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[Mission 2022] SECURE SYNOPSIS: 28 September 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

1. “The Nuremberg trial sentenced only eleven leading Nazis to death. Many others were imprisoned for life. The Allies did not want to be as harsh on defeated Germany as they had been after the first world war.” Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: History of modern world by jain & Mathur

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about some of the terms imposed on Germany after the first world war? Why were they regarded as being harsh? What was the eventual outcome of these terms?

Directive word:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing what the Nuremberg trials were – military tribunals that prosecuted Nazi leaders.

Body:

Write first some of the terms imposed on Germany under the Treaty of Versailles – lost territory, lost colonies, the reparations clause, etc. Then, why were the Germans were unhappy with the terms? Finally, how the chain of events following the Treaty led to the rise of Hitler and consequently the 2nd world war (creation of a “forced” republic, how the republic crushed socialist movements, the economic crises, rise of Hitler).

Conclusion:

Conclude by mention a relatively forgiving peace following the second world war as opposed to the first, averted a third world war.

Introduction

The Nuremberg trials were a series of 13 trials carried out in Nuremberg, Germany, between 1945 and 1949 for the purpose of bringing Nazi war criminals to justice, . The defendants, who included Nazi Party officials and high-ranking military officers along with German industrialists, lawyers and doctors, were indicted on such charges as crimes against peace and crimes against humanity.

Nuremberg trials are now regarded as a milestone toward the establishment of a permanent international court, and an important precedent for dealing with later instances of genocide and other crimes against humanity.

Body

About Nuremberg trials

  • Twenty-four individuals were indicted, along with six Nazi organizations determined to be criminal (such as the “Gestapo,” or secret state police).
  • In the end, the international tribunal found all but three of the defendants guilty.
  • Twelve were sentenced to death, one in absentia, and the rest were given prison sentences ranging from 10 years to life behind bars.
  • Ten of the condemned were executed by hanging on October 16, 1946.

Reason for allies not being harsh on Germany

  • Treaty of Versailles: Germany lost territory in Europe.
    • Alsace-Lorraine was given to
    • Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were made independent nations. Parts of German territory were given to Denmark, Belgium, Poland and Lithuania.
    • SAAR and DANZIG had German population but they were brought under administration of League of Nations.
  • Germany was disarmed: It was barred from introducing conscription (compulsory military service). Rhineland (Germany) was made a buffer zone between France and Germany by demilitarizing it permanently.
  • War Reparations: Germany was to pay 6600 pounds after a lot of deliberations. But it was decreased to 2000 million pounds later as the earlier amount was disproportionately high.
  • The Treaty of Versailles was a dictated peace as the Germans were not allowed to be part of the negotiations. They could only put forward their opinion and criticism through writings. All their criticisms were ignored.
  • The clause of disarmament of Germany made it virtually impotent and the reparations charged upon the Germans were unjustified.
  • Ordinary German citizens felt that they were being punished for the mistakes of the German government in August 1914 as it was the government that had declared war, not the people.
  • The humiliating conditions of the treaty rankled Germans for years and in many ways led to the rise of Nazism in Germany.
  • The rise of Hitler was by leveraging the bitterness of Germans and came under his absolute authority.
  • Hence, the allies after World War II did not want to repeat the same series of mistakes that were committed after the first world war.

Conclusion

Thus, it is evident that the victors of second world war did not want to embitter the vanquished once again and set stage for another war. The great devastating effects of war became evident in the aftermath of nuclear bombing of Japan and nations actively wanted to prevent further wars. This is the major reason for Allied powers not to be extremely harsh towards Germans and the aides of Hitler behind holocaust.

 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2. In what manner did the outbreak of World War 2 affect India’s struggle for Independence? Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: History of modern world by Jain & Mathur

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about political, social and economic impact of World War-II on India and the Indian response to it.

Directive word: 

Discuss – You have to write about the given topic in detail, while considering the different issues involved.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by presenting the context: The INC always stood for anti-fascism. However, the imperialist Government of India declared India’s support for the war without any consultations with India’s political parties. This exposed the hypocrisy of British’s apparent role as a protector of the idea of democracy in world war 2.

Body:

First, mention the impact of world war-2 on India.

Next, the different responses of prominent INC leaders. Second, the INC resolution at the Wardha meeting. Third, the Government’s response, and fourth, the INC’s response – calling upon provincial congress ministries to resign.

Conclusion:

How the war continued to impact and changed the course India’s struggle for Independence.

Introduction

On September 3, 1939, Britain declares war against Germany and declares India’s support for the war without consulting Indian opinion. Though Indian leaders and nationalists were thoroughly opposed to fascism and Nazism, the British response also exposed their hypocrisy. British were fighting for liberal values including democracy and at the same time denying it to Indians.

Body

Outbreak of World War II and events that followed

  • The Congress’ hostility to Fascism, Nazism, militarism and imperialism had been much more consistent than the British record. But the Indian offer to cooperate in the war effort had two basic conditions:
    • After the war, a constituent assembly should be convened to determine political structure of a free India.
    • Immediately, some form of a genuinely responsible government should be established at the centre.
    • The offer was rejected by Linlithgow, the viceroy. The Congress argued that these conditions were necessary to win public opinion for war.

Responses to the War and British stance

Different opinions were voice during CWC Wardha Meeting in September 1939.

  • Gandhi advocated an unconditional support to the Allied powers as he made a clear distinction between the democratic states of Western Europe and the totalitarian Nazis.
  • Subhash Bose and the socialists argued that the war was an imperialist one since both sides were fighting for gaining or defending colonial territories.
    • Therefore, the question of supporting either of the two sides did not arise.
    • Instead, advantage should be taken of the situation to wrest freedom immediately starting a civil disobedience movement.
  • Nehru made a sharp distinction between democracy and Fascism.
    • But he was also convinced that Britain and France were imperialist powers, and that the war was the result of the inner contradictions of capitalism maturing since the end of World War I.
    • He, therefore, advocated no Indian participation till India itself was free. However, at the, same time, no advantage was to be taken of Britain’s difficulty by starting an immediate struggle.
  • Government response: The Government’s response was entirely negative. Linlithgow, in his statement (October 17, 1939), tried to use the Muslim League and the princes against the Congress.
    • The Government refused to define British war aims beyond stating that Britain was resisting aggression;
    • It said it would, as part of future arrangement, consult “representatives of several communities, parties and interests in India, and the Indian princes” as to how the Act of 1935 might be modified;
  • It became clear that the British Government had no intention of loosening its hold, during or after the war, and was willing to treat the Congress as an enemy.
  • Congress ministries resigned in October 1939 after the Second World War and government response.
  • Towards the end of 1940, the Congress once again asked Gandhi to take command.
  • Gandhi now began taking steps which would lead to a mass struggle within his broad strategic perspective.
  • He decided to initiate a limited satyagraha on an individual basis by a few selected individuals in every locality.

Conclusion

Even before the World War II began, the British had realised the futility of holding on to their reign in India. By the time the war ended, Great Britain was bankrupt, unable and unwilling to continue to maintain colonies of the British Empire. WWII acted as a catalyst to India’s fight for independence but not before the British almost lost India to Netaji’s Indian National Army.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

3. POSHAN Abhiyaan 2.0 has created an enabling atmosphere to tackle hunger and malnutrition. However, its needs to account for the new realities in the covid times to make India malnutrition free. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Covid-19 has disrupted almost everything. As always, in any emergency, the hardest hit are the poor. In poor households, women and children are the worst affected.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the achievements of POSHAN Abhiyaan 2.0 in tackling malnutrition and further steps that are required in the light of the disruptions created by the pandemic.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about POSHAN Abhiyaan 2.0, its aims and objectives.

Body:

First, write about the successes of Begin by writing about POSHAN Abhiyaan 1.0 and 2.0 in tackling the issue of hunger and malnutrition.

Next, right about the disruptions created by the pandemic in this regard – disruption in food systems, dried-up income sources, job losses and consequent financial hardships etc. Bring outs it impact.

Next, suggest steps to further streamline POSHAN Abhiyaan 2.0 to overcome the above.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing on the fact that by making POSHAN Abhiyaan 2.0 a resounding success, India takes a step towards achieving SDG-2.

Introduction

Poshan Abhiyan, which vowed to make India free of malnutrition by 2022, repositioned nutrition as central to development and emphasised its multi-factorial and multi-sectoral nature. It was launched to strengthen nutritional content, delivery, outreach and outcome, with renewed focus on developing practices that nurture health, wellness and immunity to disease and malnutrition in the country.

Recently, the Ministry for Women and Child Development inaugurated Poshan 2.0 and urged all Aspirational Districts to establish a Poshan Vatika (nutrition garden) during the Nutrition Month (Poshan Mah) from 1st September.

Body

Poshan 2.0: Overview

  • Under Poshan 2.0, several related schemes have been merged to tap the synergies.
  • Malnutrition hotspots are being identified and 112 aspiring districts will receive extra attention.
  • Poshan Maah:  It includes a month-long activity focussed on antenatal care, optimal breastfeeding, Anaemia, growth monitoring, girls education, diet, right age of marriage, hygiene and sanitation and eating healthy (Food Fortification).
    • The activities focus on Social and Behavioural Change Communication (SBCC) and are based on Jan Andolan Guidelines.
    • Under the current Poshan Maah, the drive to identify children suffering from severe acute malnutrition has been intensified and Anganwadi workers have been asked to refer those having medical complications to health institutions and NRCs.
  • Poshan Vatika: Its main objective is to ensure supply of nutrition through organically home-grown vegetables and fruits simultaneously ensuring that the soil must also remain healthy.
    • Plantation drives for Poshan Vatikas would be taken up by all the stakeholders in the space available at anganwadis, school premises and gram panchayats.

Covid and impact on nutrition in India

  • The momentum set by this entire nutrition movement was disturbed once Covid lockdowns led to the shutting of schools, Anganwadi centres, Nutritional Rehabilitation Centres;
  • Further, frontline workers had to be engaged in Covid-related work that took precedence over their daily duties, which entailed identifying, referring and monitoring children suffering from severe acute malnutrition and moderate acute malnutrition among other nutrition-strengthening activities.
  • States tried to cope to the best of their abilities by replacing hot-cooked meals with dry ration or cash transfers.
  • But understandably, they couldn’t match the intensity of Poshan Abhiyan with Covid surveillance taking over as priority.
  • Moreover, indirect forces triggered by the pandemic such as disruption in food systems, dried-up income sources, job losses and consequent financial hardships also mean that access to nutrient-rich food might have reduced among economically vulnerable people.

Streamlining Poshan 2.0 to overcome covid related nutritional challenges

  • Community management protocols: For those facing severe acute malnutrition without medical complications, community management protocols should be strengthened, so that they do not go on to develop medical complications in times of the pandemic.
  • Adaptation: Fresh waves of Covid cannot be ruled out in the near future, and we must adapt our nutrition interventions to the possibility of such repeated shocks.
  • Document Learning: Rising above political differences, it is important to document and learn from states like Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, which have scaled up Community-based Management of Malnutrition practices in recent times, so that best practices can be adopted and incorporated.
  • Revamp health awareness and monitoring: Other activities, such as making new mothers breastfeed for longer, managing childhood diarrhoea, distributing deworming tablets and iron and folic acid diligently while convincing target groups to take these diligently will go a long way in improving the nutrition status of children and new mothers.
  • Food fortification to ensure essential micro nutrients reach the body.

Conclusion

Covid-related shocks could lead to an additional 9 million children under the age of five suffering from wasting, of which two-thirds will be in South Asia, predicted research in Nature in August. So it is important to not only renew but multiply our efforts towards Poshan 2.0 with full vigour while practising physical distancing, mask wearing and hand hygiene.

Value Addition

POSHAN Abhiyaan

  • Also called National Nutrition Mission, was launched by the government on the occasion of the International Women’s Day on 8th March, 2018.
  • The Abhiyaan targets to reduce Stunting, undernutrition, Anaemia (among young children, women and adolescent girls) and reduce low birth weight by 2%, 2%, 3% and 2% per annum respectively.
  • It also targets to bring down stunting among children in the age group 0-6 years from 38.4% to 25% by 2022.

Malnutrition in India

  • India, currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world i.e. around 195 million.
  • Nearly 47 million or 4 out of 10 children in India do not meet their full human potential because of chronic undernutrition or stunting.
  • 37.9% of children under 5 years are stunted and 20.8% are wasted, compared to the Asia average of 22.7% and 9.4% respectively.
  • Rate of overweight and obesity continues to rise, affecting almost a fifth of the adults, at 21.6% of women and 17.8% of men.
  • Inequities in food and health systems increase inequalities in nutrition outcomes that in turn can lead to more inequity, perpetuating a vicious cycle.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

4. Minimum Support Price (MSP) as the sole source of growth in Farmers’ Income is not all sufficient. A strategy focused on diversification and technology-based value chains in agriculture is needed to double farmers income. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Situation Assessment Survey (SAS) of agricultural households conducted by the National Statistical Office (NSO). As per this survey, an average agricultural household earned a monthly income of Rs 10,218 in 2018-19 (July-June) in nominal terms.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about need to focus on diversification and technology-based value chains to double farmers income.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about the ambitious goal of doubling farmers income.

Body:

First, write the drawbacks of MSP which is not sufficient to improve farmers income.

Next, write about diversification – Increase in productivity of crops, Increase in production of livestock, intensity and Diversification towards high value crops etc.

Next, write about technology-based value chains leading to Improved price realization by farmers.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to double farmers income whilst including recommendations of Ashok Dalwai committee.

Introduction

The government constituted an Inter-ministerial Committee, under Ashok Dalwai,  in April 2016 to examine issues relating to the doubling of farmers income. Doubling farmers’ income is possible through increasing total output and better price realization in the market, reduction in production costs, diversification of product, efficient post-harvest management, value addition, etc.

While MSP may serve limited purpose for price realisation, an overhaul of agriculture is needed to ensure sustainable income for farmers.

Body

MSP and higher price realisation are not congruent

The trouble with MSP is that while it is touted as an all-important factor for farmers promising an instant rise in their income and stability, it also has many drawbacks in implementation. This affects the price realisation of farmers, in reality for several reasons.

  • Methodology: MSP covers numerous costs such as the cost of sowing (A2) and labour (FL). These considerations are controversial with suggestions that it should be based on comprehensive costs (C2), which also include land rent costs.
  • Inflation: Too much of a hike on MSP either paves way for inflationary effects on the economy, with a rise in prices of food grains and vegetables, or loss to government treasury if it decides to sell at a lower price as compared to the higher MSP it bought at.
  • Diverse factors: MSP is a nationwide single price policy. However, the actual costing for production varies from place to place, more severely so in areas lacking irrigation facilities and infrastructure. Thus, not all farmers have equal benefits.
  • Procurement at MSP is flawed: First, procurement of wheat and paddy for meeting the requirement of the public distribution system (PDS) is undertaken largely by state governments.
    • Of the total procurement of wheat and paddy from farmers, the Food Corporation of India’s (FCI’s) share is less than 10%.
    • In the north-east and many other states, procurement operations are almost non-existent and farmers are forced to sell below MSP.
    • As the experiences of these schemes show, the benefit of higher MSPs for kharif crops or rabi,  is unlikely to be available to most farmers as the states lack adequate storage capacity, working capital and manpower for undertaking large-scale procurement of all commodities.
    • The MSP-based procurement system is also dependent on middlemen, commission agents and APMC officials, which smaller farmers find difficult to get access to.
  • Agri-Infrastructure: Hiking the MSP without investing in infrastructure is just a short-term play. While it does deliver immediate results, long-term developments to back-it up are also important.

Strategy focused on diversification and technology-based value chains in agriculture

The low level of farmers income and year to year fluctuations in it are a major source of agrarian distress. This distress is spreading and getting severe over time impacting almost half of the population of the country that is dependent on farming for livelihood. Hence a new strategy is needed.

  • ICAR and SAUs should develop models of farming system for different types of socioeconomic and bio physical settings combining all their technologies in a package with focus on farm income.
    • This would involve combining technology and best practices covering production, protection and post-harvest value addition for each sub systems with other sub systems like crop sequences, crop mix, livestock, horticulture, forestry.
    • Such shift requires interdisciplinary approach to develop on knowledge of all disciplines.
  • About one third of the increase in farmers’ income is easily attainable through better price realization, efficient post-harvest management, competitive value chains and adoption of allied activities.
    • This requires comprehensive reforms in market, land lease and raising of trees on private land.
  • Agriculture has suffered due to absence of modern capital and modern knowledge.
    • There is a need to liberalise agriculture to attract responsible private investments in production and market.
    • Similarly, FPOs and FPCs can play big role in promoting small farm business.
  • Evidence is growing about scope of agronomic practices like precision farming to raise production and income of farmers substantially.
  • Similarly, modern machinery such as laser land leveller, precision seeder and planter, and practices like SRI (system of rice intensification), direct seeded rice, zero tillage, raised bed plantation and ridge plantation allow technically highly efficient farming.
    • However, these technologies developed by the public sector have very poor marketability.
    • They require strong extension for the adoption by farmers

Conclusion

The government should shift its focus from providing only price support to farmers and focus on building better infrastructure, minimizing the gap between farmers and the market, land reforms, policy reforms to increase flow of credit to farmers, establishing food-processing industries for perishable goods, providing better irrigation facilities etc so, that agriculture emerges as a viable means of sustenance.

 

Topic: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

5. Deep tech ecosystem in India is growing by leaps and bounds. A proper policy support and seamless investment can help leverage Indian Deep tech ecosystem in developing sustainable solutions for the country. Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Difficult

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Deep tech, a term that includes advanced manufacturing and robotics, blockchain, AI, and big data, remains the fastest growing group globally. Fintech has also experienced substantial growth in last five years, the company noted in a report titled ‘The Global Startup Ecosystem 2021’.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the growth od Deep tech in India, its potential and further steps need to realise its potential.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining the deep tech.

Body:

First, write about the various types of deep tech. Give statistics which indicate the rapid growth of deep tech.

Next, write about the potential of deep tech to boost growth in healthcare, education, industrial and manufacturing, and other areas.

Next, write about the policy and investment opportunities that are need for the seamless growth of the sector. to boost growth in healthcare, education, industrial and manufacturing, and other areas

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward

Introduction

Deep tech, a term that includes advanced manufacturing and robotics, blockchain, AI, and big data, remains the fastest growing group globally. They aim at solving the most complex challenges in the world around us.

DeepTech refers to start-ups whose business models are based on high-tech innovation using recent technological advances in multiple areas. At present, 19% of tech start-ups are leveraging DeepTech solutions to build product competencies for their market expansion.

Body

Need for proper policy support for Indian Deep tech ecosystem

It has been argued that businesses prosper when governments sleep. But this may not hold true for deep tech start-ups in sensitive sectors.

  • Cost: The cost of running industries need to come down if India has to compete with the likes of China, and sustain its momentum.
  • Institutional mechanism is needed to encourage commercial utilisation of research done using government funds.
    • It has also been reported that there are proposals of having an overarching body at the centre that will be able to make quicker decisions on labour laws, taxation provisions, and land leasing.
  • Make In India came at a time when there was a weakening of the global trade except in China and India.
    • It identified 25 sectors where India should focus on to build itself as a manufacturing economy. It also looked at developing the country’s start-up ecosystem.
  • Focus on further strengthening the existing enterprises, infrastructure and aid in building high-quality enterprises.
  • Government must plan to tackle the capital issue and ensure that medium and small business flourish by giving access to affordable funds.
  • And lastly, ensure enhancing skills for future manufacturing.
  • Globally, there is increased government interest in funding, supporting, and promoting self-reliance in sectors critical to national security like semiconductors, space infrastructure, 5G and defence.
    • For example, the US government actively promotes investments, hands out grants and contracts to companies such as SpaceX, BlueOrigin etc.
    • They also recently announced a $150 billion funding programme dedicated to semiconductors and chip manufacturing.
    • India must emulate the same. Innovation for Defence Excellence (iDEX), a defence ministry initiative, is one such effort to leverage the startup environment to improve India’s defence preparedness, equipment design and manufacturing capabilities.

Conclusion

If provided the right kind of support, it is foreseeable that the next generation of unicorns in our country will be powered by the deep tech startups that experiment, scale and forge strong partnerships with local and national governments.

 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management

6. Cyclones will further amplify with impact of Climate change and significantly increase the vulnerability of the coastal population. Developing appropriate coping strategies and risk reduction plans, along with greater public awareness, is a must disaster management in India. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Cyclone Gulab which made landfall on Sunday evening at Kalingaptnam left a trail of destruction in the north coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, throwing normal life out of gear.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the further vulnerability of coastal states to the cyclones in the face of climate changed and measures needed to adapt and cope with it.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start with brief introduction on cyclones that have affected India in recent times.

Body:

In first part, cite increasing frequency of cyclones on both the eastern and western coast of India due to impact of climate change.

Next, bring out the economic costs and human costs as a result of devastation caused by the severe cyclones.

Write about the steps that are needed. Enhancing national, state, district and local level advocacy partnerships and knowledge management for mainstreaming disaster risk reduction, Developing hazard risk management tools, methodologies and practices etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

Cyclone is a region of low atmospheric pressure surrounded by high atmospheric pressure resulting in swirling atmospheric disturbance accompanied by powerful winds. They occur mainly in the tropical and temperate regions of the world.

Body

Increasing frequency of cyclones in India

  • India has a coastline of about 7,516 km, 5,400 km along the mainland, 132 km in Lakshadweep and 1,900 km in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • Although the North Indian Ocean (NIO) Basin (including the Indian coast) generates only about 7% of the world’s cyclones, their impact is comparatively high and devastating, especially when they strike the coasts bordering the North Bay of Bengal.
  • On an average, five to six tropical cyclones form every year, of which two or three could be severe.
  • More cyclones occur in the Bay of Bengal than the Arabian Sea and the ratio is approximately 4:1. This is now changing due to impact of climate change.
  • Research evidence shows more cyclones forming over the Arabian Sea when compared to the Bay; overall there were eight storms of concern to India in 2019, and five last year, Amphan being a super cyclone.

Social and economic costs of cyclone

  • Displacement: As many as 39 lakh people in India were displaced in 2020 due to climate disasters and conflicts, making it the fourth worst-hit country in the world to have such a high number of internal displacements.
  • Food and water shortage: This is a major issue, especially for those cut off from major lines of communication and highways. For instance, a week after Cyclone Fani battered Odisha, survivors reeled under shortages of food, water and power.
  • Loss of life: As many as 117 cyclones hit India in 50 years from 1970-2019 claiming over 40,000 lives, according to a study on extreme weather events.
    • Cyclone Tauktae which hit the Gujarat coast as an extremely severe cyclonic storm, left a trail of destruction in several states killing nearly 50 people.
  • Poverty: A new World Bank report finds the impact of extreme weather on poverty is more devastating than previously understood, responsible for annual consumption losses of $520 billion and pushing 26 million people into poverty every year.
  • Damage to assets and property: Very strong winds may damage installations, dwellings, communication systems, trees., etc. resulting in loss of life and property. Rebuilding takes huge resources and effort, affecting the development especially due to recurring disasters.

Steps to be taken to mitigate impact of disaster

  • Coastal belt plantation: Providing a cover through green belt sustains less damage as forests act as a wide buffer zone against strong winds and flash floods. Without the forest the cyclone travel freely inland.
  • Hazard mapping: Meteorological records of the wind speed and the directions give the pattern of occurrence of cyclone for particular wind speeds. A hazard map will illustrate the areas vulnerable to cyclone in any given year and estimate the severity of the cyclone and various damage intensities in the region.
  • Land use control: It can be designed so that least critical activities are placed in vulnerable areas. Location of settlements in the flood plains is at utmost risk. Citing of key facilities must be marked in the land use. Policies should be in place to regulate land use and building codes should be enforced.
  • Engineered structures:  This needs to be built to withstand wind forces. Good site selection is also important. Majority of the buildings in coastal areas are built with locally available materials and have no engineering inputs. Good construction practices should be adopted such as:
    • Cyclonic wind storms inundate the coastal areas. It is advised to construct on stilts or on earth mound.
    • Houses can be strengthened to resist wind and flood damage. All elements holding the structures need to be properly anchored to resist the uplift or flying off of the objects. For example, avoid large overhangs of roofs, and the projections should be tied down.
    • A row of planted trees will act as a shield. It reduces the energy.
    • Buildings storing food supplies must be protected against the winds and water.
    • Protect river embankments.
    • Communication lines should be installed underground.
    • Provide strong halls for community shelter in vulnerable locations.
  • Flood management:  Torrential rains, strong wind and storm range leads to flooding in the cyclone affected areas. There are possibilities of landslides too. Flood mitigation measures must be incorporated.
  • Improving vegetation cover: The roots of the plants and trees keep the soil intact and prevent erosion and slow runoff to prevent or lessen flooding.
    • The use of tree planted in rows will act as a windbreak.
    • Coastal shelterbelt plantations can be developed to break severe wind speeds.
    • It minimizes devastating effects.
  • Improved early warning systems are a must to ensure preparedness.

Conclusion

Cyclone Disaster Management encompasses mitigation and preparedness measures for cyclones. Installing disaster-resilient power infrastructure in the coastal districts, providing concrete houses to poor and vulnerable households, and creating massive community awareness campaigns are essential.

Value Addition

National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project(NCRMP):

  • It was launched by the Ministry of Home Affairs with the support of the World Bank. It addresses the cyclone risks in the country.
  • Its aim is to undertake suitable structural and non-structural measures to mitigate the effects of cyclones in the coastal states and UTs of India.
  • The objectives are:
    • Improving early warning dissemination systems
    • Enhancing the capacity of local communities to respond to disasters
    • Improving access to emergency shelter, evacuation, and protection against wind storms, flooding, and storm surge in high areas
    • Strengthening Disaster Risk Management(DRM) capacity at central, state, and local levels.
  • Implementation: National Disaster Management Authority(NDMA) in coordination with participating State Governments and the National Institute for Disaster Management (NIDM).
  • Coverage: The Project has identified 13 cyclone-prone States and Union Territories(UTs) with varying levels of vulnerability. These States/UT have further been classified into two categories:
    • Category I: Higher vulnerability States namely Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.
    • Category II: Lower vulnerability States i.e. Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Goa, Pondicherry, Lakshadweep, Daman and Diu, Andaman, and the Nicobar Islands.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion

7. Attitude, when shaped in the right way, can influence behaviour to achieve a favourable outcome. Explain. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

to develop a link between changing your attitude and changing your behaviour.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In the introduction, define attitude and behaviour. Mention the difference between attitude and behaviour.

Body:

With relevant examples elaborate on how attitude can be change and that change in the resultant behaviour.

How behavior and attitude affect us and the need to adopt behaviours which are of empathy, compassion, fortitude and integrity.

Conclusion:

Complete the answer by stressing how changing to right behaviours and attitude can impact our life positively.

Introduction

Attitude refers to a set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors toward a particular object, person, thing, or event. Attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing, and they can have a powerful influence over behavior.

Body:

Attitude guides an individual’s behavior

  • Attitude is one of the main factors that trigger emotions, decision-making, thinking and behavior in an individual. Following are some examples of how attitude influence the behavior:
  • A positive attitude can will lead to a positive behavior. Ex: A person who has positive attitudes towards work and co-workers (such as contentment, friendliness, etc.) can positively influence those around them.
  • Similarly, negative attitude led to negative behavior. Ex: if a person has a negative attitude towards women, he will discriminate women in all fronts of life.
  • A selfish attitude will guide individual’s action in same manner. Ex: A cricketer who put his self-interest and profit above the nation, will take money to lose the game.
  • Logic or rational attitudes develop a rational behavior. Ex: a rational person will not act superstitiously and will always try to find rational behind any act.
  • An egoistic attitude will result in a negative attitude and behavior. Ex: elder individuals control their younger siblings even if they are wrong to satisfy their ego of being elder.
  • An attitude based on values and beliefs will act according to the values. Ex: in India touching feet of elders is guided by attitude of giving respect to them.

Conclusion:

Thus, it can be said that attitude guides one behavior. Therefore, a person’s attitude will define his/her actions. By training and persuading the people the attitude and behaviour can be changed in the right direction

Value addition:

AttitudeBehaviour
Attitude refers to a person’s mental view, regarding the way he/she thinks or feels about someone or something. Behaviour implies the actions and conduct of an individual or group towards other persons.
Attitude is more personal.Behaviour is more social.
Factors like environment, experiences, and moral values mainly influence attitudes.Attitudes, character traits, biological factors like endocrine and nervous responses influence our behaviour.
It is a hypothetical construct whose direct observation is not possible.Behaviour is visible through consequences and result.
A person’s attitude is mainly based on the experiences gained by him during the course of his life and observations.The behavior of a person is based on the situation and circumstances. 
Attitude is a person’s inner thoughts and feelings.Behaviour is an expression of person’s attitude.
Attitude is defined by the way we perceive things.Behaviour is ruled by social norms.
Attitude reflects one’s emotions, opinions and thoughts.Behaviour reflects one’s attitude as actions are the reflection of our thoughts.

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