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[MISSION 2022] SECURE 2022 : Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 17 September 2021

 

 

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

1. What were the causes that led to the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971. Explain as to why India got involved in the war to liberate Bangladesh? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Chapter – 17 – India Since Independence by Bipan Chandra

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the causes for Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 and to explain as to why India got involved in the war.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of the conflict between east and west Pakistan.

Body:

In the first part, write about the reasons for the outbreak of the war. Ethnic clashes, Economic disparities, Political asymmetry, Language issue and the immediate cause etc.

Next, write about the reasons for India’s involved in the war – opportunity of the century, countering Pakistan, Bengali movement for autonomy and shared heritage, refugee crisis, security threats etc.

Conclusion:

Link the outcome to present day and Bangladesh celebrated 50 years of its Liberation movement.

 

Topic: Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

2. Even though the concept of Total Revolution lies deeply embedded in Gandhian teachings, was Jayaprakash Narayan’s Total Revolution a utopian ideal? Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Chapter – 18 – India Since Independence by Bipan Chandra

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2022 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the concept of total revolution and to examine if the revolution was an utopian ideal.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about the aims and objectives of Jayaprakash Narayan’s Total Revolution.

Body:

In the first part, explain the concept and various components of Jayaprakash Narayan’s Total Revolution, its various components and link it with Gandhian teachings.

Next, examine the outcomes of the revolution. Its successes and the limitations on the basis of the above stated objectives.

Conclusion:

Comment as to whether or not the revolution was utopian in nature or a practical movement.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

3. The data governance proposals of India must be evaluated from a gender lens to further ease the usage of Internet and Social Media for women. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Hindustan Times

Why the question:

The new data governance laws are under discussion. Given the various challenges faced by women in usage of Internet & Social media in India, There is a need to look at the laws from the gender perspective.

Key Demand of the question:

To discuss about how and why the data governance laws in India must be gender sensitive.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start your answer by talking about how India is moving towards an increasingly digital society. Thus, there is a need for the privacy and data governance laws which impact women’s safety and agency on the internet to be gender sensitive.

Body:  

In the first part, briefly highlight the challenges faced by women in usage of Internet and social media in India. You can substantiate your answer by giving statistics from NFHS-5, etc.

Now, talk about how the clauses in various data governance laws such as Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019 should be protective of women’s privacy and agency to use internet.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to make the data governance laws of India gender sensitive.

 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

4. Although E-Shram is a vital system to provide hitherto invisible workers much-needed visibility, it is fraught with impediments which can hinder the welfare measures. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The Union Ministry of Labour and Employment recently launched a national database to register unorganised workers, called the e-Shram portal.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss about the challenges/issues being faced by e-Shram and the possible impacts.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about the e-Shram portal and briefly mention the potential benefits for the unorganised workers by registering themselves on the portal – health, DBT, ration etc.

Body:

Discuss the various challenges or impediments being faced in the e-Shram portal.

Talk about the data security issues, eligibility issues, how it is a long process, complex identity issues, dependence on state governments etc.

Provide suitable measures.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Government Budgeting.

5. Enumerate the steps taken so far to expedite and enable resolution of NPAs in India. Critically analyse the potential of National Asset Reconstruction Company Ltd (NARCL) as the “Bad Bank” in addressing the issue of NPAs. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The Union Cabinet has cleared a proposal to provide ₹30,600 crore government guarantee for security receipts issued by the National Asset Reconstruction Company (NARCL) as part of resolution of bad loans.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the attempts at resolving NPA problem and to analyse the potential of proposed bad bank in resolving the crisis.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin the answer by giving the extent of NPA crisis in India which is expected to exacerbate due to the impact of the pandemic.

Body:

In the first part mention the various steps taken by the government as well as the RBI to address the NPA issue. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC), various asset reconstruction companies (ARCs) under Securities and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Securities Interest (SARFAESI) act, Debts Recovery Tribunals etc.

Next, write about of National Asset Reconstruction Company Ltd (NARCL) as the “Bad Bank”. Its objectives and functions. Mention how the bad bank will help with the problem of NPA. Also, write about limitations of the proposed bad bank.

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward to address the issue of NPA in India

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. Why is Montreal protocol considered the most successful global climate treaty? Evaluate India’s performance in implementing the Montreal Protocol. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Financial Express

Why the question:

This year’s theme for International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer is  ‘Montreal Protocol – Keeping us, our food and vaccines cool’ and the United Nations is celebrating the Montreal Protocol’s unprecedented act of humanity.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the reasons which makes the Montreal protocol as success and India’s performance with respect to it.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin the answer by writing about the Vienna Convention and subsequent Montreal Protocol.

Body:

In the first part, write the reasons which make Montreal protocol most successful global climate treaty – negotiations, funds, universal ratification, clear articulation and innovation in substitutes etc.

Next, write about the India’s performance – phasing out Chlorofluorocarbon, Ratifying Kigali Amendment to Montreal Protocol, Hydrochlorofluorocarbons Phase out Management Plan (HPMP) etc. Cite stats with respect to India’s performance and mention its shortcomings.

Conclusion:

Suggest a way forward to completely phase out Ozone depleting substances.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Case Study.

7. Six-year-old Abhijeet Solanki in Ahmedabad who earlier needed around 18-20 blood transfusions annually, is now cured of thalassemia and does not need any more transfusions, all thanks to his one-year-old sibling Kavya donating some part of her bone marrow. Kavya Solanki is India’s first-ever ‘saviour sibling’ who was born after her parents conducted a pre-implantation genetic diagnosis at fertility clinics. Six months after the transplantation, she is healthy and carries the minor thalassemia gene herself.

The concept of saviour siblings is an emerging medical technology. Through assisted reproductive technology, several embryos were extracted and their genetic make-up was checked for features that matched with the elder sibling prior to implantation. The matching one was then implanted and the pregnancy period was completed. Kavya was born in October 2018 and the bone marrow transplantation was conducted in March 2020. This mode of therapy is actively being performed in the US since 2000.

This concept of saviour siblings has started a debate on whether the procedure is ethical in itself. IVF specialists have told that the pre-implantation genetic diagnosis technique is ethical and legal for single-gene diseases like thalassemia.

    1. Analyse the ethical issues involved in the concept of ‘saviour sibling’?
    2. Would this set a precedent for selecting certain babies having desirable traits?
    3. What should be the way forward with respect to ‘saviour sibling’ as a medical technology?

(Answer in 250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Case Study Fridays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the importance of saving lives via transplantations and in this context explain the concept of saviour sibling.

Body:

  1. Write about the ethical issues involved. Discarded embryos, sex-selective process, autonomy of the saviour sibling, legal challenges, a treatment only rich can afford etc.
  2. Write about the similarities in the process of saviour sibling and selecting certain babies having desirable traits. Bring outs its ramifications.
  3. Write a way forward for its regulation, prevent its misuse etc.

Conclusion:

Pass a judgement on the ethicality of the concept of saviour sibling.


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