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Preventive detention only to forestall public disorder: SC:


GS Paper  :  2

Topics Covered: Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.



The Supreme Court has passed an order on the use and applicability of Prevention Detention in the Country.



The judgment came in an appeal filed by the wife of a man placed under preventive detention under the Telangana Prevention of Dangerous Activities Act shortly after he was granted bail in a cheating case.


Important observations made by the Court:

  1. Preventive detention could be used only to prevent public disorder.
  2. The State should not arbitrarily resort to “preventive detention” to deal with all and sundry “law and order” problems, which could be dealt with by the ordinary laws of the country.
  3. The court must ensure that the facts brought before it directly and inevitably lead to a harm, danger or alarm or feeling of insecurity among the general public or any section thereof at large.
  4. Preventive detention must fall within the four corners of Article 21 (due process of law) read with Article 22 (safeguards against arbitrary arrest and detention) and the statute in question.

What is Preventive Detention?

It involves the detainment (containment) of a person in order to keep him/her from committing future crimes and/or from escaping future prosecution.

  • Article 22 (3) (b) of the Constitution allows for preventive detention and restriction on personal liberty for reasons of state security and public order.


Article 22(4) states that:

No law providing for preventive detention shall authorise the detention of a person for a longer period than three months unless: An Advisory Board reports sufficient cause for extended detention.

  • The 44th Amendment Act of 1978 has reduced the period of detention without obtaining the opinion of an advisory board from three to two months. However, this provision has not yet been brought into force, hence, the original period of three months still continues.


Purpose of the Preventive detention:

  1. In the case of Mariappan v. The District Collector and Others, the Court held that the aim of detention and its laws is not to punish anyone but to stop certain crimes from being committed.
  2. In the case of Union of India v. Paul Nanickan and Anr, the Supreme Court said that the reasoning for such detention is based on suspicion or reasonable possibility and not a criminal conviction, which can be justified only by valid proof.


Insta Curious: 

Do you know what Adjective law is? Read Here



Prelims Link:

  1. What is Preventive Detention?
  2. Constitutional provisions in this regard.
  3. Laws providing for Preventive Detention.
  4. Overview of Article 22 and sub clauses under it.
  5.  44th Amendment Act of 1978- overview.

Mains Link:

Discuss the issues and concerns associated with the application of Preventive Detention law in the Country.

Sources: the Hindu.

Who is a Bhumiputra in Goa?


GS Paper  :  2

Topics Covered: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.



The Goa Assembly has passed the Goa Bhumiputra Adhikarini Bill, 2021.


Highlights of the Bill:

  1. It recognises anyone living in the state for 30 years or more as a ‘Bhumiputra (son of the soil)’ and gives such a person the right to own his or her ‘small dwelling unit’ if ownership was undetermined so far.
  2. Once recognised as a Bhumiputra, an individual can stake claim to ownership of their house of not more than 250 sq m, built before April 1, 2019.



  1. The Bill provides for the constitution of the Bhumiputra Adhikarini — a committee consisting of the Deputy Collector as its Chairperson, and officials from the departments of Town and Country Planning, Forest and Environment , and Mamlatdars of respective talukas as its members.
  2. The Bhumiputra may apply to the committee if his house has been built before the cut-off date.
  3. The committee will invite objections within 30 days, including from the land owner which could also be a local body, and then take a decision of granting ownership to the Bhumiputra.
  4. An appeal against the Bhumiputra Adhikarini’s decision can be filed before the Administrative Tribunal within 30 days.


Can the courts intervene?

No court shall have jurisdiction “to entertain, decide or deal with any question which is to be decided by the Bhumiputra Adhikarini and Administrative Tribunal under this Act”.


Need for these measures:

In the last so many years there have been cases of homes built by a person or his parents but the land is not in his name. There is always a sword dangling over their head that someone will file a case against them (over ownership).

  • Therefore, the objective of the Bill is to give ownership right to the self-occupied dweller of a small housing unit to enable him to live with dignity and self-respect and exercise his right to life.



The biggest concern is that the bill may give rise to regularisation of illegal structures. This might also open the floodgates for the migrant population that has been staying in densely populated areas in Goa and has no legality.



Prelims Link:

  1. Overview of the Bill.
  2. Eligibility.
  3. Implementation.
  4. Benefits.

Mains Link:

Discuss the significance of the Bill.

Sources: Indian Express.

Zika virus


GS Paper  :  2

Topics Covered: Issues related to Health.



The Union Health Ministry has rushed a multidisciplinary team to Maharashtra to monitor the Zika virus situation and support the State government in management of infections. Recei, a case of Zika has been reported in Pune district.


About Zika:

  • The Zika virus is predominantly transmitted by infected mosquitoes from the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti. The Aedes mosquitoes also spread dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.
  • The virus was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys.



  • Apart from the mosquitoes, an infected person can also spread the virus.



  • Generally, the symptoms include fever, rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, or headache. It lasts for about two to seven days. Most infected people do not develop any symptoms.
  • Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause infants to be born with microcephaly (smaller than normal head size) and other congenital malformations, known as congenital Zika syndrome.
  • It has no treatment or vaccine. Instead, the focus is on relieving symptoms and includes rest, rehydration and acetaminophen for fever and pain.


Insta Curious:

Did you know that in 2019 transgenic mosquitoes were released in some areas of Brazil? What was the objective of this experiment? Reference



Prelims Link:

  1. About Zika Virus Disease.
  2. Spread.
  3. Symptoms.
  4. Treatment.

Sources: the Hindu.

No agreement yet on Gogra, Hot Springs


GS Paper  :  2

Topics Covered: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.



The 12th round of India-China Corps Commander Level Meeting was held recently at the Chushul-Moldo border meeting point on the Indian side.



India has been pressing for comprehensive de-escalation of the situation in eastern Ladakh to end the stand-off that began last year which includes disengagement from all friction points, de-escalation and working out new protocols for patrolling. As part of this, meetings at various levels are being held.


Developments so far:

So far, disengagement has been completed on the north and south banks of Pangong Tso.


Roots of India- China Border controversy:

  1. India and China share a 3,488 km long boundary. Unfortunately, the entire boundary is disputed. The line, which delineates the boundary between the two countries, is popularly called the McMahon line, after its author Sir Henry McMahon.
  2. In 1913, the British-India government had called a tripartite conference, in which the boundary between India and Tibet was formalized after a discussion between the Indian and the Tibetans. A Convention was adopted, which resulted in the delimitation of the Indo-Tibetan boundary. This boundary is, however, disputed by China which terms it as illegal.
  3. In 1957, China occupied Aksai Chin and built a road through it. This episode was followed by intermittent clashes along the border, which finally culminated in the border war of 1962. The boundary, which came into existence after the war, came to be known as Line of Actual Control (LAC). It is a military held line.


Overview of the LAC:

It is divided into three sectors: the eastern sector which spans Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim (1346 km), the middle sector in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh (545 km), and the western sector in Ladakh (1597 km).

  1. The alignment of the LAC in the eastern sector is along the 1914 McMahon Line.
  2. The McMohan line marked out previously unclaimed/undefined borders between Britain and Tibet.
  3. The middle sector is the least disputed sector, while the western sector witnesses the highest transgressions between the two sides.


Need of the hour:

(i) LAC should be accepted and respected by both the parties.

(ii) Neither party should attempt to change the status quo unilaterally.

(iii) All agreements should be fully adhered to by both parties.


Insta Curious:

Do you know where is Chushul located? Why is it named so? Reference



Prelims Link:

  1. What is LoC and how is it established, geographical extent and significance?
  2. What is LAC?
  3. Where is Nathu la?
  4. Where is Pangong Tso?
  5. Who administers Akashi Chin?
  6. Where is Naku La?
  7. Who controls what in Pangong Tso lake region?

Mains Link:

Discuss the significance of Pangong Tso for India and China.

Sources: the Hindu.

Experts warn against mandatory food fortification


GS Paper  :  3

Topics Covered: Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.



Experts have warned of the adverse impacts on health and livelihoods because of Food Fortification.


What’s the issue?

Centre has plans to mandatorily fortify rice and edible oils with vitamins and minerals.

But, experts say adding a few synthetic micronutrients could harm the health of consumers.

  • Instead, dietary diversity and higher protein consumption can solve the undernutrition problem in India.



15 States have been identified for implementing Centrally Sponsored Pilot Scheme on Fortification of Rice & its distribution through Public Distribution System.

  • The Pilot Scheme has been approved for a period of three years beginning 2019-2020.


Issues associated with fortification:

  1. Evidence supporting fortification is inconclusive and certainly not adequate before major national policies are rolled out.
  2. Many of the studies which FSSAI relies upon to promote fortification were sponsored by food companies which would benefit from it, leading to conflicts of interest.
  3. Mandatory fortification would also harm the vast informal economy of Indian farmers and food processors, including local oil and rice mills, and instead benefit a small group of multinational corporations.
  4. Also, a major problem with chemical fortification of foods is that nutrients don’t work in isolation but need each other for optimal absorption.


What needs to be done?

Undernourishment in India is caused by monotonous cereal-based diets with low consumption of vegetables and animal protein. So, instead of fortification of food, dietary diversity is a healthier and more cost-effective way to fight malnutrition.


What is food fortification?

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), food fortification is defined as the practice of deliberately increasing the content of essential micronutrients so as to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and to provide a public health benefit with minimal risk to health.


Insta Curious:

Do you know about Agronomic biofortification? How does Biofortification differ from food fortification? Reference



Prelims Link:

  1. Bio fortification vs Genetic modifications.
  2. Micro vs Macronutrients.
  3. Approval for Biofortified and GM crops in India.
  4. GM crops allowed in India.

Mains Link:

What do you understand by fortification of foods? Discuss its advantages.

Sources: the Hindu.

India’s leopard count


GS Paper  :  3

Topics Covered: Conservation related issues.



Union Environment Ministry has released a new report titled- Status of Leopards, Co-predators and Megaherbivores-2018.


As per the report:

  • India’s official leopard count has increased 63 per cent from 2014-2018. There were 12,852 leopards in the country in 2018 (7,910 in 2014).
  • The largest number of leopards have been estimated in Madhya Pradesh (3,421) followed by Karnataka (1,783) and Maharashtra (1,690).


About Leopard:

  1. Scientific Name- Panthera pardus.
  2. Listed in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  3. Included in Appendix I of CITES.
  4. Listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.
  5. Nine subspecies of the leopard have been recognized, and they are distributed across Africa and Asia.


The government has also informed that there are 14 tiger reserves that had received the accreditation of the Global Conservation Assured|Tiger Standards (CA|TS), an accreditation tool agreed upon by tiger range countries. These include:

  1. Manas, Kaziranga and Orang in Assam.
  2. Satpura, Kanha and Panna in Madhya Pradesh.
  3. Pench in Maharashtra.
  4. Valmiki Tiger Reserve in Bihar.
  5. Dudhwa in Uttar Pradesh.
  6. Sunderbans in West Bengal.
  7. Parambikulam in Kerala.
  8. Bandipur Tiger Reserve of Karnataka.
  9. Mudumalai and Anamalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu.


What is Conservation Assured | Tiger Standards (CA|TS)?

CA|TS has been agreed upon as an accreditation tool by the global coalition of Tiger Range Countries (TRCs) and has been developed by tiger and protected area experts.

  • CA|TS is a set of criteria which allows tiger sites to check if their management will lead to successful tiger conservation.
  • It was officially launched in 2013.
  • The Global Tiger Forum (GTF), an international NGO working on tiger conservation, and World Wildlife Fund India are the two implementing partners of the National Tiger Conservation Authority for CATS assessment in India.


Insta Curious: 

Did you know that no separate census for leopard is conducted? The quadrennial tiger survey also estimates the population of other animals including leopards by relying on camera trap images. Reference



Prelims Link:

  1. IUCN status of Leopard.
  2. What is CITES?
  3. Subspecies of leopard.
  4. Various Schedules under the Wildlife Protection Act 1972.
  5. Tiger census in India is conducted by?
  6. IUCN red list categories.

Mains Link:

Discuss why a separate census is necessary for the estimation of leopards in India.

Sources: Down to Earth.


Facts for Prelims:



  • e-RUPI is a person and purpose-specific cashless digital payment solution.
  • It is a contactless instrument for digital payment.
  • It is based on a QR code or SMS string-based e-voucher, which is delivered to the mobile of the beneficiaries.
  • The system will eliminate the need for any physical interface, mobile banking, debit, or credit cards by simply and directly allowing the beneficiary to avail the benefits by redeeming the codes at specific centers.
  • It has been developed by the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI), the Department of Financial Services, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and the National Health Authority.

How it works?

  1. It is basically a prepaid voucher that can be issued directly to citizens after verifying mobile number and identity.
  2. The e-RUPI voucher will be delivered in the form of a QR code or SMS string-based e-voucher to the beneficiary’s mobile number.
  3. The beneficiary can redeem the voucher without a card, digital payments app, or internet banking access, at the service provider.


Kuthiran Tunnel:

  • It is Twin-tube tunnel at Kuthiran in Thrissur District of Kerala state in India.
  • It is located on National Highway 544, owned and operated by National Highways Authority of India.
  • It is Kerala’s first-ever tunnel for road transport and South India’s Longest 6-lane road tunnel.
  • The 1.6 km long tunnel is designed through Peechi- Vazahani wildlife sanctuary.

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