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[Mission 2022] INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY- 16 September 2021

 

 

InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically. 

 

Table of Contents

GS Paper 2:

1. Delhi High Court observations on the ‘Right to be Forgotten’.

2. Pakistan Occupied Kashmir.

3. WHO pre-qualification, or Emergency Use Listing (EUL).

 

GS Paper 3:

1. National Engineer’s day.

2. Gaganyaan Mission.

3. The ‘Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Rights Act)’.

 

Facts for Prelims:

1. Hindi Diwas.

2. Exercise PEACEFUL MISSION.


Delhi High Court observations on the ‘Right to be Forgotten’

GS Paper 2

Topics Covered: Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

 

Context:

Last week, the Delhi High Court upheld the view that the “Right to Privacy” includes the “Right to be Forgotten” and the “Right to be Left Alone”.

  • The court said this in an order passed in response to a suit filed by an unnamed Bengali actor.

 

Background:

Earlier in July, Ashutosh Kaushik who won reality TV shows Bigg Boss in 2008 and MTV Roadies 5.0 approached the Delhi High Court with a plea saying that his videos, photographs and articles etc. be removed from the internet citing his “Right to be Forgotten”.

 

What is the ‘Right to be Forgotten’ in the Indian context?

  • The Right to be Forgotten falls under the purview of an individual’s right to privacy, which is governed by the Personal Data Protection Bill that is yet to be passed by Parliament.
  • In 2017, the Right to Privacy was declared a fundamental right (under Article 21) by the Supreme Court in its landmark verdict (Puttuswamy case).
  • The court said at the time that “the right to privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 and as a part of the freedoms guaranteed by Part III of the Constitution”.

 

What does the Personal Data Protection Bill say about this?

Right to privacy is also governed by the Personal Data Protection Bill that is yet to be passed by Parliament.

The bill exclusively talks about the “Right to be Forgotten.”

  • Broadly, under the Right to be forgotten, users can de-link, limit, delete or correct the disclosure of their personal information held by data fiduciaries.

 

But, what are the issues associated with this provision in the Bill?

The main issue with the provision is that the sensitivity of the personal data and information cannot be determined independently by the person concerned, but will be overseen by the Data Protection Authority (DPA).

  • This means that while the draft bill gives some provisions under which a user can seek that his data be removed, but his or her rights are subject to authorisation by the Adjudicating Officer who works for the DPA.

 

Insta Curious:

On one hand, Article 21 paves the way for the right to be forgotten to be read into the Constitution, on the other hand, Article 19 stands as a hindrance. How? Reference

 

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. About the Right to be forgotten.
  2. What is right to privacy?
  3. Highlights of Personal Data Protection Bill.

Mains Link:

Discuss the significance of the right to be forgotten.

Sources: Indian Express.

Pakistan Occupied Kashmir:

GS Paper 2

Topics Covered: India and neighbourhood relations.

 

Context:

Hundreds of protesters recently took to streets of the Pallandari region in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) demanding independence from Pakistani clutches.

 

What’s the issue?

Accusing Islamabad of giving second-class citizen treatment to them for the past seven decades, the protestors said that their rights were trampled upon. Additionally, the country’s administration is also accused of exploiting the citizens politically and economically.

 

Present position of PoK:

  • PoK is called “Azad Jammu & Kashmir” (“AJK” in short).
  • It came into being after the 1949 ceasefire between India and Pakistan.
  • It comprises the parts of the erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir that were occupied by the Pakistani forces.
  • Pakistan’s constitutional position on PoK is that it is not a part of the country, but the “liberated” part of Kashmir.

However, Article 257 of Pakistan’s Constitution says: “When the people of the State of Jammu and Kashmir decide to accede to Pakistan, the relationship between Pakistan and the State shall be determined in accordance with the wishes of the people of that State.”

 

Political structure and how is it administered?

  • The constitution of Pakistan lists the country’s four provinces — Punjab, Sind, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
  • For all practical purposes, PoK is run by the Pakistan government through the all-powerful Kashmir Council, a nominated 14-member body headed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan.
  • The Assembly has a five-year term. The legislators elect a “prime minister” and a “president” for the territory.
  • While PoK is ostensibly an autonomous, self-governing territory, the Pakistan Army is the final arbiter on all matters Kashmir.

 

India’s stand on PoK:

  • The fact that PoK is an integral part of India has been our consistent policy ever since 1947.
  • India has also made clear to the world that any issue related to PoK is the internal matter of India.
  • Please note that Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) is part of the newly created Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, while Gilgit-Baltistan is in the UT of Ladakh in the fresh maps released by the government.

 

Insta Curious:

Did you know that there are 12 seats reserved for Refugees in PoK elections? Read Here Briefly

 

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. Location of PoK.
  2. Rivers flowing through.
  3. Neighbours.
  4. Instrument of Accession.

Mains Link:

Discuss why PoK is significant for India.

Sources: Indian Express.

WHO pre-qualification, or Emergency Use Listing (EUL): 

GS Paper 2

Topics Covered: Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate. 

 

Context: 

The World Health Organisation (WHO) may take a decision on granting Emergency Use Listing (EUL) to Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin this week. 

  • The vaccine should get international recognition with this. Post approval people wanting to travel abroad will not have difficulty. 

 

Background: 

A WHO pre-qualification, or Emergency Use Listing (EUL), is necessary for a vaccine company to supply vaccines to global facilities such as COVAX or international procurement. 

  • So far, eight vaccines have got an EUL from the WHO. 
  • WHO will also take a decision on including Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin in its list shortly. 

 

About WHO’s Emergency Use List (EUL): 

The WHO Emergency Use Listing Procedure (EUL) is a risk-based procedure for assessing and listing unlicensed vaccines, therapeutics and in vitro diagnostics with the ultimate aim of expediting the availability of these products to people affected by a public health emergency. 

 

To be eligible, the following criteria must be met: 

  1. The disease for which the product is intended is serious or immediately life threatening, has the potential of causing an outbreak, epidemic or pandemic and it is reasonable to consider the product for an EUL assessment, e.g., there are no licensed products for the indication or for a critical subpopulation (e.g., children). 
  2. Existing products have not been successful in eradicating the disease or preventing outbreaks (in the case of vaccines and medicines). 
  3. The product is manufactured in compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) in the case of medicines and vaccines and under a functional Quality Management System (QMS) in the case of IVDs. 
  4. The applicant undertakes to complete the development of the product (validation and verification of the product in the case of IVDs) and apply for WHO prequalification once the product is licensed. 

 

Insta Curious: 

What is emergency use authorisation (EUA)? How is it regulated in India? Reference: 

 

InstaLinks: 

Prelims Link: 

  1. European Union- Composition and objectives. 
  2. About WHO EUL. 
  3. Benefits. 
  4. Eligibility. 

Mains Link: 

Write a note on WHO’s EUL. 

Sources: Indian Express. 

National Engineer’s day

GS Paper 3

Topics Covered: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology. 

 

Context: 

Every year on September 15, India along with Sri Lanka and Tanzania celebrate National Engineer’s day to recognise and honour the achievements of the great engineer Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya. 

  • The day is observed to commemorate the great work of engineers and to encourage them for improvement and innovation. 

This year marks the 160th birth anniversary of M Visvesvaraya who was born on September 15, 1861, in the Muddenahalli village of Karnataka. 

 

About Sir M Visvesvaraya: 

  • An expert in irrigation techniques and flood disaster management, Sir MV was not just a great civil engineer but also served as the 19th Diwan of Mysore from 1912 to 1919. 
  • While serving as the Diwan of Mysore, in 1915 he was awarded ‘Knight’ as a commander of the British Indian Empire by King George V. 

 

Key contributions: 

  1. Patented and installed an irrigation system with water floodgates at the Khadakvasla reservoir near Pune to raise the food supply level and storage to the highest levels known as ‘block system’ in 1903. 
  2. The same system was also installed at Gwalior’s Tigra Dam and Mysuru’s Krishnaraja Sagara (KRS) dam, the latter of which created one of the largest reservoirs in Asia at the time. 
  3. He played an important role in the foundation of Government Engineering College at Bangalore in 1917. The college was later renamed after him as University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering (UVCE). 
  4. He is the one who designed a plan for road construction between Tirumala & Tirupati. 
  5. He played a key role in developing a system to protect Visakhapatnam port from sea erosion. 
  6. He also commissioned several new Railway lines in Mysore state. 
  7. He had designed and carried out the waterworks for the Municipality of Sukkur in 1895. 

 

Legacy: 

  • For his contribution to the building of India, the government awarded him with India’s highest honor ‘Bharat Ratna’ in 1955. 
  • In 2018, Google launched a Doodle on his birthday to celebrate his genius works whose endeavors led to the Tata Steel engineers invent an armored vehicle that was used in WWII and could withstand bullets. 
  • He was awarded an Honorary Membership of London Institution of Civil Engineers for an unbroken 50 years. 

 

Books Written by him: 

‘Reconstructing India’ and ‘Planned Economy of India’. 

 

Insta Curious: 

Did you know that the National Engineering Day is different from the World Engineering Day celebrated annually by UNESCO on 4th March? Reference: read this

Sources: the Hindu. 

Gaganyaan: 

GS Paper 3

Topics Covered: Awareness in space. 

 

Context: 

Australia will support India’s ‘Gaganyaan’ mission by tracking it through Cocos Keeling island. 

 

Significance: 

There are blind spots due to which there is a possibility of not receiving signals, sources said. The data relay satellite tracking from Cocos Keeling island is expected to help address the issue. 

 

Need for: 

Satellites in orbit cannot pass along their information to the ground stations on Earth if it does not have a clear view of the ground station. A data relay satellite serves as a way to pass along the satellite’s information. 

 

When was it announced? 

  • Formal announcement of the Gaganyaan programme was made by Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his Independence Day address on August 15, 2018. 
  • The initial target was to launch the human spaceflight before the 75th anniversary of India’s independence on August 15, 2022. 

 

Objectives: 

The objective of the Gaganyaan programme is to demonstrate the capability to send humans to low earth orbit on board an Indian launch vehicle and bring them back to earth safely. 

 

Preparation and launch: 

  1. Four Indian astronaut-candidates have already undergone generic space flight training in Russia as part of the Gaganyaan programme. 
  2. ISRO’s heavy-lift launcher GSLV Mk III has been identified for the mission. 

 

Relevance of a Manned Space Mission for India: 

Boost to industries: The Indian industry will find large opportunities through participation in the highly demanding Space missions. Gaganyaan Mission is expected to source nearly 60% of its equipment from the Indian private sector. 

Employment: According to the ISRO chief, the Gaganyaan mission would create 15,000 new employment opportunities, 13,000 of them in private industry and the space organisation would need an additional manpower of 900. 

Spurs research and development: It will thrust significant research in areas such as materials processing, astro-biology, resources mining, planetary chemistry, planetary orbital calculus and many other areas. 

Motivation: Human space flight will provide that inspiration to the youth and also the national public mainstream. It would inspire the young generation into notable achievements and enable them to play their legitimate role in challenging future activities. 

Prestige: India could potentially become the fourth country to launch a human space mission. The Gaganyaan will not only bring about prestige to the nation but also establish India’s role as a key player in the space industry. 

 

Insta Curious: 

Do you know about the Mir Space Station? Read Here(Read Briefly)

 

InstaLinks: 

Prelims Link: 

  1. About Gaganyaan. 
  2. Objectives. 
  3. About GSLV. 

Mains Link: 

Why is Gaganyaan mission significant for India? Discuss. 

Sources: PIB. 

The ‘Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Rights Act)’: 

GS Paper 3

Topics Covered: Conservation related issues. 

 

Context: 

Individual and community right certificates were recently handed over to the beneficiaries of Gujjar-Bakerwal and Gaddi-Sippi communities in Jammu and Kashmir under the Forest Rights Act. 

  • The Act is being implemented from December 1, 2020. Before 2019, many Central laws were not implemented in Srinagar. 

 

About the Forest Rights Act:

The Act passed in 2006 grants legal recognition to the rights of traditional forest dwelling communities.

 

Rights under the Act:

Title rights – i.e. ownership – to land that is being farmed by tribals or forest dwellers as on 13 December 2005, subject to a maximum of 4 hectares; ownership is only for land that is actually being cultivated by the concerned family as on that date, meaning that no new lands are granted. 

Use rights – to minor forest produce (also including ownership), to grazing areas, to pastoralist routes, etc. 

Relief and development rights – to rehabilitation in case of illegal eviction or forced displacement; and to basic amenities, subject to restrictions for forest protection. 

Forest management rights – to protect forests and wildlife. 

 

Eligibility criteria:

According to Section 2(c) of Forest Rights Act (FRA), to qualify as Forest Dwelling Scheduled Tribe (FDST) and be eligible for recognition of rights under FRA, three conditions must be satisfied by the applicant/s, who could be “members or community”:

  1. Must be a Scheduled Tribe in the area where the right is claimed; and
  2. Primarily resided in forest or forests land prior to 13-12-2005; and
  3. Depend on the forest or forests land for bonafide livelihood needs.

 

And to qualify as Other Traditional Forest Dweller (OTFD) and be eligible for recognition of rights under FRA, two conditions need to be fulfilled: 

  1. Primarily resided in forest or forests land for three generations (75 years) prior to 13-12-2005.
  2. Depend on the forest or forests land for bonafide livelihood needs.

 

Process of recognition of rights: 

  1. The gram sabha, or village assembly, will initially pass a resolution recommending whose rights to which resources should be recognised. 
  2. This resolution is then screened and approved at the level of the sub-division (or taluka) and subsequently at the district level. 

The screening committees consist of three government officials (Forest, Revenue and Tribal Welfare departments) and three elected members of the local body at that level. These committees also hear appeals. 

 

Insta Curious: 

Do you know about Critical Wildlife Habitats which are defined under the Forest Rights Act, 2006? Read this

 

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. Who can include or exclude areas under 5th
  2. What are scheduled areas?
  3. Forest Rights Act- key provisions.
  4. Rights under this Act.
  5. Eligibility Criteria.
  6. Role of Gram Sabha in recognizing these rights 
  7. What are Critical Wildlife Habitats? 

Sources: the Hindu. 

Facts for Prelims:

Hindi Diwas:

  • Every year, 14th September is celebrated as Hindi Diwas in India.
  • It aims to raise awareness about the language and also commemorate the event when it was adopted as one of the official languages of India.
  • Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, was adopted as the official language of the Republic of India on 14th September, 1949.
  • It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India.
  • Besides Hindi, English is the other official language (Article 343 of the Constitution).
  • Hindi is also an eighth schedule language.
  • Article 351 pertains to ‘Directive for development of the Hindi language’.

 

Exercise PEACEFUL MISSION:

Joint Counter Terrorism Exercise PEACEFUL MISSION is a Multilateral Exercise, which is conducted biennially as part of military diplomacy between Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) member states.

  • The 6th edition of Exercise PEACEFUL MISSION is being hosted by Russia in the Orenburg Region of South West Russia from 13 to 25 September 2021.
  • The aim of the exercise is to foster close relations between SCO member states and to enhance abilities of the military leaders to command multi-national military contingents.

 

Articles to be covered tomorrow:

1. PLI Scheme for Auto and Drone industries.

 


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