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[Mission 2022] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 27 September 2021

 

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

1. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand might have started The great War of 1914 but it was not inevitable or accidental, but began as a result of complex geopolitics and mutual hostility. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Chapter-1: Mastering Modern World History – Norman Lowe

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about geo-political reasons for the outbreak for the first world war.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving the context of assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand that started the great war of 1914.

Body:

First, write about the geo-political Tensions had been brewing throughout Europe—especially in the troubled Balkan region of southeast Europe, the alliances involving European powers, the Ottoman Empire, Russia and other parties had existed for years, The political instability in the Balkans etc, Hyper nationalism leading to mutual distrust.

Next, mention other factors such as economic and military causes.

Conclusion:

Summarise as to how the assassination of Franz Ferdinand set off a rapidly escalating chain of events resulting in the war.

Introduction

The causes of World War I, also known as the Great War, have been debated since it ended. Officially, Germany shouldered much of the blame for the conflict, which caused four years of unprecedented slaughter. But a series of complicated factors caused the war, including a brutal assassination that propelled Europe into the greatest conflict the continent had ever known.

Body

Background and trigger of world war I

  • Bosnia had been annexed by Habsburg empire and the Bosnians were aligned with Serbia.
  • A secret society had organized the killing and the Bosnian government was aware of the plot but did not do anything to stop it. This event was definitely an act of terrorism and the anger among the Austrians was justified but Austria-Hungary took this event as an opportunity to try annexing Serbia.
  • It presented Serbia with a set of demands with a deadline. Serbia accepted most of the demands but not all because accepting all the demands would have amounted to surrendering the sovereignty of Serbia to Habsburg empire.
  • Serbia fearing invasion ordered military mobilization.
  • After the deadline, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. The assassination served as the immediate cause of the World War I.

Factors that were significant causing the Great War

  • Rise of nationalism: The widespread nationalism is thought to be a general cause of World War I.
    • For instance, after Germany dominated France in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, France lost money and land to Germany, which then fuelled French nationalism and a desire for revenge.
  • Web of alliances: In 1879, Germany and Austria-Hungary allied against Russia. In 1882, Italy joined their alliance (The Triple Alliance) and Russia responded in 1894 by allying with France.
    • In 1907, Great Britain, Russia and France formed the Triple Entente to protect themselves against Germany’s growing threat.
    • Soon, Europe was divided into two groups: The Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy; and the Allies, which included Russia, France and Britain.
    • Italy later changed sides and became part of Allies.
  • Militarism sparked an arms race: Between 1910 and 1914, France, Russia, Britain and Germany significantly increased their defence budgets.
    • But Germany was by far the most militaristic country in Europe at the time.
  • Naval Race between Germany and Britain increased tensions and both became rivals. By defeating the other in the war at sea, each power had ambition of establishing naval supremacy once and for all.
  • Russia made war more likely by backing Serbia. Had Russia allowed Serbia to deal with Austria alone then Germany may not have entered the war. Russia always desired influence in the Eastern Europe.
  • A tragedy of Miscalculations: Germany believed that due to France-Russia Agreement of 1894, France will surely fight in favour of Russia.
    • After passive stand of Britain in the 2nd Balkan War, Germany thought that Britain would not come to the aid of Russia or France.
    • Further, Germans miscalculated that the Schlieffen Plan will bring them a quick victory.
    • Germans miscalculated that by supporting Austria they would be able to threaten Russia into neutrality.
    • Austria miscalculated that since it had German support, Russia won’t come to aid of Serbia.
    • Politicians in Germany and Russia felt that mobilization would not necessarily escalate into a War.

Conclusion

Although the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand was the spark that caused Austria-Hungary to strike the first blow, all the European powers quickly fell in line to defend their alliances, preserve or expand their empires and display their military might and patriotism.

 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2. A combination of the New Deal and the beginning of World War-II lifted the U.S. out of The Great Depression. Elaborate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how the new-deal and the starting to wolrd war-II ended the great depression.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining The Great Depression.

Body:

First, write about Roosevelt’s New Deal – Works Progress Administration (WPA), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) However, increases in government spending and expansionary effect on the economy., positive effects on consumer and business sentiment.

Next, write about the World War-II role in the recovery of the U.S. economy. Military buildup, expansionary fiscal and monetary policy, widespread conscription beginning in 1942, full employment.

Conclusion:

Summarise the impact of the above two in ending the recession.

Introduction

The Great Depression was the worst economic downturn in the history of the industrialized world, lasting from 1929 to 1939. It began after the stock market crash of October 1929, which sent Wall Street into a panic and wiped out millions of investors.

Over the next several years, consumer spending and investment dropped, causing steep declines in industrial output and employment as failing companies laid off workers. By 1933, when the Great Depression reached its lowest point, some 15 million Americans were unemployed and nearly half the country’s banks had failed.

Body

Background: Causes and aftermath of Great Depression

  • Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt won an overwhelming victory in the presidential election of 1932.
  • During Roosevelt’s first 100 days in office, his administration passed legislation that aimed to stabilize industrial and agricultural production, create jobs and stimulate recovery.
  • In addition, Roosevelt sought to reform the financial system, creating the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) to protect depositors’ accounts and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to regulate the stock market and prevent abuses of the kind that led to the 1929 crash.

New Deal by Roosevelt: Overview

  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) : Among the programs and institutions of the New Deal that aided in recovery from the Great Depression were the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), which built dams and hydroelectric projects to control flooding and provide electric power to the impoverished Tennessee Valley region.
  • Works Progress Administration (WPA), a permanent jobs program that employed 5 million people from 1935 to 1943.
  • Social security: In 1935, Congress passed the Social Security Act, which for the first time provided Americans with unemployment, disability and pensions for old age.
  • Recovery: After showing early signs of recovery beginning in the spring of 1933, the economy continued to improve throughout the next three years, during which real GDP (adjusted for inflation) grew at an average rate of 9 percent per year.
  • A sharp recession hit in 1937, caused in part by the Federal Reserve’s decision to increase its requirements for money in reserve.
    • Though the economy began improving again in 1938, this second severe contraction reversed many of the gains in production and employment and prolonged the effects of the Great Depression through the end of the decade.

Role of World War-II in the recovery of the U.S. economy

  • With Roosevelt’s decision to support Britain and France in the struggle against Germany and the other Axis Powers, defence manufacturing geared up, producing more and more private sector jobs.
  • The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour in December 1941 led to America’s entry into World War II, and the nation’s factories went back in full production mode.
  • This expanding industrial production, as well as widespread conscription beginning in 1942, reduced the unemployment rate to below its pre-Depression level.
  • More people were needed to produce the food and weapons for the men on the front lines.
  • The new jobs were taken by many who had been out of work for several years.
  • As more men were sent away to fight, women were hired to take over their positions on the assembly lines.
  • Before World War II, women had generally been discouraged from working outside the home.
  • Now they were being encouraged to take over jobs that had been traditionally considered “men’s work.”
  • Existing companies changed their lines from consumer goods to war materials, and new plants were constructed strictly for the creation of products for the war
  • The Great Depression had ended at last, and the United States turned its attention to the global conflict of World War II.

Conclusion

The New Deal and the outbreak of world war II,  did eventually reform the American economic system. Roosevelt’s leadership preserved the country’s faith in its democratic political system. It also established him as a leader of democracy in a world threatened by ruthless dictators.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government

3. Improving the representation of women in the judiciary can ensure a more balanced and empathetic approach towards justice especially in cases involving sexual violence. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate.

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Chief Justice of India N.V. Ramana on Sunday backed 50% representation for women in judiciary.

Key Demand of the question:

To argue for increased representation of women in the India Judiciary.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving statistic about percentage of women in the Indian Judiciary.

Body:

First, write about the impediments women face that leads to their skewed representation.

In the next part, write about the need for increasing the representation of women in the judiciary – To identify instances of gender bias in adjudication, to prevent discrimination against women in court proceedings, to develop gender-neutral attitudes and skills and to promote justice to women on the basis of equality guarantee of the Constitution of India etc.

Write about how sensitive cases like sexual violence will get a different approach with increased representation of women in the judiciary.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to improve the representation of women in the judiciary

Introduction

The representation of women in judiciary is very low in India. They constitute only about 30% of the subordinate judiciary. In High Courts, women judges constitute 11.5% and in the Supreme Court, there are currently have four women Justices out of the sitting 33. That makes it just 12%, which is gross under-representation.

Body

Status of women in Indian judiciary

  • In the 71 years of history of the SC, there have been only eleven women judges — the first was Justice Fathima Beevi, who was elevated to the bench after a long gap of 39 years from the date of establishment of the SC.
  • There has never been a female Chief Justice. This figure is consistently low across the higher judiciary.
  • There are only 80 women judges out of the sanctioned strength of 1,113 judges in the High Courts and the Supreme Court.
  • Only four of these 80 women judges are in the Supreme Court and the other 78 are in various High Courts, comprising only 7.2% of the number of judges.
  • There are six High Courts — Manipur, Meghalaya, Patna, Tripura, Telangana, and Uttarakhand — where there are no sitting women judges.
  • Currently Justice Indira Bannerjee is set to retire in September which brings down the tally to three women judges.

Challenges to women’s entry into judiciary

  • A major barrier to women’s recruitment as district judges are the eligibility criteria to take the entrance exams.
  • Lawyers need to have seven years of continuous legal practice and be in the age bracket of 35-45.
  • This is a disadvantage for women as many are married by this age and have to take career gaps due to childbirth.
  • Further, the long and inflexible work hours in law, combined with familial responsibilities, force many women to drop out of practice and they fail to meet the requirement of continuous practice.
  • Many esteemed lawyers are not elevated to Supreme court Judge, with exception of one such instance i.e. Justice Indira Bannerjee.

Benefits of diversity and gender representation in Supreme court

  • The entry of women judges into spaces from which they had historically been excluded has been a positive step in the direction of judiciaries being perceived as being more transparent, inclusive, and representative.
  • By their mere presence, women judges enhance the legitimacy of courts, sending a powerful signal that they are open and accessible to those who seek recourse to justice.
  • They could contribute far more to justice than improving its appearance: they also contribute significantly to the quality of decision-making, and thus to the quality of justice itself.
  • By elucidating how laws and rulings can be based on gender stereotypes, or how they might have a different impact on women and men, a gender perspective enhances the fairness of the adjudication.
    • g.: A judge of the Madhya Pradesh High Court imposed a condition while granting bail to a man accused of sexual assault — that he should go to the residence of the victim and get a Rakhi tied to his wrist. Such baseless judgements can be prevented.
  • Women judges bring those lived experiences to their judicial actions, experiences that tend toward a more comprehensive and empathetic perspective.
  • Improving the representation of women could go a long way towards a more balanced and empathetic approach in cases involving sexual violence.

Conclusion

This initiative must come from the Supreme Court itself, considering that the power of appointment rests almost exclusively with the Supreme Court Collegium. The goal must be to achieve at least 50% representation of women in all leadership positions. The Chief Justice of India, NV Ramana also mooted that women must have 50% reservation in the judiciary as it is their right.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission is the coming together of technological initiatives to enhance high quality healthcare across the nations. Analyse its potential and limitations to achieve interoperability within the digital health ecosystem. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy.

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

In a historic initiative, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi will launch the Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the potential and limitations of Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by writing about Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission’s aims and objectives.

Body:

First, write about the various features of Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission – seamless online platform, information and infrastructure services, interoperable, longitudinal health records of citizens and health ID for every citizen etc.

Next, write about the potential of Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission – Accessibility, Quality healthcare, Reach, Benefits to hospitals etc.

Next, write about the limitations – privacy and security issues, awareness, role of private players etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to ensure maximisation of potential while minimising the risks.

Introduction

The Prime Minister launched the Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission. Under this, a unique digital health ID will be provided to the people, which will contain all the health records of the person. The pilot project of the National Digital Health Mission was announced by the prime minister from the ramparts of the Red Fort on August 15, 2020.

Body

Features

  • The key components of this scheme, which is also called the National Digital Health Mission or the PM Digital Health Mission, are a health identity card for every citizen, a healthcare professionals registry, and healthcare facilities registries.
  • It will also help ensure security, confidentiality and privacy of health-related personal information.
  • The health ID for every citizen will also work as their health account, to which personal health records can be linked and viewed with the help of a mobile application.
  • Healthcare Professionals Registry (HPR) and Healthcare Facilities Registries (HFR) will act as a repository of all healthcare providers across both modern and traditional systems of medicine.
  • Currently, the project is being implemented in the pilot phase in six Union Territories.
  • The nationwide rollout of the project coincides with National Health Authority (NHA) celebrating the third anniversary of Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB PM-JAY).

Potential of Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission

  • The mission will enable access and exchange of longitudinal health records of citizens with their consent.
  • Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission will play a big role in eliminate problems in medical treatment of poor and middle class.
  •  The new programme will help create interoperability within the digital health ecosystem, similar to the role played by the UPI in revolutionising the payments.
  • It will ensure ease of doing business for doctors and hospitals and healthcare service providers.
  • Furthermore, the Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission Sandbox, created as a part of the mission, will act as a framework for technology and product testing that will help organisations, including private players to be a part of the National Digital Health Ecosystem to become a health information provider

 Possible challenges

  • The mission still does not recognize ‘Health’ as a justiciable right. There should be a push draft at making health a right, as prescribed in the draft National Health Policy, 2015.
  • One of the biggest concerns is regarding data security and privacy of patients. It must be ensured that the health records of the patients remain entirely confidential and secure.
  • Potential misuse of information by the insurance companies can affect, people’s ability to buy insurance.
  •  The companies may charge high premium if health details are known or even deny in few cases.
  • In addition, the failure of a similar National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom must be learnt lessons from and the technical and implementation-related deficiencies must be proactively addressed prior to launching the mission on a pan India scale.

Conclusion

The Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission would be playing a huge role in solving the issues faced in medical treatment by different classes of Indians, mainly the poor. It can be done by connecting people via technology that is connecting the healthcare workers, hospitals to patients etc. This has a revolutionary potential like never before for the health sector, but caution must be taken that the information is not inadvertently shared.

Value Addition: Ayushman Bharat

  • Launched as recommended by the National Health Policy 2017, to achieve the vision of Universal Health Coverage (UHC).
  • This initiative has been designed on the lines as to meet SDG and its underlining commitment, which is “leave no one behind”.
  • Aim: to undertake path breaking interventions to holistically address health (covering prevention, promotion and ambulatory care), at primary, secondary and tertiary level.
  • Includes the on-going centrally sponsored schemes – Senior Citizen Health Insurance Scheme (SCHIS) and Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY).
  • Ayushman Bharat adopts a continuum of care approach, comprising of two inter-related components, which are:
    • Health and Wellness Centres (HWCs).
    • Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY).

Key Features of PM-JAY:

  • The world’s largest health insurance/ assurance scheme fully financed by the government.
  • It provides cover of 5 lakhs per family per year, for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization across public and private empanelled hospitals in India.
  • Coverage: Over 10.74 crore poor and vulnerable entitled families (approximately 50 crore beneficiaries) are eligible for these benefits.
  • Provides cashless access to health care services for the beneficiary at the point of service.

 Eligibility:

  • No restrictions on family size, age or gender.
  • All pre–existing conditions are covered from day one.
  • Covers up to 3 days of pre-hospitalization and 15 days post-hospitalization expenses such as diagnostics and medicines.
  • Benefits of the scheme are portable across the country.
  • Services include approximately 1,393 procedures covering all the costs related to treatment, including but not limited to drugs, supplies, diagnostic services, physician’s fees, room charges, surgeon charges, OT and ICU charges etc.
  • Public hospitals are reimbursed for the healthcare services at par with the private hospitals.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

5. Evaluate the learnings from the Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan) for India. How will these help in socio-economic development of India? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

India’s Mars Orbiter spacecraft has completed seven years in its orbit, well beyond its designed mission life of six months.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how findings from mission Mangalyaan will help in achieving our developmental goals.

Directive word: 

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidence.  You must appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming an opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about Mars Orbiter Mission and its objectives.

Body:

First, in the context of its stated objectives enumerate the learnings and findings from the mission as well as novel technology that was mastered.

Next, write about these will help in our developmental objectives – ’frugal innovations’ benefits, development of cutting-edge technologies, civilian applications of technology etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing further missions can shape not only the stature of India as a space power but as well aid in its developmental ambitions.

Introduction

The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan is a spacecraft orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014. It was launched on November 5, 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It is India’s first interplanetary mission and ISRO has become the fourth space agency to reach Mars, after the Soviet space program, NASA, and the European Space Agency. It is the first Asian nation to reach Mars orbit, and the first nation to do so on its first attempt.

Body

Learnings from the Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan) for India

  • Cost effectiveness: It is the most cost-effective interplanetary mission (only 450 crore) NASA spent 4000 crore of rupees on MAVEN.
    • Mangalyaan was accomplished with the lowest cost. It proves that while focusing on cheap cost, quality can still be maintained. Indigenous manufacturing means superior quality.
  • Technological benefits: The technology used in this mission has potential application in weather forecast, computer tech, health-medicine etc. in future
  • The main lessons learnt were in the field of design and realisation of systems and subsystems, launch for interplanetary mission, insertion into other planet’s orbit, operation of the spacecraft and scientific instruments around Mars orbit.
  • The mission has also revealed a lot about Mars’ atmosphere, volcanic activity, and dust devils, among other things.
    • With this information, planetary scientists can hypothesize about Mars’ distant past.
  • The explorations will help decipher why and how Mars lost its liquid water. This is important question essential for the long-term survival of human beings on Earth.
  • This may give us clues to the presence of microbial life on Mars.

Socio-economic development of India through Mangalyaan experience

  • Social benefits: Space technology and assets are needed for everything from communications to weather forecasting.
    • No nation, especially a developing one, can ignore such technologies.
    • But such technologies and capacities cannot be developed without also developing India’s space capabilities in general, which is why the Mangalyaan is important.
  • Economic Benefits: As ISRO establishes reputation, gets more contracts from foreign countries and more foreign exchange.
  • National security: Space is a vital aspect of India’s security.
    • India does not live in a benign neighbourhood and it has had to balance between its development and security needs.
  • Effects on foreign policy: It can be used as a tool to exercise soft power by sending space missions of third world countries and SAARC countries.
  • Proved the capability and efficiency of ISRO: After successful competition of MoM ISRO’s status has increased.
    • Now, NASA is talking about setting up a Joint Mars Working Group.
    • The 30 September 2014 signing of an implementing agreement between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to conduct the joint NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) mission.
  • Above all, such an achievement works as an inspiration and catalyst for innovation in the country and bringing more youth into the field of science

Conclusion

India’s Mars Orbiter spacecraft has completed seven years in its orbit, well beyond its designed mission life of six months and has swept with effortless ease into orbit around the Red Planet, making this country the first to achieve such a feat in a maiden attempt. It is a tribute to ISRO and the professionalism of its scientists and engineers that every minute detail for such a complex mission could be attended to in the course of a project completed in just one and a half years.

 

Topic: Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security;

6. What kinds of cyber weapons are used in cyber-warfare? Do you think India should try and achieve deterrence by focussing on building cyber weapons? Critically Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

Citing studies by a Russian cyber security firm, Forbes magazine’s Thomas Brewster reported last week that hackers associated with the Indian government (designated ‘Bitter APT’ by the industry) used commercially available zero-day exploits to break into Chinese and Pakistani government-linked computers.

Key Demand of the question:

To debate if India should its increase cyberwarfare capabilities to achieve deterrence.

Directive word: 

Critically analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining cyber-warfare.

Body:

In the first part, mention the various kinds of cyber weapons – Viruses, phishing, computer worms and malware, distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, hacking, spyware or cyber espionage, ransomware and propaganda or disinformation campaigns etc.

Next, argue the impact Cyber warfare can have on our country. Substantiate with examples. Aruge for building cyber armament directly by the state.

Next. Argue on the other side as to unconventional nature of cyber warfare, lack of proper accountability and training etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by passing a judgement on whether or not India should to work towards building cyber warfare deterrents.

Introduction

Cyber warfare involves the actions by a nation-state or international organization to attack and attempt to damage another nation’s computers or information networks through, for example, through computer viruses or denial-of-service attacks.

Although cyberwarfare generally refers to cyber-attacks perpetrated by one nation-state on another, it can also describe attacks by terrorist groups or hacker groups aimed at furthering the goals of particular nations.

Body

Cyber weapons used in cyber-warfare

  • Malware is a type of application that can perform a variety of malicious tasks.
    • Example, Mirai malware using botnet of 5 lakh devices, had caused servers of Dyn, a leading domain name service to crash.
    • Ransomware is a type of malware that locks the devices. Eg WannaCry, Petya
    • Spyware: Pegasus, a spyware was in news and according to WhatsApp, the spyware was deployed on at least 1,400 targets, including lawyers, activists, dissidents and diplomats.
  • Phishing: Phishing attacks often arrive in the form of an email pretending to be from a legitimate organization, such as your bank, the tax department, or some other trusted entity.
  • Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack: A DDoS attack is where an attacker essentially floods a target server with traffic in an attempt to disrupt, and perhaps even bring down the target.
    • Saposhi Malware is capable of taking over electronic devices and turning them into bots (device taken over by malware) which can then be used for any purpose, including DDoS attacks which, with enough firepower, can cripple entire industries.
  • SQL injection: SQL injection is a type of attack which is specific to SQL databases. SQL databases uses SQL statements to query the data, and these statements are typically executed via a HTML form on a webpage.
  • Cryptojacking is where cyber criminals compromise a user’s computer or device and use it to mine cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin.
    • Cryptojacking is not as well-known as other attack vectors, however, it shouldn’t be underestimated.
  • A zero-day exploit is where cyber-criminals learn of a vulnerability that has been discovered in certain widely-used software applications and operating systems, and then target organizations who are using that software in order to exploit the vulnerability before a fix becomes available.

Need for cyber deterrence capabilities by India

  • Credible offensive cyber capability is necessary for at least two reasons. First, India presents attackers with a vast, sprawling target sphere, large parts of which are unguarded and perhaps even unguardable.
  • It is thus not feasible to rely solely on perimeter security—the equivalent of stationing troops all along the border—as a strategy for cyber defence.
  • It becomes necessary to deter adversaries from attacking in the first place.
  • Deterrence in information warfare is a multi-layered concept, but requires the possession of effective cyber weapons to be credible.
  • The other reason to possess—and be seen to possess—cyber weapons is to ensure a place at the high table as a ‘cyber have’ should countries eventually get down to negotiate digital arms control.

Downside of cyberwarfare

  • Since there are different ranges on which cyber warfare can take place, most of the issues are linked with the level of warfare and thus the intent of the attack as well.
  • For instance, the attack could be made for something as simple and small as accessing fellow employees’ financial records, but it could also be as severe and as big as terrorism attacks, which can affect entire nations, and at times, more than one nation as well.
  • The first and foremost issue linked to cyber warfare is the issue of privacy concerns.
    • Edward Snowden incident shows the kind of state surveillance imposed on citizens in America in the aftermath of 9/11.
  • It is this very reason why so many are so reluctant to shift towards an entirely online and digital life, since having everything digitized means that every memory, every action, and every choice that a person takes, is being stored somewhere which could, later on, be accessed for an ulterior motive.
  • And like all other situations, in this one too, the poorer and more backward nations suffer the most since they don’t have the funding or the resources to set up stronger defences for their nations.
  • Thus, it eventually becomes a game of the developed and richer nations, who can even treat smaller and weaker nations as puppets because of the high level of power they hold over them.

Conclusion

It is imperative that India’s Infrastructure needs to be protected with the latest security features. The country’s economy is highly dependent on secure banking and finance systems while it is even more important to safeguard critical installations such as nuclear plants, transport sector for national security. Public-Private partnerships can strengthen cooperation in the area of cyber-security.

The cyber generation must learn from its nuclear predecessor, when India was designated a non-nuclear weapon state in perpetuity for the only reason that it had held off testing a nuclear device before an arbitrary date.

Value Addition

India’s deterrence capacity in cyberwarfare

  • CERT-IN is the national nodal agency to respond in crisis situation. For example, In October 2017, CERT had issued alert about Reaper which is highly evolved malware capable of hacking devices like Wi-Fi routers and security camera.
  • CERT-fin has also been launched exclusively for financial sector.
    • Cert-Fin will work closely with all financial-sector regulators and stakeholders on issues of cyber security.
    • It will collect, Analyse and disseminate information on cyber incidents across financial sectors. It will forecast and send alerts on cyber security incidents. Cert-Fin will contribute to strengthening of the cyber security of the country.
  • CERT-in is also operating Cyber Swachhata Kendra, a Botnet Cleaning and Malware Analysis Centre
  • National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) to battle cyber security threats in strategic areas such as air control, nuclear and space.
  • Cyber Surakshit Bharat Initiative to strengthen Cybersecurity ecosystem in India. It is first public private partnership of its kind and will leverage the expertise of the IT industry in cybersecurity.
  • National cyber coordination Centre (NCCC) is set up to scan internet traffic coming into the country and provide real time situational awareness and alert various security agencies.
  • Cyber Forensic Lab set up in Bangalore, Pune, Kolkata in collaboration with NASSCOM

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7. Trusteeship, to Gandhi, was neither an economic expedient nor a make shift for him. It was a way of life. Comment. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: mkgandhi.org

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Philosophical Mondays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain about the trusteeship of Mahatma Gandhi and its aim of protecting dignity of beings over materialism.

Directive:

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining the core idea of trusteeship philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi.

Body:

Further elaborate the concept of trusteeship with examples from Gandhian times to contemporary times. Gandhi’s economic ideas were part of his general crusade against poverty, exploitation against socio-economic injustice, and deteriorating moral standards.

He wanted to liberate the modern economic philosophy from the quagmire of materialism and bring it to a higher spiritual plane. Human actions were motivated by social objectives of the protection of human rights.

Conclusion:

End the answer by stressing the need and importance of trusteeship in present times.

Introduction

Trusteeship is a socio-economic philosophy that was propounded by Mahatma Gandhi. It provides a means by which the wealthy people would be the trustees of trusts that looked after the welfare of the people in general. Gandhi believed that the wealthy people could be persuaded to part with their wealth to help the poor. Trusteeship is not merely a principle not even a philosophy. His idea of trusteeship needs to be revisited in times of growing inequality

Body:

Gandhiji’s doctrine of Trusteeship:

  • Gandhi’s economic ideas were part of his general crusade against poverty, exploitation against socio-economic injustice, and deteriorating moral standards.
  • Gandhi was an economist of the masses and his approach was rooted in human dignity.
  • His economic philosophy is a result of innumerable experiments which he conducted in the course of his life.
  • His pragmatic approach gave a new direction to the existing socio-economic problems in the process of protecting human dignity.
  • Gandhism as a socio-economic philosophy suits not only to accomplish the higher ideals of democratic freedom and socialism but it was also thoroughly developed to meet the challenge of national and international forces of communism and capitalism.
  • The core of Gandhian economic thought is the protection of the dignity of human person and not mere material prosperity.
  • He aimed at the development, upliftment, and enrichment of human life rather than a higher standard of living with scant respect for human and social values.
  • Fundamental ethical values dominated his economic ideas. He wanted to liberate the modern economic philosophy from the quagmire of materialism and bring it to a higher spiritual plane.
  • Human actions were motivated by social objectives of the protection of human rights.
  • He based his doctrine of trusteeship on the first sloka of Isopanisad, according to which one is asked to dedicate everything to God and then use it only to the required extent.
  • The principal condition laid down in it is that one must not covet what belongs to others.
  • In other words, in the first instance, everything must be surrendered to God and then out of it one may use only that which is necessary for the service of God’s creation, according to one’s strict needs.
  • This makes it clear beyond doubt that it is not in industrial and business sectors only that the doctrine of trusteeship is to be made applicable.
  • The spirit of this doctrine is detachment and service. Unless these two virtues are inculcated, it is impossible to obey the command “covet not anybody’s riches.”
  • Therefore, Gandhi’s idea of trusteeship arose from his faith in the law of non-possession.
  • Man’s dignity, and not his material prosperity, is the centre of Gandhian economics. Gandhian economics aims at a distribution of material prosperity keeping only human dignity in view.
  • Thus it is dominated more by moral values than by economic ideas.
  • According to Gandhi, trusteeship is the only ground on which he can work out an ideal combination of economics and morals.

Conclusion:

The philosophy of Trusteeship believes in inherent goodness of human beings. The Gandhian perspective is more relevant today than it was ever before. Gandhi wanted to ensure distributive justice by ensuring that business acts as a trustee to its many stakeholders, and specified that economic activities cannot be separated from humanitarian activities. Economics is part of the way of life which is related to collective values.

Value addition:

Relevance of trusteeship in contemporary world:

  • The revolutions that are raised from time to time in different countries are motivated by the same objectives of human dignity, justice, and equity.
  • It is very clear that the idea is relevant today as it aims at the social, economic, and political changes in the world.
  • One of the first steps to achieve this human dignity, justice, and equity is to eliminate the ever-present troublesome element of class struggle in the society.
  • Though the Gandhian concept of trusteeship does not seek to destroy any particular class, it provides us with an idea of how to narrow the class gap.
  • The practice of all the democratic nations has been to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor to a minimum.
  • In India we find this motive behind our cooperative policies, the community development projects, and the taxation policy that heavily taxes the upper class and gives some relief to the lower strata of society.
  • We find the manifestations of the Gandhian concept of trusteeship in these policies.

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