corridors blocked by highways, railway tracks, and factories. This results in ecological dislocation of sorts, wherein endangered wild animals like tigers either cause distress or land themselves in trouble
- Failure of government measures: ‘Human-Wildlife conflict mitigation measures are dysfunctional, haphazardly implemented, and therefore not effective
- Location of animals outside protected areas: Wildlife experts estimate that 29 percent of the tigers in India are outside the protected areas. Wildlife experts claim that territorial animals do not have enough space within reserves and their prey do not have enough fodder to thrive on.
Impact of Human-Animal Conflicts:
Government Initiatives to reduce the man-tiger conflicts are:
Sonitpur Model: WWF India had developed the ‘Sonitpur Model’ during 2003-2004 by which community members were connected with the state forest department. They were given training on how to work with them to drive elephants away from crop fields safely. Afterward, crop losses dropped to zero for four years running. Human and elephant deaths also reduced significantly.
Advisory for management of Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC) approved by Standing Committee of National Board of Wildlife (SC-NBWL):
- Empower gram panchayatsin dealing with the problematic wild animals as per the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
- Utilize add-on coverage under the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojnafor crop compensation against crop damage due to HWC.
- Augment fodder and water sources within the forest areas.
- Other measures:The advisory prescribes inter-departmental committees at the local/state level, adoption of early warning systems, creation of barriers, dedicated circle wise Control Rooms with toll-free hotline numbers which could be operated on a 24X7 basis.
Did you know about the WWF and UNEP report on Human-wildlife conflict ? Read Here
- What are Human-Wildlife conflicts?
- What measures has the government taken regarding this?
- Which International organization is working to mitigate the conflict?
- Who implements the measures?
- What Powers does Wildlife Board have?
Facts for Prelims:
Geriatrician V.S. Natarajan gets Vayoshreshtha Samman
- Vice-President M. Venkaiah Naidu presented the Vayoshreshtha Samman National Award to senior geriatrician V.S. Natarajan.
- The recipient of the award has been taking various initiatives through his enterprise (Dr. V S Natarajan Geriatric Foundation) for the healthy welfare of the elders.
- Vayoshreshtha Samman is a Scheme of awards instituted by the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment and gradually upgraded to the status of National Awards, for institutions involved in rendering distinguished service for the cause of elderly persons especially indigent senior citizens and to eminent citizens in recognition of their service/achievements.