Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Mission 2022] SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 September 2021

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

1. Post-independence, Land reforms had a profound impact on agriculture as well as had social implications but there were also certain limitations. Evaluate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Chapter – 29, 30 and 31 – India Since Independence by Bipan Chandra

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the changes brought about by Land reforms in the Indian agricultural scenario and its limitations.

Directive:

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidence.  You must appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming an opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by writing about the land reforms that were initiated in the post independent India.

Body:

Address the structural and institutional changes with respect to the above mention factors.

Elaborate upon how the above were achieved through abolition of intermediaries, tenancy reforms, ceiling on land holdings for land acquisition, massive investment in improvement of the quality of land, its operational conditions and management of its physical conditions.

Bring out the limitations of land reforms in India.

Conclusion:

Stress on the overall socio-economic implications of the Land reforms in India.

Introduction

Land Reforms usually refers to redistribution of Land from rich to poor and includes Regulation of Ownership, Operation, Leasing, sale and Inheritance of Land. The Indian Government was committed to land reforms and to ensure distributive justice as was promised during the freedom struggle. Consequently, laws were passed by all the State Governments during the 1950’s with the avowed aim of abolishing landlordism, distributing land through imposition of ceilings, protection of tenants and consolidation of land- holdings.

Body

Impact of Land reforms:

On Agriculture

  • Earlier large tracts of wasteland belonging to zamindars/ big farmers remained uncultivated. These lands were given to landless labourers as a result of which there is increase in area under cultivation leading to food security.
  • Equal distribution of land will encourage intensive cultivation resulting in increased agricultural production leading to higher production levels.
  • Some farm management studies conducted in India testified that small farms yielded more production per hectare. It is so because family members themselves cultivate small farms.
  • Even one hectare of land is also an economic holding these days on account of improvement in agricultural technique. Hence, small size of holding due to ceiling will not have any adverse effect on agricultural production.
  • At least some of the Land owners shifted to direct ‘efficient’ farming in order to get ‘exemption’ from land ceiling.
  • Consolidation of landholdings ensures that small bits of land belonging to the same small landowner but situated at some distance from one another could be consolidated into a single holding to boost viability and productivity.

Social Implications

  • In a land-scarce country with a significant section of the rural population below the poverty line, the case for ensuring that everyone has access to some minimum amount of land seems compelling from  the  point  of
  • In a rural economy, whoever controls land, controls the power.
  • The tenancy laws have given the tillers protection from exploitation by providing them security of tenure and fixing maximum chargeable rents.
  • Land ceiling reduced this power inequality among villagers.
  • The intermediary rights have been abolished. India no longer presents a picture of feudalism at the top and serfdom at the bottom.
  • Promoted spirit of cooperation among villagers.
  • It will help develop cooperative farming

Limitations of Land reforms:

  • Zamindari Abolition:
    • The absence of adequate land records made implementation of these acts difficult.
    • Zamindars resorted to large-scale eviction of tenants, mainly the less secure small tenants.
    • Even after the laws were enacted the landlords used the judicial system to defer the implementation of the laws.
    • Zamindars refused to hand over the land records in their possession, forcing the government to go through the lengthy procedure of reconstructing the records.
  • Tenancy Reforms:
    • Even today 5% farmers hold 32% of land holdings.
    • The right of resumption and the loose definition of ‘personal cultivation’ was used for eviction of tenants on a massive scale.
    • Most tenancies were oral and informal and were not recorded.
  • Ceiling reforms
    • Exemption to land held by cooperatives was open to great misuse with landlords transferring their lands to spurious cooperatives.
    • In most states the ceilings were imposed on individual and not family holdings, enabling landowners to divide up their holdings in the names of relatives or make benami transfers merely to avoid the ceiling.
    • Further, in many states the ceiling could be raised if the size of the family of the landholder exceeded five.
  • Consolidation of holdings:
    • The programme failed to achieve its desired objective because the farmers are reluctant to exchange their lands for the new one.
    • The arguments given by the farmers is that there existing land is much more fertile and productive than the new land provided under land consolidation.
  • Bureaucratic Apathy:
    • Implementation of the law was made difficult with the collusion between the landlords and lower-level revenue Officials.
  • Digitization of Land records:
    • Although the government wants complete digitization of land records, due to the lack of clear and sufficient data and mismanagement between the various agencies handling land records, the data registered at various government levels is not identical.
    • Statistics from the DILRMP show that in most states, the digital land record database has not been synced with the digitized land registration database

Conclusion

Land reforms have upheld the socialistic directive principles of state policy which aims at equitable distribution of wealth. The objective of social justice has, however, been achieved to a considerable degree. Thus, with an aspirational goal of India becoming a $5-trillion economy by 2025 the imperative need today is to unleash the power of land and reap fruits by bringing about the much needed Land Reforms which are waiting to see the light of the day.

 

Topic: Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

2. Critically analyse the impact of green revolution on agriculture. What were the constraints on the spread of High Yielding Varieties (HYV) throughout India? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Chapter – 33 – India Since Independence by Bipan Chandra

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the pros and cons of green revolution in India. Aslo, to write about the constraints on spread of HYV

Directive word: 

Critically analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of introduction of HYV in India in the face of acute food crisis leading to the green revolution.

Body:

In the first part, write about the pros and cons of the green revolution. The HYV technology increased agricultural output manifold, increase in yield of crops, fast adoption, modern equipment, self-sufficiency etc. Cons like disparities, ecological impact, use of chemical fertiliser etc.

Next part, write about the constraints that limited the spread of HYV – irrigation, lack of farmer’s knowledge, unsatisfactory land tenure system etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising the overall impact of the green revolution in India.

Introduction

The Green Revolution in India began in the mid-1960s marking a transition from traditional agriculture in India and the introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the associated agricultural techniques. Norman-e-Borlaug is considered as the father of Green Revolution in World while M.S. Swaminathan is considered as the father of Green Revolution in India.

Body

Impact of green revolution on agriculture

Positives

  • Increase in Agricultural Production and productivity: The production and productivity of wheat, rice, maize and bajra has substantially increased.
  • Less Dependence on Imports: After the green revolution, India was finally on its way to self-sufficiency. There was now enough production for the population and to build a stock in case of emergencies. In fact, India was able to start exporting its agricultural produce.
  • A Benefit to the Farmers: The Green Revolution has increased the income of farmers and landless labourers. It enabled them to shift to commercial farming from only sustenance farming.
  • Dispersal of Rice and Wheat cultivation to non-traditional areas: Green Revolution spread the Rice cultivation to the semi-arid areas of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh, and the wheat cultivation has spread to the areas of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and some parts of Maharashtra, Gujarat and West Bengal.

Negatives

  • Food-grains centric: Although all food-grains including wheat, rice, jowar, bajra and maize have gained from the revolution, other crops such as coarse cereals, pulses and oilseeds were left out of the ambit of the revolution.
  • Monocropping: Major commercial crops like cotton, jute, tea and sugarcane were also left almost untouched by the Green Revolution. This ultimately led to the dangerous trend of Monocropping.
  • Displacement of small farmers: The Green Revolution has displaced the agricultural labourers, leading to rural unemployment. The mechanical innovations like tractors have displaced agricultural labourers.
  • Land Degradation: The overuse of chemical fertilizers to get high yield causes physical and chemical degradation of the soil by altering the natural microflora and increasing the alkalinity and salinity of the soil
  • Led to Regional Disparities: It led to growing disparities in economic development at inter and intra-regional levels. Only 40 percent of the total cropped area benefitted while the rest was left untouched by it. The most benefitted areas are Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh in the north and Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in the south.

Constraints on the spread of High Yielding Varieties

  • High Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP) was restricted to only five crops: Wheat, Rice, Jowar, Bajra and Maize.
  • Therefore, non-food grains were excluded from the ambit of the new strategy.
  • The HYV seeds in the non-food crops were either not developed so far or they were not good enough for farmers to risk their adoption.
  • The benefits of Green Revolution were primarily reaped by the rich farmers as they had large land area, high amount of funds to invest in buying fertilizers, machines, HYV seeds etc.
  • Majority of farmers on the other hand had small land holdings, with less funds to invest; hence they could not be benefited much from Green Revolution. In this way, GR further widened the gap between the rich and the poor farmers.
  • The high yield crops require more water and fertilizers as compared to the normal varieties of crops. This constrained it to resource rich states and arid states could not benefit. Moreover, high input usage also led to decrease in its reach throughout India.

Conclusion

Overall, the Green Revolution was a major achievement for many developing countries, specially India and gave them an unprecedented level of national food security. However, lesser heed was paid to factors other than ensuring food security such as environment, the poor farmers and their education about the know-how of such chemicals.

Value Addition

Ushering second green revolution

  • Micro-irrigation System: It enables optimal synergies of 3 components of Green Revolution-improved seed, water and fertilizer.
  • Organic Farming: Can restore degraded land and improve health benefits.
  • Precision Farming: It is concerned with using fewer resources and reducing the production cost, by analysing the variation in various aspects of field and environment like- weather, Soil, vegetation, water etc.
  • Green Agriculture: A system of agriculture based upon, integrated pest management, integrated nutrient management and it does not eliminate the use of minimum quantities of fertilizer and chemical pesticides

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.  

3. There is no doubt improvement in population control measures and reproductive health of women across the country but efforts are still needed to identify and address the multidimensional aspects of women’s health outcomes. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

The devastating impact of the covid pandemic on family planning and sexual and reproductive health, has worsened access to healthcare, putting millions of women at high risk of unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions, illnesses and even death.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the progress made with respect to fertility and women’s health, identify the shortcomings and suggest measures for them.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin the citing the data from the latest NFHS-5 which encapsulates the progress made with respect to above mentioned aspects.

Body:

In the first part of the body, mention the issues that still needs to be addressed –  malnutrition, anaemia, antenatal care, decision making, control over personal hygiene choices and immunisation and social determinants of health etc. Add, how the pandemic has worsened the above.

Next, mention the steps that are needed to overcome these obstacles.

Conclusion:

Highlight that taking steps to address the above will not only improve our socio-economic indicators but will also take us a step closer to SDG-5.

Introduction

The current population growth rate is 1 per cent, which means India will add over 13 million people this year. In contrast, the death rate is 7.21 per thousand. The Indian birth rate is much higher than the death rate, although the fertility rate has been falling.

Body

Overview on population and reproductive health of women

  • Phase-1 data from the fifth National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) shows an impressive decline in the fertility rate in almost all states.
  • Despite this, overall population growth still appears high because of a demographic transition: India has a high proportion—about 30%—of young people and adolescents who are either of reproductive age or will soon be.
    • This explains why a population continues to grow even if its fertility rate declines.
  • India will reach a peak population of 6 billion by 2048 and it will then decline steeply to 1.12 billion by 2065.

Issues related to reproductive health of women

  • According to data, while women may want fewer than two children, many cannot access the family planning methods that allow them to limit pregnancies.
  • NFHS-4 showed that in 2015-16, nearly 13% women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) had an unmet need for family planning, including 6% of women who had an unmet need for spacing methods.
  • Further, contraceptive use is the lowest among women from Schedule Tribes, at 48%, followed by Other Backward Classes, at 54%, and Schedule Castes, at 55%.
  • The situation has probably worsened due to covid-related restrictions. These trends indicate that inequities in access to family planning have translated into poor health and development outcomes.

Addressing multidimensional aspects of women’s health

  • Access to resources: Key steps to ensure that more women in India have access to family planning services include highlighting the gains they contribute to, empowering frontline workers to increase women’s access to contraceptives, especially spacing methods, and introducing a wider range of contraceptive methods for women to choose from, based on their personal choice.
  • Engaging religious leaders in family planning and reproductive healthcare advocacy is an important way to encourage public acceptance.
    • This practice has been implemented across many programmes in other countries, with great success.
  • Gender-sensitive behaviour: Behaviour-change communication and development interventions should be geared towards education, with a focus on gender equity.
  • Gender-inclusion: Inclusivity and equity are key when it comes to the distribution and delivery of services, information and commodities across communities and geographies.
  • There is no doubt that better educational levels and increasing the marriage age will reduce the number of children in a family. The southern states have proven that.
  • Provide a proper system for safe abortion to terminate unwanted pregnancy.

 Conclusion

Governments at the national and state levels must ensure that appropriate measures are put in place so that people’s well-being remains at the heart of all policies, including family planning and reproductive health. This is critical to achieve our sustainable development goals, leaving no one behind.

 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.  

4. The AUKUS pact will complement the regional security architecture in the Indo-Pacific but has ramifications extending far beyond it. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

It has been announced the US, Australia and the UK are forming a new security partnership to be known as AUKUS.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the impact of Aukus pact in the Indo-Pacific as well in the European union.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about the formation of AUKUS.

Body:

In the first, part elaborate on the security pact and its impact on the Indo-pacific. nuclear-powered submarines in Australia, deterrence to China, enhancing joint capabilities and deeper military interoperability etc.

Next, bring in the impact of formation of AUKUS other countries. – New Zealand, European Union especially with souring of Australia-France relations, possible responses of China. Mention the impact on India.

Conclusion:

Summarise the impact of new geo-political developments on rules based multilateral order

Introduction

The UK, US and Australia have announced a historic security pact in the Asia-Pacific, in what’s seen as an effort to counter China. It is called the AUKUS pact and AUKUS alliance. It is a landmark security pact involving the UK, US and Australia that will allow Australia to build nuclear-powered submarines for the first time with technology provided by the US underscores the rapidly shifting realities of the Indo- Pacific.

Body

Overview on AUKUS pact

  • Under the AUKUS alliance, the three nations have agreed to enhance the development of joint capabilities and technology sharing, foster deeper integration of security and defence-related science, technology, industrial bases and supply chains.
  • Under the first major initiative of AUKUS, Australia would build a fleet of nuclear-powered submarines with the help of the US and the UK, a capability aimed at promoting stability in the Indo-Pacific region.
  • In recent years, Beijing has been accused of raising tensions in disputed territories such as the South China Sea.
  • Western nations have been wary of China’s infrastructure investment on Pacific islands, and have also criticised China’s trade sanctions against countries like Australia.
  • Australia will be joining a select group of countries, including the US, UK, France, China, India and Russia, that operate nuclear-powered submarines.
  • It will also be only the second nation after the UK with which the US will be sharing its submarine technology.

AUKUS pact: Regional security architecture in the Indo-Pacific and beyond

  • Technology transfer to non-nuclear state: In an extraordinary move, the US and UK are willing to export nuclear technology to a non-nuclear powered nation.
    • Regional security concerns have been the main driver behind this ‘Aukus pact’ that is being touted as Canberra’s biggest defence partnership in decades, involving artificial intelligence, cyber and other cutting-edge defence technologies.
  • Indo-Pacific security: It described the pact as a “historic opportunity for the three nations, with like-minded allies and partners, to protect shared values and promote security and prosperity in the Indo-Pacific region.
  • Countering Chinese expansionist policy: For Washington and its allies in the Pacific, a new class of nuclear-powered submarines can be of critical value in challenging Chinese military expansionism.
    • It would also allow the three nations to operate more effectively together undersea across the Pacific.
  • Timing of announcement: The announcement of this major pact comes against the backdrop of a disastrous withdrawal of American forces from Afghanistan that had raised widespread doubts across the Indo-Pacific about the credibility of American commitments in the region.
  • Brexit and UK’s projection as global power: Britain aims to play a larger role in the Indo-Pacific, especially after its exit from the European Union.
    • The Boris Johnson administration is keen on projecting the idea of a ‘Global Britain’ as the central narrative of British foreign policy after Brexit, and greater engagement in the Indo-Pacific with like-minded nations is a natural corollary to that.
    • In July, the UK’s new aircraft carrier, Queen Elizabeth, sailed through the South China Sea waters despite denunciations from Beijing.
  • India’s stance: The latest developments are largely favourable from an Indian viewpoint and as our focus now shifts to the Quad meeting, it is clear that like-minded regional powers are trying to evolve a partnership that will see closer alignment of regional policies and actions as well as greater integration of their defence forces.
    • Alongside India’s stated intent to acquire more nuclear-powered submarines, it will amount to a step-change increase in the Quad’s undersea and anti-submarine warfare capabilities.

Conclusion

The message from Aukus is that while the current churn in the Indo-Pacific may have begun with Chinese actions, it is now other regional players that are willing to set new terms of engagement with Beijing. They can effectively counter Chinese Aggression and their ‘middle kingdom’ agenda alongside the Quad.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

5. What do you understand by inclusive growth? What are the major impediments to inclusive growth and how can they be overcome in the current scenario? Explain. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Key Demand of the question:

To explain about inclusive growth, impediments to it and measures needed to overcome them.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by defining inclusive growth and its key components.

Body:

In the first, in detail write the impediments for inclusive growth – Poverty, lack of adequate employment opportunities, lack of adequate education and skill development and governance deficit, especially in backward regions etc. Mention the impact of covid-19 pandemic on inclusive growth efforts.

Suggest measures and solutions to address these issues.

Conclusion:

Conclude that targeted policy measures addressing the above in the current scenario, with the efforts of government policies and programmes aiming at achieving targets in above key sectors can lead to inclusive growth.

Introduction

The concept of inclusive growth focuses on equitable growth for all sections of society. This involves ensuring that fruits of growth and development reach the poor and marginalized sections as well. Inclusiveness is a multi-dimensional concept. Inequalities that include, social exclusion, discrimination, restrictions on migration, constraints on human development, lack of access to finance and insurance, corruption – are sources of inequality and limit the prospect for economic advancement among certain segments of the population, thereby perpetuating poverty.

Body:

Elements_of_Inclusive

Major impediments to inclusive growth:

  • Poverty alleviation is one of the big challenges for India. Eradication of poverty in India is generally only considered to be a long-term goal. Poverty alleviation is expected to make better progress in the next 50 years than in the past, as a trickle-down effect of the growing middle class.
  • Increasing stress on education, reservation of seats in government jobs and the increasing empowerment of women and the economically weaker sections of society, are also expected to contribute to the alleviation of poverty
  • Government schemes should target eradication of both poverty and unemployment (which in recent decades has sent millions of poor and unskilled people into urban areas in search of livelihoods) attempt to solve the problem, by providing financial assistance for setting up businesses, skill honing, setting up public sector enterprises, reservations in governments, etc.
  • Disparity
    • The disparity between -> Rich and Poor
    • The disparity between -> Urban and Rural
    • The disparity between -> Educated and Uneducated
  • Demography: We have 550 million young people below 25 age, we have the ready workforce for the world, everything we do today must focus on this population, we need to provide them nutrition food, skills, and job opportunities to grow.
  • Improving the delivery of core public services: The incomes rise, citizens are demanding better delivery of core public services such as water and power supply, education, policing, sanitation, roads and public health. As physical access to services improves, issues of quality have become more central.
  • Maintaining rapid growth while making growth more inclusive: The growing disparities between urban and rural areas, prosperous and lagging states, skilled and low-skilled workers, the primary medium term policy challenge for India is not to raise growth from 8 to 10 percent but to sustain rapid growth while spreading its benefits more widely.
  • Developmental challenges:
  • Expansion: Expansion is happening every day in developing countries like India, but perhaps not happening in the pace we would like. We have roads but we need more roads likewise we need to expand energy, infrastructure, facilities, etc.
  • Excellence: Leaving of our top 5 or 10% quality of our education, our services, our governance, is really not that so great, we must collectively work towards improving quality in everywhere.
  • Equity: We need to make sure that the poorest to the poorer can indeed get the best education, health, jobs, and other facilities.
  • Social development is possible through achieving Women Empowerment and eradicating the regional disparities. Though the Government is giving the women empowerment by giving special reservations, the women’s advancement in India is still not matched the expectations for inclusive growth.

Measures needed to overcome:

  • Lowering the incidence of poverty and inequality requires a comprehensive strategy.
  • Important steps need to be taken like framing policies to improve health, nutrition and education.
  • Labour market reforms and reforms of direct taxation will have redistributive effects on the system.
  • Schemes like National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), provide 100 days or more of employment at a wage determined by government are already in progress but there is a need to check the cost effectiveness of these schemes
  • Reforms to plug the leakages in the PDS, introduction of GPS tracking, activating vigilance committees, must be undertaken across the country.
  • Research needs to be carried out by government agencies to document the ‘best practices’ in the implementation of government schemes.
  • Minorities and other excluded groups, including the poor in upper castes, also need special programmes to bring them into the mainstream.

Conclusion:

To achieve inclusiveness, all these dimensions need to be looked into. Institutional and attitudinal changes should be brought about though this will take time. Awareness about inclusiveness and empowerment is required to be created. Reducing poverty is to be taken as key element in our inclusive growth strategy and there has been some progress in that regard.

 

Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology

6. High Altitude Pseudo Satellite (HAPS) offer persistence and flexibility to complement satellites and drones in both civilian and defence purposes in India. Elaborate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Public sector undertaking Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is hoping to get approval soon for government funding to the tune of over Rs 700 crore for what is now a self-financed project to develop an indigenous High Altitude Pseudo Satellite (HAPS).

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the potential HAPS for both civilian and defence purposes in India.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by defining HAPS.

Body:

In brief, write about the working of HAPS, its concept and how it will complement satellites and drones.

Next, write about the application of HAPS in civilian purposes – Humanitarian Assistance, Disaster Relief, high-resolution coverage and emergency communications etc.

Next, write about the application of HAPS in defence purposes – unmanned warfare programme, HAPS could coordinate in strike missions providing versatile intelligence, surveillance etc.

Conclusion:

Write a way forward towards capacity building for HAPS in India.

Introduction

Giving a giant leap to India’s military strike capabilities, State-owned aerospace and defence company Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is building a first-of-its-kind High Altitude Pseudo Satellite (HAPS) with a Bengaluru-based start-up to assist Indian Armed Forces in strike missions. It is a Rs. 700 crore project.

Body

High Altitude Pseudo Satellite (HAPS): Concept overview

  • HAPS are advanced unmanned flying systems, which operate in the stratosphere at an altitude of 70,000 feet continuously for 2-3 months, to maintain surveillance on the ground below.
  • The solar energized system is designed to act as a bridge between Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and conventional satellites.
  • The futuristic project has not been designed by any other country yet.
  • The design work has already been initiated by HAL and HAPS will be induced by 2024-2025.

Applications of HAPS for civilian purposes

  • Telecommunication and Remote sensing: HAPS are cost-effective and are easier to launch. These satellites can be controlled from anywhere using Beyond Line of Sight (BLOS) technology and comprises applications such as telecommunication and remote sensing for both civilian as well as military purposes.
  • HAPS is particularly useful in providing communication in remote locations or in deep seas.
  • Further, HAPS could offer advantages and complementary applications over satellites, terrestrial infrastructures, and Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), at a relatively convenient price.
  • It can be used in Humanitarian Assistance Disaster Relief (HADR) operations as well during natural disasters.

Applications of HAPS for defence purposes

  • Surveillance: These unmanned aircraft may be airplanes, airships, or balloons and are stationed at a fixed place to enable versatile intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) options thereby eliminating performance and capability limitations of satellites.
  • Combat Air Teaming System: CATS drone is a deep penetration aerial attack system that enables a fighter pilot to remain safely within the country’s borders while being able to deploy missiles or swarms of drones deep into enemy territory to destroy targets.
  • The stealth drones can carry up to 4 conventional munitions including cruise missiles, runway destroying bombs, and other payloads.
  • The aerial vehicle has a capacity of flying at a speed of 350 km into the enemy’s territory guided by “mother ship,” – a light combat aircraft (LCA), which can enter the enemy region, drop its missile and return to base.
  • On being aligned with CATS, HAPS can provide communication to the troops in strike missions with live video feeds and images.

Conclusion

Although the development of these unmanned stratospheric vehicles has been underway since the 1990s, the latest advancements in technologies have spurred the momentum with the latest iterations reaching advanced stages in terms of payloads, operations, and capabilities. This development of High-Altitude Pseudo Satellites (HAPS) platforms, which are among the latest aerospace technologies could revolutionize near-space operations.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7. Swami Vivekananda believed in the transformation of man through moral and spiritual education as a solution for all social evils. Elucidate. (150 words)

Difficulty: Easy

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Philosophical Mondays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write upon the philosophy of Swami Vivekananda to eradicate social evils through moral awareness.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Giver a brief introduction of Swami Vivekananda’s philosophy.

Body:

In the first part, write about Swami Vivekananda’s Practical Vedanta. He believed in the basic oneness of existence and advocated strongly the eternal sameness or homogeneity beyond all differentiation, the unity of all personalities.

Mention how Swami Vivekananda’s teaching towards moral enlightenment were a mix a of traditional Vedantic teachings and modern education.

Conclusion:

Mention how his message is universal and eternal very much relevant to the present times.

Introduction

Swami Vivekananda (1863 – 1902), was a great thinker and reformer of India. He propounded ‘man-making education’ which involves the harmonious development of the body, mind and soul. According to him, the lasting foundation for nation-building was not economics or politics but education. He tried to materialize the moral and spiritual welfare and upliftment of humanity, irrespective of caste, creed, nationality or time.

Body

Swami Vivekananda’s views on transformation of man through Education

  • Vivekananda was of the opinion that it was not sufficient to be able to distinguish between what is right and wrong, but that we also needed to develop the courage to execute ‘the right’.
  • He stressed a ‘spiritual’ education, by which he meant education that can build good character.
  • For instance, he opined that we need ‘life-building, man-making and nation-building’ education.
  • His ideas about education were based on Vedantic doctrine. According to Vivekananda education, like Yoga in its deeper sense, is a rapid psychological process towards perfection.
  • ‘Manifesting the perfection already within man’ was the keynote in Vivekananda’s approach to education.
  • For this Vivekananda prepared an outline of an educational system in accordance with fundamental principles that he thought were critical to achieving this end.
  • The real education according to Swami Vivekananda is that which prepares the individual for struggle for  existence.  Education  prepares  a  man  for  social  service,  to  develop  his  character  and finally iambuses him with the spirit and courage of a lion.
  • For getting degree is not an education, the  proper  education  must  be  viewed  on  the  basis  of  character,  mental  powers,  intelligence and inculcates. g.: Self-confidence and self-reliance in the individuals.
  • With these strengths, he believed education could provide solutions to all social, political and global problems.
  • Vivekananda also believed that  the  mother  tongue  is  the  best  medium  for  social  or  mass education. For example,  as  picked  up  by  the  NEP  2019,  he  also  prescribes  the  learning  of  English  and  Sanskrit  leads  one  into  the  depths  of  our  vast  store  of  classics,  while  English  is  required  for  mastering Western science and technology.

Conclusion

Swami Vivekananda  realized  that  it  is  only  through  education  that  the  uplift  of  masses  is  possible. Education  brings  to  light  its constructive,  practical  and  comprehensive  character. He  states  it  emphatically  that  if  society  is  to  be  reformed, education has to reach everyone-high and low, because individuals are the very constituents of society. The sense of dignity  rises  in  man  when  he  becomes  conscious  of  his  inner  spirit,  and  that  is  the  very  purpose  of  education. Founding  education  on  the  firm  ground  of  our  own  philosophy  and  culture,  he  shows  the  best  of remedies for today’s social and global illness.


  • Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates
  • Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos