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Account for the increased frequency of cyclones in India over the years, which are much severe and devastating than before. Suggest short term and long-term measures to mitigate the human and economic costs arising from them.

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

6. Account for the increased frequency of cyclones in India over the years, which are much severe and devastating than before. Suggest short term and long-term measures to mitigate the human and economic costs arising from them. (250 words) 

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Two severe cyclones, Tauktae and Yaas, made landfall in India in May. They killed 199 people and wreaked havoc on millions. As cyclones become more frequent, putting further measures in place to mitigate the effects of such disasters is increasingly urgent.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about reasons for increased frequency of devastating cyclones in India and suggest measures to mitigate them.

Directive word: 

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by providing context, the two severe cyclones, Tauktae and Yaas and how the frequency of cyclones has been increasing.

Body:

In first part, cite the data and write the reasons for increasing frequency of cyclones on both the eastern and western coast of India. Increasing sea surface temperatures in the northern Indian Ocean and the changing geo-climatic conditions in India etc.

Next, bring out the economic costs and human costs as a result of devastation caused by the severe cyclones.

Mention short term measures – installing a disaster warning system in the coastal districts, and construction of evacuation shelters in cyclone-prone districts etc.

Mention long term measures – Embankments that are resilient to storm surges, improved prevention of flooding from swollen rivers and coastal mangrove habitats regeneration etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.