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Why should India be given a permanent seat at UNSC? 

GS Paper 2

Topics Covered: Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate. 



The US administration under Biden has continued to remain non-committal on support for India’s UNSC bid. 

  • However, the Obama and Trump administrations had supported a permanent seat for India on the Security Council. 


What has the US said? 

The U.S. has offered qualified support for building a consensus for enlargement of the UNSC — in terms of permanent and non-permanent members. However, it said it would not support an expansion of the veto — given to the P-5, the current five permanent members: China, France, Russia, the U.K and the U.S. 


Who else has opposed India’s bid? 

The Uniting for Consensus (UFC) group Pakistan, South Korea, Italy and Argentina — opposes the G4 plan. China also opposes the bids of India and Japan. 


India’s claims to a permanent seat in the UNSC are based on the following grounds: 

  1. Represents one-sixth of the global population. 
  2. Among the founding members of the U.N. 
  3. Always upheld its principles and credentials while some other countries consider the organisation as merely a talk shop. 
  4. Impressive contribution towards the UN Peacekeeping Force (UNPKF)
  5. An emerging economic power. 


Who are G4 Nations? 

The G4 nations comprising Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan are four countries which support each other’s bids for permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council. 


Basis for these demands: 

  • Each of these four countries have figured among the elected non-permanent members of the council since the UN’s establishment.
  • Their economic and political influence has grown significantly in the last decades, reaching a scope comparable to the permanent members (P5). 


In general, what UNSC reforms are necessary at present? 

  • Permanent seats should be given in the council for these countries. 
  • There is a clear need for an enhanced role of developing countries and of major contributors to the United Nations to make the Council more legitimate, effective and representative. 
  • Africa needs to be represented in both the permanent and non-permanent categories to correct the historical injustice against this continent with regard to its under-representation. 
  • Need for text-based negotiations within a fixed time frame for the UNSC reform. 


Insta Curious: 

India is currently (in 2021 and 2022) a non-permanent member of the UNSC and is president for the month of August. How is UNSC Presidency decided? Reference



Prelims Link: 

  1. Name the permanent members of UNSC? 
  2. How are non permanent members elected? 
  3. Voting powers at UNSC. 
  4. How are non permanent seats distributed? 
  5. UNGA vs UNSC. 
  6. What is the G4 group? 

Mains Link: 

Discuss why India should be given a permanent seat at the UNSC. 

Sources: the Hindu.