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No agreement yet on Gogra, Hot Springs


GS Paper  :  2

Topics Covered: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.



The 12th round of India-China Corps Commander Level Meeting was held recently at the Chushul-Moldo border meeting point on the Indian side.



India has been pressing for comprehensive de-escalation of the situation in eastern Ladakh to end the stand-off that began last year which includes disengagement from all friction points, de-escalation and working out new protocols for patrolling. As part of this, meetings at various levels are being held.


Developments so far:

So far, disengagement has been completed on the north and south banks of Pangong Tso.


Roots of India- China Border controversy:

  1. India and China share a 3,488 km long boundary. Unfortunately, the entire boundary is disputed. The line, which delineates the boundary between the two countries, is popularly called the McMahon line, after its author Sir Henry McMahon.
  2. In 1913, the British-India government had called a tripartite conference, in which the boundary between India and Tibet was formalized after a discussion between the Indian and the Tibetans. A Convention was adopted, which resulted in the delimitation of the Indo-Tibetan boundary. This boundary is, however, disputed by China which terms it as illegal.
  3. In 1957, China occupied Aksai Chin and built a road through it. This episode was followed by intermittent clashes along the border, which finally culminated in the border war of 1962. The boundary, which came into existence after the war, came to be known as Line of Actual Control (LAC). It is a military held line.


Overview of the LAC:

It is divided into three sectors: the eastern sector which spans Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim (1346 km), the middle sector in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh (545 km), and the western sector in Ladakh (1597 km).

  1. The alignment of the LAC in the eastern sector is along the 1914 McMahon Line.
  2. The McMohan line marked out previously unclaimed/undefined borders between Britain and Tibet.
  3. The middle sector is the least disputed sector, while the western sector witnesses the highest transgressions between the two sides.


Need of the hour:

(i) LAC should be accepted and respected by both the parties.

(ii) Neither party should attempt to change the status quo unilaterally.

(iii) All agreements should be fully adhered to by both parties.


Insta Curious:

Do you know where is Chushul located? Why is it named so? Reference



Prelims Link:

  1. What is LoC and how is it established, geographical extent and significance?
  2. What is LAC?
  3. Where is Nathu la?
  4. Where is Pangong Tso?
  5. Who administers Akashi Chin?
  6. Where is Naku La?
  7. Who controls what in Pangong Tso lake region?

Mains Link:

Discuss the significance of Pangong Tso for India and China.

Sources: the Hindu.