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[MISSION 2022] SECURE 2022 : Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 29 September 2021

 

 

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

1. “Long live the Soviets and down with the Commissars”. Examine this slogan in the context of the Russian Civil War in 1918. Why did the White army lose against the Red? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: History of modern world by Jain & Mathur

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

Examine the causes of the Civil War following the Bolshevik Revolution, and causes for victory of the Reds (communists).

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Write who the warring parties were composed of (who were the “whites” and “reds”).

Body:

First, in detail list the causes for opposition to the Bolsheviks that led to the outbreak off the war. Mention in brief about the civil war.

Next, mention the outcome of the war and list the causes for defeat of the whites at the hands of Bolsheviks.

Conclusion:

End your answer by briefly writing about the political-economic impact of the civil war.

 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2. In March 1921, a serious naval mutiny occurred at Kronstadt, the island naval base in the Gulf of Finland. What is the significance of this event in the economic history of Russia? Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: History of modern world by Jain & Mathur

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

You need write why War Communism was abandoned and what the New Economic Policy, which replaced it, was.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving context, To Lenin, the mutiny brought home the reality that he had to change the manner in which he was trying to rebuild the Russian economy.

Body:

Explain the features of war communism and write why war communism was introduced. Proceed to write why it failed.

Next, write what were the features of the New Economic Policy (NEP) that was introduced in Russia.

Finally, mention what the impact of the NEP was.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting the fact that the NEP itself turned out to be a cause for disagreement among leaders – a disagreement which was exploited by Stalin to consolidate power in himself.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government

3. A major area of concern has been the number of pending cases in the courts which not only hampers justice delivery but also has economic costs. Analyse the causes for huge pendency of cases and suggest measures to reduce the burden. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy.

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

More than 40% of cases are decided after three years in India, while in many other countries less than 1% of cases are decided after three years. Which decries the notion. Justice delayed is justice denied.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the causes for pendency of cases in India, its impact and suggest measures to overcome.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe the current conditions with few vital statistics to substantiate the pendencies.

Body:

First write the causes for it – The cumulative effect of persisting vacancies, strained budgets, inadequate infrastructure combined with the continuous inflow of cases inevitably impacts mounting pendency and the time taken for cases to resolve.

Next bring out the impact of it – faith in the justice system, under trial prisoners their due of justice, impact on Economic reforms and foreign investors, Judiciary becomes overworked and lose its efficiency.

Suggest measures to overcome the above.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to ensure speedy delivery of justice.

 

Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

4. Outer space is becoming an extension of the terrestrial geopolitical competition. Interventions led by U.N Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space are urgently needed, so that domain of space is used only for peaceful purposes. Examine (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

With China’s emergence as a major space power, there is a new urgency for democratic powers to come together to secure their national interests as well as promote sustainable order in the skies above.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how there is growing clamour for weaponization of space, the need to avoid it and steps to be taken in that regard.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by mentioning the aims and objectives of United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.

Body:

First, write how geopolitics as well as in the national security context of all the major spacefaring powers. The advancements being made in the domain either through state entities or commercial players are posing serious questions in the area of international security, global governance, and ethics of war.

Next, write about the positive implications for the weaponization of space on the world.

Suggest steps for establishing frameworks for multilateral governance in space and commitment towards peaceful uses.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing on the need to maintain the outer space for peaceful purposes.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

5. The ever-growing uncertainty of crude oil prices and geopolitical instability surrounding its supply, make it imperative for India to approach alternative fuels which are cleaner and cheaper on a mission mode. Critically Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

With Goldman Sachs projecting crude oil to reach $90 per barrel by the year-end, energy import-dependent economies are now in a tizzy.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the need for us to pursue alternative fuels aggressively over crude oil.

Directive word: 

Critically analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context about the raising prices of crude.

Body:

First, mention the uncertainty regarding its prices and supply chain constraints – especially with respect to hostile geopolitical relations in the middle east. Bring out its impact on India.

Next, write about various alternative fuels in India and its ecological and economic advantages over conventional fuels.

Next, bring out the limitations of alternative fuels vis-à-vis crude oil which hinders it large scale deployment.

Conclusion:

Pass a comment on aggressively pursuing alternative fuels over crude oils – if it will be prudent policy decision.

 

Topic: Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security

6. The menace of Left-wing extremism which is the single largest internal security threat in India is on a decline. It is indeed a welcome news but the Maoist threat remains a potent challenge to be overcome. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The geographical influence of Maoists has contracted to only 41 districts in the country, a sharp reduction from 96 such districts in 10 States in 2010, according to data provided by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the declining trends of Maoism but the need for further vigil and action to successfully overcome it.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by citing stats about the declining trends of Maoism.

Body:

First, write the reasons that led to this decline – various developmental approaches as well as internal security capacity building.

Next, write how the Naxalist movement still remains a potent threat to the internal security of India in the various ways. Cite examples and data to substantiate your points.

Next, suggest various measures that are further required to tackle this issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward on taking a multi prong approach to defeat Maoism.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

 “Be happy with what you have and are, and you won’t ever have to hunt for happiness”

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define being content in life and grateful for it.

Body:

Explain the quote in your own words.

Present the detailed analysis of the quote with relevant examples from across the world. State the reasons for indulgence in excessive materialism and its impact on us.

Bring out how minimalist mind set and simple life can bring about positive changes at individual, societal, national and a global level.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a positive note that surmises -To be content is to be great.


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