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[Insights Secure – 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 30 July 2021

 

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to education

1. By underlining the common challenges in execution of any policy in India, Discuss some measures for timely and effective implementation of National Education Policy 2020. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article gives us insights as to how National Education Policy (NEP) has to learn from public policy challenges for transforming education in India.

Key Demand of the question:

Highlight the common challenges in the execution of any public policy in India and suggest some measures for timely and effective implementation of National Education Policy 2020.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In the introduction, talk briefly about the National Education Policy 2020.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First discuss Public policy and its challenges; difficulty in predicting the outcome, they evolve over time, they evolve in complex systems, they are subjected to cognitive biases etc.

Then discuss the possible challenges before implementation of NEP 2020.

Explain the possible challenges that may come in the way of its implementation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

2. Account for the dire need for measures on part of the Central government to consolidate fiscal federalism in the aftermath of pandemic and implementation of the GST regime in India.  (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

States are facing financial constraints in the backdrop of lockdown and consequent dwindling revenue collection. The situation also highlights the issues of fiscal federalism in India.

Key Demand of the question:

Give reasons for the dire need for measures on part of the Central government to consolidate fiscal federalism in the aftermath of pandemic and implementation of the GST regime in India.

 Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the present context of the question.

Body:

Discuss in detail the issues facing fiscal federalism in India. First, the Goods and Services Tax (GST) law assured States a 14% increase in their annual revenue for five years (up to July 1, 2020).

Second, last year, the Union government increased the borrowing ceiling of the States from 3% to 5% for FY 2020-21. But the conditions are attached to 1.5% out of this 2% increase of ceiling. States will have to bear the burden of welfare and relief measures during the pandemic. These conditions go against the principle of cooperative federalism.

The 15th Finance Commission had recommended Rs. 2,412 crore as a sector-specific grant and Rs. 1,100 crore as a State-specific grant for Kerala. But this amount has not been released.

The expenditure rules attached to the Disaster Management Fund are unviable.

Suggest what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude that urgent necessary measures are must to be taken for pumping oxygen to fiscal federalism in India.

 

<span “>Topic: Indian Constitution—Historical Underpinnings, Evolution, Features, Amendments, Significant Provisions, and Basic Structure.

3. The striking down of the 97th Amendment is a cue that the power to regulate cooperatives must stay with States. Do you agree? Comment. (250 words)

Reference    The Hindu

Why the question:

In Union of India vs. Rajendra N. Shah, the Supreme Court of India partially struck down the 97th Constitutional Amendment.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way the striking down of the 97th Amendment is a cue that the power to regulate cooperatives must stay with States.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the 97th Constitutional Amendment.

Body:

The 97th Constitutional Amendment came into effect from February 15 2012. The amendment added “cooperative societies” to the protected forms of association under Article 19(1)(c), elevating it to a fundamental right.

Explain why the Amendment was struck down.

Then discuss the factor of increasing control of the Union government.

Highlight the issues with Central control over cooperative sector.

Conclusion:

Conclude that it is best that the Government takes this judgment in the right spirit and stays away from further meddling in the cooperative sector, notwithstanding the creation of the new Ministry.

 

Topic: GS-2: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

GS-3: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

4. There is a significant untapped potential to expand India-EU bilateral trade relation through an FTA. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference:  Financial Express

Why the question:

The article explains that there is a significant untapped potential to expand India-EU bilateral trade relation through an FTA.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the possible untapped potential to expand India-EU bilateral trade relation through an FTA.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the context of the question.

Body:

Explain first that after limited economic gains from its FTAs with Asian partners, India is reassessing its FTA options. While a good beginning has been made with the UK, India must also renegotiate with the EU—the bloc is very important for India as far as trade relations are concerned, and an FTA with the EU is, thus, based on sound reasoning.

Discuss that FTAs need to be designed in a manner that they enhance complementarities amongst partners and overcome regulatory hurdles that inhibit trade.

Account for potential of India –EU trade relations.

Present the challenges before India in realizing this potential.

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward and conclude.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money laundering and its prevention.

5. Discuss different types of cybercrimes with examples and suggest measures required to be taken to fight the peril in India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains that from an occasional and sporadic instance of a cyber-attack previously, cyberattacks on institutions such as banks and on critical infrastructure have proliferated to an alarming extent, signaling the emergence of the cyber weapon epoch.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss different types of cybercrimes with examples and measures required to be taken to fight the menace in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start the answer by briefly discussing what you mean by cybercrimes.

Body:

Cybercrime is defined as a crime where a computer is the object of the crime or is used as a tool to commit an offense. Today, Cybercrimes are at an all-time high, impacting individuals, businesses, and countries.

Discuss various types of Cybercrimes; Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) Attacks, Botnets, Identity Theft, Cyber stalking, Phishing etc. and measures required to tackle them.

Suggest need to overcome these challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude that given the dependence of information technology in the present era, the need of the hour for the governments is to develop core skills in cybersecurity, data integrity and data security fields while also setting stringent cybersecurity standards to protect banks and financial institutions.

 

Topic: Issues related to Direct and Indirect Farm Subsidies and Minimum Support Prices

6. Analyse the implications of state’s interference on Indian agriculture. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article highlights issues in Indian agriculture.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the implications of state’s interference on Indian agriculture in detail and suggest suitable solutions.

 Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief backgrounder of the question context.

Body:

Discuss the challenges on Indian agriculture system specifically with respect to State’s interference.

Explain how it has been a good initiative to keep India away from nationalization of farm sector but indirect control of the government in rural property rights, land use and land ceilings; commodity prices, input subsidies and taxes, infrastructure, production, credit, marketing and agri-business etc. have held the sector from attaining actual potential.

Analyse how the whole ecosystem is risk-averse and hence caught in a vicious trap.

Discuss with examples how agriculture is under the influence of government restrictions.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions; Farm reforms must be oriented towards minimizing risk and increasing returns for farmers. Farmers must be free to determine the best mix of resources, land, inputs, technology, and organizational forms for their farms. Farmers must be allowed to enter and exit agriculture on their own terms and contract with whomever they wish.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Case study

7. In a society where the government is unable to provide food or work, can begging be considered a restraint or an offense? Is it not immoral to turn the poor into criminals until the government can offer good livelihoods for everybody? Analyse from ethical perspective. (250 words)

Reference:  Times of India

Why the question:

The Supreme Court turned down a petition demanding to restrain vagabonds and the homeless from begging at traffic lights, markets, and public places, to prevent the spread of corona virus.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse from the ethical perspective the case presented above and conclude if begging be allowed under the given conditions in our country.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with begging laws in our country.

Body:

There is no central law on begging and destitution. Most states [20 states and two UTs] have adopted the Bombay Prevention of Begging Act, 1959, which criminalizes begging or has modeled their laws on it.

The Bombay Prevention Act allows the police and social welfare departments to simply seize homeless people, or indeed anyone who looks destitute, and send them to detention centers.

Explain that the Supreme Court turned down a petition demanding to restrain vagabonds and the homeless from begging at traffic lights, markets, and public places, to prevent the spread of corona virus. It also stated that it is a socio-economic issue that requires a compassionate and humanitarian solution. It asked the Centre and State governments to ensure vaccinations for the homeless and providing them with shelter and food amid the pandemic. The SC observed that vagabonds, homeless, are compelled to beg on the streets to make a living owing to a lack of education and work.

Conclusion:

Conclude with moral and ethically sound solutions.


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