InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically.
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 1:
GS Paper 2:
GS Paper 3:
Facts for Prelims:
GS Paper : 1
Topics Covered: Important Geophysical phenomena.
Earth Overshoot Day 2021 happened on July 29, almost a month earlier than the year before.
- It was pushed forward because emissions are on the rise and biodiversity loss is speeding up.
Who announces the date?
The date is announced annually by the Global Footprint Network, the global organisation calling for urgent climate action and sustainable consumption.
What is it?
Each year, Earth Overshoot Day marks the date when we have used all the biological resources that the Earth can renew during the entire year.
- This means humanity has again used up all biological resources that our planet regenerates during the entire year by 29th July, 2021.
Why it has been observed one month earlier this year?
- We’ve already seen a 6.6% increase in our global carbon footprint, while our global forest biocapacity decreased by 0.5% due to widespread deforestation in the Amazon rainforest.
- Deforestation had also increased by 12% in 2020, and estimates for 2021 suggest the figure will reach a 43% year-on-year increase.
What’s the concern now?
- At our current rate, we’re using around 1.7 Earths every single year. From now until the end of the year, we’re operating on “ecological deficit spending”.
- Our spending for 2021 is among some of the highest since we entered into the overshoot territory in the 1970s, based on UN data.
The concept of earth overshoot day:
The concept of Earth Overshoot Day was first conceived by Andrew Simms of the UK think tank New Economics Foundation, which partnered with Global Footprint Network in 2006 to launch the first global Earth Overshoot Day campaign.
How is it computed?
Earth Overshoot Day is computed by dividing the planet’s bio capacity (the amount of ecological resources Earth is able to generate that year), by humanity’s Ecological Footprint (humanity’s demand for that year), and multiplying by 365, the number of days in a year.
What is Ecological Footprint?
It is a metric that comprehensively compares human demand on nature against nature’s capacity to regenerate.
Have you heard of the term ‘Carbon Handprint’? Read Here Briefly
- About the day.
- How is it calculated?
- Country-wise dates.
- What is Ecological footprint?
What is Ecological footprint? Why is it significant? Discuss.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper : 2
Topics Covered: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
The West Bengal government has set up a Commission of Inquiry (Lokur Commission), under the 1952 Act, to look into the alleged surveillance of phones using the Pegasus spyware developed by the Israeli cyber-intelligence company NSO Group.
- The Commission will look into the alleged breach of privacy of several individuals.
Who can set up such commissions?
While both central and state governments can set up such Commissions of Inquiry, states are restricted by subject matters that they are empowered to legislate upon.
- If the central government set up the commission first, then states cannot set up a parallel commission on the same subject matter without the approval of the Centre.
- But if a state has appointed a Commission, then the Centre can appoint another on the same subject if it is of the opinion that the scope of the inquiry should be extended to two or more states.
What are its powers?
Under The Commissions of Inquiry Act, 1952, a Commission set up by the government shall have the powers of a civil court, while trying a suit under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.
- This means that the Commission has powers to summon and enforce the attendance of any person from any part of India and examine her on oath, and receive evidence.
- It can order requisition of any public record or copy from any court or office.
What kind of subjects can a Commission probe?
Commissions set up by the central government can make an inquiry into any matter relatable to any of the entries in List I (Union List) or List II (State List) or List III (Concurrent List) in the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution, while Commissions set up by state governments can look into entries in List II or List III.
Pegasus inquiry commission matter is related to:
- The West Bengal government has cited public order and police entries. While these subjects are in the State List, an argument could also be made that the subject matter of the inquiry essentially falls under the Central List.
- Also, Entry 31 of the Union List deals with posts and telegraphs, telephones, wireless, broadcasting and other like forms of communication.
What value does such a Commission’s report have?
- The findings of such commissions are normally tabled in the Assembly or Parliament, depending on who constituted it.
- However, the government is not bound to make the report public. The findings are not binding on the executive wither, but can be relied upon by courts as evidence.
Do you know What Social Engineering is in the context of Information Security?Know some terms of Types of social engineering attacks. Read Here
- About 7th schedule.
- About Lokur Commission.
- Commissions of Inquiry Act, 1952.
- Powers of Centre and the states under the act.
Discuss the issues associated with the Commissions of Inquiry Act, 1952.
Sources: the Hindu.
Topics Covered: Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.
The Cabinet has approved a multilateral MoU signed between the International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFSCA), International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO), and International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS).
In 2002 IOSCO adopted a multilateral memorandum of understanding (IOSCO MMoU) designed to facilitate crossborder enforcement and exchange of information among the international community of securities regulators.
- Then in 2005 IOSCO MMoU become the benchmark for international cooperation among securities regulators.
- Formed in 1983, it is an association of organizations that regulate the world’s securities and futures markets.
- Members are typically primary securities and/or futures regulators in a national jurisdiction or the main financial regulator from each country.
- Headquarters: Madrid, Spain.
Its mandate is to:
- Develop, implement, and promote high standards of regulation to enhance investor protection and reduce systemic risk.
- Share information with exchanges and assist them with technical and operational issues.
- Establish standards toward monitoring global investment transactions across borders and markets.
About the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS):
- It is a voluntary membership organization of insurance supervisors from over 190 jurisdictions, constituting 97% of the world’s insurance premiums.
- It is the international standards-setting body for the insurance sector.
- It was established in 1994 and operates as a verein, a type of non-profit organisation under Swiss Civil Law.
- The IAIS is hosted by the Bank for International Settlements (BIS).
Do you know what inclusive insurance is? Read Here
- What are IFSCs?
- Can they be set up in SEZs?
- India’s first IFSC.
- Services they provide?
- About IOSCO.
Discuss the significance of international financial services centres.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper : 3
Topics Covered: Conservation related issues.
The project was launched by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) & BSF have launched Project BOLD in Jaisalmer to Prevent Desertification and Support Rural Economy. Under this, they have planted 1000 bamboo saplings.
Please note that recently KVIC launched Project BOLD in the tribal village of Nichla Mandwa in Udaipur, Rajasthan.
- Under this, 5000 saplings of special bamboo species – BambusaTulda and BambusaPolymorpha specially brought from Assam – were planted in vacant arid Gram Panchayat land.
- With this, KVIC created a world record of planting the highest number of bamboo saplings on a single day at one location.
About the Project BOLD:
- BOLD stands for Bamboo Oasis on Lands in Drought.
- Launched by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).
- The initiative has been launched as part of KVIC’s “Khadi Bamboo Festival” to celebrate 75 years of independence “Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav”.
- Objectives: To create bamboo-based green patches in arid and semi-arid land zones, To reduce desertification and provide livelihood and multi-disciplinary rural industry support.
Why Bamboo was chosen?
Bamboos grow very fast and in about three years’ time, they could be harvested.Bamboos are also known for conserving water and reducing evaporation of water from the land surface, which is an important feature in arid and drought-prone regions.
Khadi and Village Industries Commission:
- KVIC is a statutory body established under the Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act, 1956.
- The KVIC is charged with the planning, promotion, organisation and implementation of programmes for the development of Khadi and other village industries in the rural areas in coordination with other agencies engaged in rural development wherever necessary.
- It functions under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises.
Can you name Bamboo products with a GI tag? Read Here
- About Project BOLD.
- About KVIC.
- Other projects by KVIC.
Discuss the significance of Project BOLD.
Topics Covered: Awareness in space.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is scheduled to launch the geo-imaging satellite for earth observation EOS-03 in the third quarter of 2021.
- EOS-03 It is an earth observation satellite.
- Last year, ISRO launched EOS-01 which is nothing but another Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT) that will work together with RISAT-2B and RISAT-2BR1.
- It would enable near real-time monitoring of natural disasters like floods and cyclones.
- It is capable of imaging the whole country four-five times daily.
- It would also enable monitoring of water bodies, crops, vegetation condition, forest cover changes.
Advantages of radar imaging over optical instruments:
Radar imaging is unaffected by weather, cloud or fog, or the lack of sunlight. It can produce high-quality images in all conditions and at all times.
Other earth observation satellites launched by ISRO include:
RESOURCESAT- 2, 2A, CARTOSAT-1, 2, 2A, 2B, RISAT-1 and 2, OCEANSAT-2, Megha-Tropiques, SARAL and SCATSAT-1, INSAT-3DR, 3D, etc.
Do you know the difference between Laser RADAR and LIDAR? Read Here(Briefly)
- What is radar imaging?
- What are earth- observation satellites?
- Differences between GSLV and PSLV.
- Applications of EOS-01.
- Differences between low earth orbit and geostationary orbits.
Why is Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) one of the world’s most reliable space launch vehicles? How is it helping India commercially and technologically?
Topics Covered: Infrastructure- waterways.
Lok Sabha has passed the Inland Vessels Bill, 2021.
Key features of the Bill:
- It provides for a unified law for the entire country, instead of separate rules framed by the States.
- The certificate of registration granted under the proposed law will be deemed to be valid in all States and Union Territories, and there will be no need to seek separate permissions from the States.
- The Bill provides for a central data base for recording the details of vessel, vessel registration, crew on an electronic portal.
- It requires all mechanically propelled vessels to be mandatorily registered. All non-mechanically propelled vessels will also have to be enrolled at district, taluk or panchayat or village level.
Inland Water Transport (IWT) in India:
- India has about 14,500 km of navigable waterways which comprise of rivers, canals, backwaters, creeks, etc.
- IWT is a fuel-efficient and environment-friendly mode.
- As per the National Waterways Act 2016, 111 waterways have been declared as National Waterways (NWs).
- The Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) is implementing the Jal Marg Vikas Project (JMVP) at an estimated cost of ₹5369.18 crores for capacity augmentation of navigation on the Haldia-Varanasi stretch of Ganga (part of NW-1) with the technical and financial assistance of the World Bank.
- Important waterways.
- Their locations.
- About JMVP.
- About IWAI.
Discuss the significance of National Waterways.
Topics Covered: Conservation related issues.
International Tiger Day is celebrated on July 29 every year to raise awareness about the dwindling population of the endangered cat.
It is the anniversary of the agreement of Saint Petersburg Tiger Summit in Russia in 2010.
- It was declared by representatives that the tiger populated countries would make efforts to double the tiger population by the year 2022.
The theme for the 2021 International Tiger Day is “Their survival is in our hands”.
Key facts related to tiger population:
- As per the World Wide Fund for Nature, the number of tigers dropped by 95 per cent over the past 150 years.
- India is the land of royal tigers and current tiger population stands at 2967 which is 70 per cent of the global tiger population.
- Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of tigers at 526, closely followed by Karnataka (524) and Uttarakhand (442).
- Kanha Tiger Reserve in Madhya Pradesh is the first tiger reserve in India to officially introduce a mascot, Bhoorsingh the Barasingha.
Conservation efforts- National and Global:
- The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has launched the M-STrIPES (Monitoring System for Tigers – Intensive Protection and Ecological Status), a mobile monitoring system for forest guards.
- At the Petersburg Tiger Summit in 2010, leaders of 13 tiger range countries resolved to do more for the tiger and embarked on efforts to double its number in the wild, with a popular slogan ‘T X 2’.
- The Global Tiger Initiative (GTI) program of the World Bank, using its presence and convening ability, brought global partners together to strengthen the tiger agenda.
- Over the years, the initiative has institutionalised itself as a separate entity in the form of the Global Tiger Initiative Council (GTIC), with its two arms –the Global Tiger Forum and the Global Snow Leopard Ecosystem Protection Program.
- The Project Tiger, launched way back in 1973, has grown to more than 50 reserves amounting to almost 2.2% of the country’s geographical area.
- Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule I.
- International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List: Endangered.
- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): Appendix I.
- Did you know that the fourth cycle of the All India Tiger Estimation 2018 has entered the Guinness World Record for being the world’s largest camera trap wildlife survey? How is tiger survey carried out in India? Reference:
- India’s 14 Tiger Reserves got Global CA/TS recognition for good Tiger Conservation. What does the accreditation of the Global Conservation Assured|Tiger Standards (CA|TS)? Reference:
- Differences between National Parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves.
- M-STrIPES is related to?
- What is GTIC?
- When was project tiger launched?
- NTCA- composition and functions.
- Why the fourth cycle of the All India Tiger Estimation 2018 entered Guinness Record book recently?
- State with highest number of tigers.
- State with highest tiger density.
The centrality of tiger agenda is an ecological necessity for the sustainability of our environment. In this context, examine the steps taken by India to conserve tigers?
Sources: the Hindu.
Facts for Prelims:
- Dancing child-saint Sambandar of 12th century belongs to Chola dynasty.
- The National Gallery of Australia(NGA) has announced that it would return 14 works of art from its Asian art collection to India including Sambandar.
- Sambandar was one of the nayanmars, a group of sixty-three saints active in South India from the sixth to the ninth century who were instrumental in popularizing the worship of Shiva through devotional poetry and song.
Articles to be covered tomorrow:
- What are the amended provisions for adoption, offences in the new Juvenile Justice Bill?
- Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR) programme.
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