InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically.
Table of Contents
GS Paper 2:
1. Model Tenancy Act.
2. Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007.
3. Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO).
GS Paper 3:
1. Green Bonds.
2. 27th Global Ozone Day.
3. Shoonya Campaign.
Facts for Prelims:
1. EXERCISE SURYA KIRAN.
2. World Patient Safety Day 2021.
3. Kushinagar Airport declared as Customs Notified Airport.
4. Strophodus jaisalmerensis.
5. Baijayant Panda Committee.
6. Prof. S.K. Joshi Laboratory Excellence Award.
GS Paper 2
Topic covered: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
Assam has become the first state to adopt the Model Tenancy Act. With this Assam Urban Areas Rent Control Act, 1972 gets repealed.
- New Act will spur growth & development of transparent & accountable rental market & balance the interests of tenants & landlords. It will provide ecosystem for rapid dispute resolution.
The Union Cabinet, in June 2021, approved the Model Tenancy Act (MTA).
- States and Union territories can now adopt the Model Tenancy Act by enacting fresh legislation or they can amend their existing rental laws suitably.
Highlights of the Model Law:
- Applicable prospectively and will not affect the existing tenancies.
- Written agreement is a must for all new tenancies. The agreement will have to be submitted to the concerned district ‘Rent Authority’.
- The law also speaks about roles and responsibilities of landlord and tenants.
- No landlord or property manager can withhold any essential supply to the premises occupied by the tenant.
- If tenancy has not been renewed, the tenancy shall be deemed to be renewed on a month-to-month basis on the same terms and conditions as were in the expired tenancy agreement, for a maximum period of six months.
- Compensation in case of non-vacancy: On the expiry of extended period of six months of agreed tenancy period or the termination of tenancy by order or notice, the tenant shall be a tenant in default and liable to pay compensation of double of the monthly rent for two months and four times of the monthly rent thereafter.
- A landowner or property manager may enter a premise in accordance with written notice or notice through electronic medium served to the tenant at least twenty-four hours before the time of entry.
It is an important piece of legislation that promises to ease the burden on civil courts, unlock rental properties stuck in legal disputes, and prevent future tangles by balancing the interests of tenants and landlords.
Need for a law in this regard:
- Young, educated job seekers migrating to large metropolises often complain of onerous tenancy conditions and obscene sums of money as security deposits that they are asked to fork out to lease accommodation. In some cities, tenants are asked to pay security deposits amounting to 11 months of rent.
- Also, some house owners routinely breach tenants’ right to privacy by visiting the premises unannounced for sundry repair works.
- Whimsical rent raises are another problem for tenants, many of whom complain of being squeezed as “captive customers“.
- Besides, Tenants are often accused of “squatting” on the rented premises, or trying to grab the property.
Did you know land tenures including the relation of landlord and tenant, and the collection of rents are subjects under the state list of the Indian Constitution (7th Schedule)? Read more here,
- About the Model law- Highlights.
- Role of states.
Discuss the significance and relevance of the Model Tenancy Act.
GS Paper 2
Topics Covered: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
Coming to the aid of senior citizen parents, the Bombay high court has directed a man and his family to vacate a flat within 10 days, failing which police would be used to forcibly evict them.
What’s the issue?
As a last resort, the parents invoked the provisions of the Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007 and the special tribunal under the Act granted relief to the parents, against which the son and his family moved the high court.
The High Court of Karnataka has said that there is a complete failure on the part of the State government to comply with its statutory obligation of establishing old-age homes as per the provisions
- This Act makes it legally obliging for adult children and heirs to provide for parents by way of a monthly allowance.
- This Act provides an inexpensive and speedy procedure to claim monthly maintenance for parents and senior citizens.
- According to this Act, parents could mean biological, adoptive or step-parents.
- Under this Act, there are also provisions to protect the life and property of such persons (elderly).
Is it mandatory for the state to set up old-age homes as per the law?
Section 19 of the law says, the State Government may establish and maintain such number of oldage homes at accessible places, as it may deem necessary, in a phased manner, beginning with at least one in each district .
- The State Government may also, prescribe a scheme for management of oldage homes.
The World Health Organization rightly observes, “population ageing is one of humanity’s greatest triumphs”. Why is it so? Read this.
- Who are Indigent senior citizens as per the act?
- Role of states as per the act.
- Other key features of the Act.
- Amendments proposed.
Ageing has become a major social challenge. Comment.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper 2
Topics Covered: Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.
The 21st meeting of the SCO Council of Heads of State was held on 17 September 2021 in Dushanbe, Tajikistan in hybrid format.
- The meeting was chaired by H.E. Emomali Rahmon, the President of Tajikistan.
About the SCO:
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is a permanent intergovernmental international organization.
- The creation of SCO was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai (China).
- The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter was signed during the St.Petersburg SCO Heads of State meeting in June 2002, and entered into force on 19 September 2003.
- It was preceded by the Shanghai Five mechanism.
- The SCO’s official languages are Russian and Chinese.
Founding members of SCO were-
- The Republic of Kazakhstan,
- The People’s Republic of China,
- The Kyrgyz Republic,
- The Russian Federation,
- The Republic of Tajikistan,
- The Republic of Uzbekistan.
- Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan were members of the Shanghai Five, Prior to the creation of SCO in 2001.
- Shanghai Five (1996) emerged from a series of border demarcation and demilitarization talks which the four former Soviet republics held with China to ensure stability along the borders.
- Uzbekistan joined the organisation in 2001, following this the Shanghai Five was renamed the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO).
- India and Pakistan became members in 2017.
Now, SCO is comprised of Eight Member countries. Namely-
Iran has been accepted as the ninth full member of the organisation.
Objectives of SCO:
- Strengthening mutual trust and neighbourliness among the member states.
- Promoting their effective cooperation in politics, trade, the economy, research, technology and culture, as well as in education, energy, transport, tourism, environmental protection, and other areas.
- Making joint efforts to maintain and ensure peace, security and stability in the region.
- Moving towards the establishment of a democratic, fair and rational new international political and economic order.
Significance for India:
The SCO’s significance for India lies in economics and geopolitics with the Eurasian states.
- SCO is a potential platform to advance India’s Connect Central Asia policy. The SCO member states occupy the huge landmass adjacent to India’s extended neighbourhood where India has both economic and security imperatives.
- Importance of SCO-Afghanistan Contact Group to stabilise Afghanistan. SCO membership provides India a vital counter to some of the other groupings it is a part of.
- The SCO provides the only multilateral platform for India to deal in close proximity with Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Do you know about the Executive Committee of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)? Reference: read this.
- What is Shanghai Five?
- When was SCO charter signed and when it entered into force?
- SCO founding members.
- When did India join the group?
- Observers and dialogue partners of SCO.
- Permanent bodies under SCO.
- Official languages of SCO.
Discuss the objectives and significance of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper 3
Topics Covered: Conservation related issues.
Power Finance Corporation Ltd (PFC), the leading NBFC in power sector, has successfully issued its first ever Euro Green Bonds.
- It is the first ever Euro denominated Green bond issuance from India.
- Moreover, it is the first ever Euro issuance by an Indian NBFC and the first Euro bond issuance from India since 2017.
What Is a Green Bond?
A green bond is a type of fixed-income instrument that is specifically earmarked to raise money for climate and environmental projects.
These bonds are typically asset-linked and backed by the issuing entity’s balance sheet, so they usually carry the same credit rating as their issuers’ other debt obligations.
- Green bonds may come with tax incentives to enhance their attractiveness to investors.
- The World Bank is a major issuer of green bonds. It has issued 164 such bonds since 2008, worth a combined $14.4 billion. In 2020, the total issuance of green bonds was worth almost $270 billion, according to the Climate Bond Initiative.
How Does a Green Bond Work?
Green bonds work just like any other corporate or government bond.
- Borrowers issue these securities in order to secure financing for projects that will have a positive environmental impact, such as ecosystem restoration or reducing pollution.
- Investors who purchase these bonds can expect to make as the bond matures.
- In addition, there are often tax benefits for investing in green bonds.
Green Bonds Vs Blue Bonds:
Blue bonds are sustainability bonds to finance projects that protect the ocean and related ecosystems.
- This can include projects to support sustainable fisheries, protection of coral reefs and other fragile ecosystems, or reducing pollution and acidification.
- All blue bonds are green bonds, but not all green bonds are blue bonds.
Green Bonds Vs Climate Bonds:
“Green bonds” and “climate bonds” are sometimes used interchangeably, but some authorities use the latter term specifically for projects focusing on reducing carbon emissions or alleviating the effects of climate change.
- About Green Bonds.
- How do they operate?
- How are they different from Blue Bonds.
Discuss the significance of Green Bonds.
GS Paper 3
Topics Covered: Conservation related issues.
World Ozone Day is celebrated on 16th September each year to commemorate the signing of the Montreal Protocol.
- This international environmental treaty for phasing out of production and consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances came into force on this day in 1987.
- The Day is celebrated every year to spread awareness among people about the depletion of Ozone Layer and the measures taken/ to be taken to preserve it.
The theme World Ozone Day 2021: “Montreal Protocol – Keeping us, our food and vaccines cool”.
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (the Montreal Protocol) is an international agreement made in 1987.
- It was designed to stop the production and import of ozone depleting substances and reduce their concentration in the atmosphere to help protect the earth’s ozone layer.
- The Montreal Protocol sits under the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (the Vienna Convention).
What is the ‘Kigali Amendment’?
Kigali Amendment was adopted by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on October, 2016 at 28th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol held at Kigali, Rwanda.
- Under the Kigali Amendment; Parties to the Montreal Protocol will phase down production and consumption of Hydrofluorocarbons, commonly known as HFCs.
- All amendments and adjustments of the Montreal Protocol, prior to the Kigali Amendment have Universal support.
India’s achievements in implementation of Montreal Protocol:
- India, as Party to the Montreal Protocol since June 1992, has been successfully implementing the Montreal Protocol.
- India has phased out Chlorofluorocarbons, Carbon tetrachloride, Halons, Methyl Bromide and Methyl Chloroform for controlled uses in line with the Montreal Protocol.
- Currently Hydrochlorofluorocarbons are being phased out as per the accelerated schedule of the Montreal Protocol.
- Hydrochlorofluorocarbons Phase out Management Plan (HPMP) Stage-I has been successfully implemented from 2012 to 2016 and HPMP Stage-II is currently under implementation from 2017 and will be completed by 2023.
- Government of India has recently decided to Ratify the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol.
Benefits of ratification of the Kigali Amendment:
- HFC phasedown is expected to prevent the greenhouse gas emissions, helping prevent climate change and would benefit the people.
- The industry producing and consuming Hydrofluorocarbons will be phasing out Hydrofluorocarbons as per the agreed schedule under and transition to non-HFC and low global warming potential technologies.
Did you know that the 20-year ‘India Cooling Action Plan’, or ICAP, released in 2019, describes cooling as a “developmental need”? Know more about ICAP here.
- About the Kigali Amendment.
- HFCs vs HCFCs.
- About Montreal Protocol.
- About ODS.
Discuss the significance of Kigali Amendment to Montreal Protocol.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper 3
Topics Covered: Infrastructure- energy.
Recently, NITI Aayog and Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) and RMI India have launched the Shoonya Campaign. RMI is an independent nonprofit organization founded in 1982.
About the Campaign:
- It is an initiative to promote zero-pollution delivery vehicles by working with consumers and industry.
- The campaign will promote the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) in the urban deliveries segment and create consumer awareness about the health, environmental and economic benefits of electric vehicles.
- As part of the campaign, a corporate branding and certification programme is being launched to recognise and promote the industry’s efforts towards transitioning to EVs for final-mile deliveries.
Government of India Initiatives to give a boost EV Sector in India:
- The government aims to see 6 million electric and hybrid vehicles on the roads by 2020 under the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020.
- Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric Vehicles in India (FAME India Scheme) for improving electric mobility in India.
- Implementation of smart cities would also boost the growth of electric vehicles.
- The Indian electric vehicle (EV) market currently has one of the lowest penetration rates in the world.
- Capital costs are high and the payoff is uncertain.
- The Indian EV industry has been hit hard due to rupee’s dramatic depreciation in recent months.
- Local production of inputs for EVs is at just about 35% of total input production.
- The production will be severely affected in terms of production costs.
- The Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid) and Electric Vehicles (Fame) framework has been extended repeatedly.
- An uncertain policy environment and the lack of supporting infrastructure are major roadblocks.
- India does not have any known reserves of lithium and cobalt, which makes it dependent on imports of lithium-ion batteries from Japan and China.
Need of the hour:
- For EVs to contribute effectively, we need commensurate efforts in developing an entire ecosystem.
- Need to shift the focus from subsidizing vehicles to subsidizing batteries because batteries make up 50% of EV costs.
- Increasing focus on incentivizing electric two-wheelers because two-wheelers account for 76% of the vehicles in the country and consume most of the fuel.
- A wide network of charging stations is imminent for attracting investment.
- Work places in tech parks, Public bus depots, and Multiplexes are the potential places where charging points could be installed. In Bangalore, some malls have charging points in parking lots.
- Corporates could invest in charging stations as Corporate Social Responsibility compliances.
- Acquiring lithium fields in Bolivia, Australia, and Chile could become as important as buying oil fields as India needs raw material to make batteries for electric vehicles.
Facts for Prelims:
EXERCISE SURYA KIRAN:
15th Edition of Indo – Nepal Joint Military Training, Exercise Surya Kiran between Indian Army and Nepali Army is commencing at Pithoragarh (UK).
- This joint military training will go a long way in improving bilateral relations and also will be a major step towards further strengthening the traditional friendship between the two nations.
- Last edition of Exercise Surya Kiran was conducted in Nepal in 2019.
World Patient Safety Day 2021:
World Patient Safety Day is observed on September 17 to create understanding globally about patient safety, increase public engagement in health care safety, etc.
- The theme: “Safe maternal and newborn care”.
- The slogan for the day is “Act now for safe and respectful childbirth!”
World Patient Safety Day was established by the World Health Assembly through resolution WHA72.6 on “Global action on patient safety” In 2019, and is observed on September 17 annually.
Kushinagar Airport declared as Customs Notified Airport:
- The Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) has declared Kushinagar Airport as a Customs notified airport.
- This would also facilitate international passenger movements including that of Buddhist pilgrims.
A customs airport is an airport notified by the appropriate customs authority of the country as an airport which shall be airports for the unloading of imported goods and the loading of export goods or any class of such goods.
- It is an important Buddhist pilgrimage site, where Gautam Buddha attained Mahaparinirvan.
- Kushinagar is dotted with several other Buddhist sites in the nearby surroundings like Sravasti (238 km), Kapilvastu (190 km) and Lumbini (195 km).
- Strophodus jaisalmerensis is the new species of Hybodont Shark (currently extinct) belonging to the Jurassic age.
- The teeth of the new species was recently discovered by a team from the Geological Survey of India (GSI) in Jaisalmer, Rajasthan. The specimen is estimated to be 160-168 million years old.
- With this discovery, the genus Strophodus is discovered for the first time in the Indian subcontinent.
- It is only third such discovery from Asia after Japan and Thailand.
- Hybodont Sharks dominated both marine and fluvial environments during the Triassic and early Jurassic times. They became extinct by the end of the Cretaceous period.
Baijayant Panda Committee:
It is a committee constituted by Ministry of Defence constituted a High Level Expert Committee for a comprehensive review of National Cadet Corps (NCC).
Objectives of the Committee:
- Committee is to suggest measures to empower NCC cadets to contribute more effectively towards nation building.
- To propose ways for gainful engagement of NCC Alumni for betterment of the organization.
- To recommend best practices of similar international youth organisations for inclusion in NCC curriculum.
Prof. S.K. Joshi Laboratory Excellence Award:
- It was launched recently by the Quality Council of India.
- This is country’s first-of-its- kind Laboratory Excellence Award.
- This award will be open to all currently operational Laboratories pertaining to Testing, Calibration & Medical including their Proficiency Testing Providers & Reference Material Producers located in India.
- S.K. Joshi was a luminary in the field of Science and Academica.