Print Friendly, PDF & Email

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 21 July 2021

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1. Analyse the constitutional and legal safeguards in India with regard to state-led surveillance. Do you think they are adequate? (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The ‘Pegasus Project’ report says that over “300 verified Indian mobile telephone numbers, including those used by ministers, opposition leaders, journalists, the legal community, businessmen, government officials, scientists, rights activists and others”, were targeted using spyware made by the Israeli firm, NSO Group.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the constitutional and legal safeguards in India with regard to state-led surveillance.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by State-led surveillance.

Body:

Discuss that notably, there are no provisions in existing laws that allow the government to hack the phones of any individual since the hacking of computer resources, including mobile phones and apps, is a criminal offence under the IT Act.

Explain the concerns in detail; against rights of citizens, Threat to press freedom, Weak protection for surveilled etc. Even the proposed personal data protection law fails to consider surveillance while also providing wide exemptions to government authorities.

Vesting disproportionate surveillance power with the executive threatens the separation of powers of the government.

Given the secrecy involved in surveillance activities, the affected person is unable to show a breach of his/her rights. Thus, there is limited scope for the Supreme Court and High Courts to issue writs under Articles 32 and 226 of the Constitution.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a fair and balanced opinion and suggest what needs to be done.

Introduction

Spyware is software that is installed on a computing device without the end user’s knowledge. Pegasus is spyware that can be installed on mobile devices. It is regarded as one of the “most sophisticated” smartphone spyware. In May 2019, the Pegasus was being used to exploit WhatsApp and spy on potential targets. The spyware named ‘Pegasus’ is developed by the Israeli cyber arms firm NSO in 2016.

According to the ‘Pegasus Project’, it has been reported that Pegasus, the malicious software, has allegedly been used to secretly monitor and spy on over 300 verified Indian mobile telephone numbers. It includes those used by ministers, opposition leaders, journalists, the legal community, businessmen, government officials, scientists, rights activists and others.

Body:

Constitutional and Legal Safeguards:

  • The laws governing the aspect of state surveillance are the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, which deals with interception of calls, and the Information Technology (IT) Act, 2000, which deals with interception of data.
  • Under both laws, only the government, under certain circumstances, is permitted to conduct surveillance and not private actors.
  • Hacking is expressly prohibited under the IT Act.
  • Section 43 and Section 66 of the IT Act covers the civil and criminal offences of data theft and hacking respectively.
  • Section 66B of IT Act covers punishment for dishonestly receiving stolen computer resource or communication. The punishment includes imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years.
  • In 1996, the Supreme Court noted that there was a lack of procedural safeguards in the Indian Telegraph Act. It laid down some guidelines that were later codified into rules in 2007. This included a specific rule that orders on interceptions of communication should only be issued by the Secretary in the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • These rules were partly reflected in the IT (Procedures and Safeguards for Interception, Monitoring and Decryption of Information) Rules framed in 2009 under the IT Act.
  • The rules state that only the competent authority can issue an order for the interception, monitoring or decryption of any information generated, transmitted, received or stored in any computer resource including mobile phones. The competent authority is once again the Union Home Secretary or the State Secretaries in charge of the Home Departments.
  • The Supreme Court in a landmark decision in August 2017 (Justice K. S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) and Anr. vs Union Of India And Others) unanimously upheld the right to privacy as a fundamental right under Articles 14, 19 and 21 of the Constitution. This verdict is a building block and an important component of the legal battles that are to come over the state’s ability to conduct surveillance.

Current laws are weak:

  • There have been concerns raised about the laws regarding legal surveillance stressing the need for checks and balances to be built into these laws.
  • The existing provisions of law under the Indian Telegraph Act of 1885and the Information Technology (IT) Act of 2000 (Section 69) seem to offer the government total opacity and impunity in respect of its interception and monitoring activities.
  • Even the Interception Rules of 2009offer weak protection to the surveilled.
  • There is also no scope for an individual subjected to surveillance to approach a court of law to challenge acts of surveillance.
  • Even the proposed personal data protection lawfails to consider surveillance while also providing wide exemptions to government authorities.

Way forward:

  • There is a need to balance the necessity of the government’s objectives of surveillance with the rights of the impacted individuals.
  • The press requires greater protections on speech and privacy.
  • In order to satisfy the ideal of “due process of law”, to maintain an effective separation of powers and to fulfil the requirements of procedural safeguards, there needs to be an oversight from another branch of the government over the executive’s power of surveillance.
  • Such a role can be effectively played by the judiciary.
  • There needs to be greater transparency in the system as in the current system, Government agencies are not accountable to anyone other than the government itself.
  • Reforms in the Indian surveillance regime should incorporate ethics of surveillance which considers the moral aspects of how surveillance is employed.
  • The privacy of citizens and the state’s requirements for security are equally important. The aspect of state surveillance or legal surveillance continues to be a grey area around the world.
  • The best way to avoid misuse is to come up with a well-defined law.
  • The data protection Bill with adequate safeguards needs to be passed at the earliest.

Conclusion:

Surveillance reform is the need of the hour in India as a comprehensive reform of the surveillance framework is long overdue. This is also the right time across the world, there is an increasingly urgent debate about how to protect basic rights against encroachment by an aggressive and intrusive state, which wields the rhetoric of national security like a sword.

 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

2. Amidst the gloom that has enveloped Afghanistan; one hope for many countries has been China’s potential role in stabilizing it. Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains how amid the gloom that has enveloped Afghanistan, one hope for many countries has been China’s potential role in stabilizing it.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the possible potential role that China can play in stabilizing the Afghanistan region.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First, discuss the factors that call for China to play role in Afghanistan; Scope for India-China cooperation, Northern neighbours, Bilateral cooperation with the U.S, They might support a larger role for Beijing in Afghanistan in partnership with Russia, Iran, Kabul’s western neighbours, also has deepening ties with China, Role of Pakistan etc.

Explain then, what are the challenges in China playing role in stabilizing Afghanistan.

Conclusion:

Conclude that it is against this backdrop that the chances of China playing a major role in stabilizing Afghanistan remain slim.

Introduction

American troops are set to withdraw from the country by September 11 this year, but the shadow of re-engagement looms, raising security concerns beyond South Asia. The resurgence of Taliban is a huge concern not only for Kabul but for regions in South Asia and beyond.

The Taliban militants have seized dozens of districts in recent weeks and are now thought to control about a third of the country, ahead of the withdrawal of US and Western troops from Afghanistan by September 11.

Body

Security concerns post troop withdrawal

  • The US has announced that the Afghan War will end by September 11, having seized the Doha agreement as an opportunity.
  • While its withdrawal will exacerbate chaos and violence in Afghanistan and impact the wider region.
  • Due to the easing of UN restrictions for a few leaders and the freedom to operate from its Doha office, the Taliban continues to attend high-profile meetings in swanky hotels in Doha, while deadly attacks ravage Afghanistan.
  • Vicious attacks on civilians, such as the killing of schoolgirls in Kabul on May 8, are conveniently blamed on Islamic State Khurasan Province (ISKP) by the Taliban.
  • It is widely believed that the Pakistan army has infiltrated and is running the ISKP to “market” the Taliban as a “nationalist insurgent” group willing to fight “extremist” ISKP.
  • Groups like ISKP and al-Qaeda in Indian Subcontinent (AQIS) and their variants will be used for high-profile attacks in Afghanistan and in the region, including against Western targets, to deter deeper re-engagement in Afghanistan.
  • The chaos would create more ungoverned spaces strengthening the terror infrastructure. Hence, the developments in Afghanistan will continue to raise security concerns, far beyond South Asia.

China’s potential role in stabilizing Afghanistan:

  • While Beijing has been cautious, the demands on China to save Afghanistan are growing.
  • Washington, now locked in an escalating confrontation with Beijing, sees Afghanistan as a potential area of bilateral cooperation.
  • Russia, whose partnership with China has never been as good, has a common stake in preserving the stability of frontiers with Afghanistan.
  • Afghan leaders have also been eager to draw China’s BRI into their plans for economic modernisation.
  • During their engagements with Chinese leaders, both Hamid Karzai and Ashraf Ghani pressed Beijing to invest in Afghanistan.
  • China was also important for Kabul’s political calculus in limiting Pakistan’s quest for dominance.
  • China should expand its role in the region to actively use its unique influence over Pakistan and advance its investment interests in Afghanistan
  • China can be encouraged to spur economic development in Afghanistan, which would be simultaneously beneficial for China.
  • Most importantly, it is in China’s best interest to stabilize Pakistan.
  • While China may be unwilling to deal with Pakistan in a multilateral forum, it could certainly be encouraged to work with Pakistan bilaterally to achieve stability where their economic interests lie.

Possible future role for India in Afghanistan:

  • New Delhi must move swiftly to regain the upper hand in the narrative in Afghanistan.
  • India’s approach has to be within the format of Afghan-led and Afghan-owned peace and reconciliation.
  • The following should assure India a leading position in Afghanistan’s regional formulation:
    • India’s assistance of more than $3 billion in projects
    • trade of about $1 billion
    • a $20 billion projected development expenditure of an alternate route through Chahbahar
  • India’s support to the Afghan National Army, bureaucrats, doctors and other professionals for training
  • The Indian government must strive to endure that its aid and assistance is broad-based, to centres outside the capital (Kabul) as well.
  • This should be the case even if some lie in areas held by the Taliban.
  • India must also pursue opportunities to fulfil its role in the peace efforts in Afghanistan.
  • An understanding between Iran and the U.S. on Afghanistan is necessary for lasting peace as well, and India could play a mediatory part.
  • India should also use the UN’s call for a pause in conflicts during the novel coronavirus pandemic, to ensure a hold on hostilities with Pakistan.
  • Above all, New Delhi must consider the appointment of a special envoy, as it has been done in the past, to deal with its efforts in Afghanistan.
  • India’s engagement should be conditional on Taliban joining the mainstream politics.
  • India should not give legitimacy to a government in exile (Taliban’s political office is based in Doha) in its own neighbourhood.
  • New Delhi should, using its regional clout as well as its deep ties with both the U.S. and Russia, strive for what Mr. Jaishankar called “double peace”, both inside Afghanistan and in the region.

Way forward for India:

  • In the unfolding situation, New Delhi will have to quickly reorient its Afghan strategy.
  • At the same time, Delhi must be prepared to discuss what are real and serious differences with key regional and international partners on the Taliban and the future of Afghanistan.
  • To safeguard its own interests, India needs to reorient its policies towards Afghanistan and deal with the changing dynamics of power shift in the region.
  • Despite India’s foreign policy orientation moving more towards the US and the West, the new Afghan strategy will have to be synchronised with an entirely different set of players.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. Individual talent alone cannot make India a great sporting nation, in this context discuss the need for creating a suitable ecosystem for sports development in India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

Upcoming summer Olympic games in Tokyo are the context of the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need for creating a suitable ecosystem for sports development in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of India’s performance in Sports played worldwide.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain first the factors that determine sports performance. The economic prosperity of a nation and the general standard of living in a nation could be seen as good indicators of the nation’s sports prowess with some exceptions, Genetic factors, Availability of sports infrastructure etc.

Discuss then the need to create a suitable ecosystem for sports development in India.

Highlight the importance of the role that the government must play.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable suggestions.

Introduction

Sports in India refers to the large variety of games played in India, ranging from tribal games to more mainstream sports such as football and cricket. Sports infrastructure plays a crucial role in achieving excellence in the global arena of sports. It not only helps in producing sportspersons of international repute but also encourages the young population of a country to participate in sporting activities with the objective of creating a culturing of sports.

Body:

Need for creating a suitable ecosystem for sports development in India:

  • Lack of infrastructure: This is one of the most important factors for the apathy of the sport in India. Since infrastructure is necessary for training and organizing games, its non-availability and its access to only a few sections of the society have adversely impacted the sport participation and the quality of sports persons.
  • Corruption & Mismanagement of sports authorities: Corruption has become synonymous with sports administration in India. Whether it is the most popular cricket or hockey or weightlifting, most of the sports authorities in India have come under attack due to corruption charges.
  • State subject: sport is a State subject. The state governments allocate funds for the development of sports and sports infrastructure as per their priority. There is no comprehensive approach to the development of sports infrastructure uniformly throughout the country
  • Social and economic inequalities: Social and economic inequalities have a negative impact on the Indian sport. Denial of access to sports infrastructure due to poverty, concentration of stadiums and other sports avenues only in cities, lack of encouragement to girls to participate in sports, etc, have impaired the development of a positive sports culture in the country.
  • Policy lacunae: For the development of any sector, formulation and execution of an effective policy is a sine qua non. This is true for sports also. Till date, the sports policy planning and implementation is centralized in the country due to the paucity of resources and the expertise by the State and local governments. Moreover, the absence of a separate ministry of sports at the union level reflects the apathy towards sports.
  • Meagre allocation of resources: Compared to other developed and developing countries, allocation of financial resources is meager in India. In the Union Budget 2017-18, Rs 1943 crore allocated for sports. While it is Rs 450 crore higher than the previous year, it is much below than the around Rs 9000 crore spent annually by the UK for the sports sector.

Importance of reviving the sports culture in India at grass-root level:

  • To make India a sporting superpower, we need to identify talent as young as 5-10 years old and groom them to be future champions.
  • It takes at least 8 years to groom an athlete for the Olympics, and if we identify talent at a later stage, then their chances of making it to the Olympic podium is limited.
  • Therefore, the states must concentrate on identifying young talent and to do that organizing competitions at the state, district, block and panchayat-level is crucial.
  • Sports and physical education play an important role in developing human capital, increase productivity and foster social harmony
  • Typically, School athletic activities provide enjoyable, supervised activities for youth. Student-athletes report healthier eating habits, higher levels of cardiovascular fitness, increased parental support and decreased anxiety and depression.
  • The Khelo India programme created in 2018 has been one of the most comprehensive policies India has seen for sport.

Way forward:

  • Sports deserve to be recognized as human resource development (HRD) activity in the Indian context.
  • Extension of Justice Lodha Committee recommendations on BCCI to all other sports bodies will be a right step in this direction.
  • Sports complexes like the DDA’s Siri Fort one are the need of the hour as they provide much-needed sports infrastructure for the public.
  • To arrange a dedicated land bank for the setting up of sports infrastructure
  • To adopt the PPP model in which the government will provide institutional and financial support for the building of infrastructure and the private sector will manage and maintain its operations
  • Use these facilities for multiple purposes, such as organizing exhibitions, conferences or for the setting up of sports academies
  • To make these infrastructural facilities open for the use of the public against membership fees.
  • States need to be integrated in a bigger way in India’s sports policy. There is a need to develop different States as centres of excellence for different sports.
  • The policy of “One State, One Sport” can be a game-changer in India.
  • Unless we start grooming our children, who show potential, for international sports, India can hardly succeed at the Olympics.

Conclusion:

Despite the above mentioned measures taken by the government, the sports ecosystem is of poor quality in the country. For a country of over 1.33 billion, the existing sports infrastructure is not satisfactory. The lack of world-class infrastructure and the inadequate support of the government is reflected in poor performance of Indian athletes in major international events like the Olympics. Tiny countries like Cuba, Croatia and Lithuania performed better in the 2016 Olympics compared to India. It is high time, the public and private sector should come together to lift the Indian sport sector from the present deplorable situation

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. Our country needs a more humane and sensitive police force that works for the welfare of the citizens. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains that a healthy Police system is necessary to ensure a feeling of safety and security among the masses.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the need for a more humane and sensitive police force in the country.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some facts like – In 2015 (April – November), 25,357 cases were registered under the police category. This included 111 deaths in police custody, 330 cases of custodial torture, and 24,916 in others.  These numbers were shared by the former Minister of State for Home Affairs, Kiren Rijiju, in the Lok Sabha in response to a question.

Body:

Discuss that our country needs a more humane and sensitive police force that works for the welfare of the citizens. This requires harmonizing the working environment of police personnel along with the fulfillment of their psychological needs.

Present a comparison with other countries.

Explain the reasons behind police brutality. Suggest how and why we need to develop a more humane and sensitive police force in the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

Introduction

Police force is law enforcing agency of the state. it has the responsibility to maintain social order and prevent the crimes from happening in the society.  The report on the Status of Policing in India, jointly developed by NGO Common Cause and the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, was released recently. It shows the grip picture of police in India.

Body

Need for more humane and sensitive police force:

  • Custody-related deaths
    • Between April 1 and November 30, 2015, 25,357 cases were registered under police category which included 111 deaths in police custody, 330 cases of custodial torture and 24,916 in others.
  • Behaviour with the citizenry
    • In the Indian police force, the lower ranks of police personnel are often verbally abused by their superiors.
    • Many are not considered as individuals, are not shown compassion by the senior ranks, and work in inhuman conditions.
    • Many policemen deal with citizens in the manner that they do only because their work environments are not harmonious.
    • Their relationship with their superior officers is stressful and sycophantic.
    • One in two police personnel surveyed feel that Muslims are likely to be “naturally prone” to committing crimes.
    • Police forces exhibit frightening prejudices against women, lower castes, and minorities.
    • One in four male personnel demonstrates high bias against their female colleagues.
  • An overburdened police force:
    • Police force is overburdened especially at lower levels where constabulary is forced to work continuously 14-16 hrs and also for 7 days a week. It adversely impacts their performance.
    • While the sanctioned police strength was 181 police per lakh persons in 2016 when the United Nations recommended standard is 222 police per lakh persons.
    • 86% of the state police comprises of constabulary. Constables are typically promoted once during their service. This could weaken their incentive to perform well.

Reforms needed:

  • Directions of the Supreme Court in Prakash Singh vs Union of India:
    • The Supreme Court ordered the centre and states to set up authorities to lay down guidelines for police functioning, evaluate police performance, decide postings and transfers, and receive complaints of police misconduct.
    • The court also required that minimum tenure of service be guaranteed to key police officers to protect them from arbitrary transfers and postings.
  • Independent Complaints Authority:
    • The Second Administrative Reforms Commission and the Supreme Court have observed that there is a need to have an independent complaints authority to inquire into cases of police misconduct.
    • Example is that of the New York City Police which has a Civilian Complaint Review Board comprising of civilians appointed by local government bodies and the police commissioner to investigate into cases of police misconduct.
  • Investigation:
    • Experts have recommended that states must have their own specialized investigation units within the police force that are responsible for crime investigation.
  • Padmanabhaiah commission:
    • It has also been recommended that constables, and the police force in general, should receive greater training in soft skills given they need to deal with the public regularly.
  • Housing:
    • Importance of providing housing to the constabulary (and generally to the police force) to improve their efficiency and incentive to accept remote postings has also been emphasised by expert bodies, such as the National Police Commission.
  • Community policing: Janamaithri Suraksha in Kerala
    • This project is an initiative of the Kerala Police to facilitate greater accessibility, close interaction and better understanding between the police and local communities. For example, Beat Constables are required to know at least one family member of every family living in his beat area.
    • Meira Paibi (Torch-bearers) in Assam: The women of the Manipuri Basti in Guwahati help with improving the law and order problem in their area, by tackling drug abuse among the youth. They light their torches and go around the basti guarding the entry and exit points, to prevent the youth of the area from going out after sunset
  • Courts:
    • The Madras High Court has said that the state government should contemplate giving policemen a day off in a week like other government officials in order to spend time with their families.
    • The court suggested introducing an 8-hour, three-shift system for police personnel. It will help them rejuvenate themselves and relieve them from stress.
  • Evidence based policing is gaining credibility day by day – Indian police force must be exposed to it.
  • Second ARC recommended that the government should declare certain crimes as “federal” and entrust their investigation to a Central agency.
  • Police need to have the operational freedom to carry out their responsibilities professionally, and satisfactory working conditions, while being held accountable for poor performance or misuse of power.
  • Gender Parity in Police force: The 2nd Administrative Reform Commission recommended that the representation of women in police at all levels should be increased through affirmative action so that they constitute about 33% of the police.
  • Improvement in Intelligence gathering: The intelligence gathering machinery in the field needs to be strengthened and at the same time, made more accountable. Human intelligence should be combined with information derived from diverse sources with the focus on increased use of technology.

Conclusion:

The police force needs to be freed from the stranglehold of the executive and given functional autonomy to enforce the rule of law. Police should be a SMART Police -a police which should be strict and sensitive, modern and mobile, alert and accountable, reliable and responsible, tech-savvy and trained.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Why is India fighting the US, EU at WTO over a global fishing deal? Analyse its implications for India Ocean. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

India has opposed a move by developed countries at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) to scrap subsidies for fishermen. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain why India is fighting the US, EU at WTO over a global fishing deal and what its implications are.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First, talk about the Fisheries Subsidies Negotiations at WTO. The negotiations on fisheries subsidies disciplines have been ongoing for nearly 20 years. Not all subsidies are considered harmful and some would not be covered by any WTO agreement. The Pew Charitable Trusts estimates that an ambitious deal at the WTO could boost the amount of fish in the world by 12.5% by 2050, based on a model it shared with negotiators.

Then discuss what the problems associated with Fisheries Subsidies are.

Explain why India is opposing the scrapping of subsidies on fisheries?

Present its implications for India Ocean.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

India recently opposed a move by developed countries at the World Trade Organization (WTO) to scrap subsidies for fishermen, demanding a balance between current and future fishing needs of developing countries as well as effective special and differential treatment (S&DT) keeping in mind their developmental needs.

Body

Fisheries and Aquaculture

  • Worldwide, aquaculture production has now reached 50 million tonnes, up from 2 million tonnes in 1950.
  • Asian countries contribute over 90% to aquaculture worldwide.China, itself, contributes more than 70%.
  • Aquaculture provides employment to peoplethroughout the world.
  • Some 880 million people are employed in fish farming from salmon cages in Norway to Prawn Ponds in Thailand.
  • Employment in the fisheries sector has grown faster than the world’s population as well as employment in traditional agriculture.
  • Fisheries and aquaculture provide 4.3 billion people with over 15% of their annual animal protein consumptionand are a vital source of micronutrients and essential lipids.
  • Fish and seafood are one of the most traded food commodities.Over 53% of the trade originates in developing countries.
  • The top ten species of fish caught with aquaculture include carbs and other oysters, salmons, trouts, shrimps and prawns among others.

WTO Fishing deal

  • Developed countries claim that fisheries subsidies, estimated to be in the tens of billions of dollars annually, create significant distortions in global fish markets and are a major factor contributing to overfishing and overcapacity and the depletion of fishes.
  • Developing countries such as India, on the other hand, want to protect subsidies for low-income, resource-poor fishermen for whom it is a matter of livelihood and constitutes a significant electorate in coastal states such as Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Kerala.
  • The deal is mostly targeted at China, which is the largest catcher and exporter of fish and provides a huge domestic subsidy to its fishermen. India is a distant seventh among top fish exporters and does not indulge in illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing which WTO wants to curb.
  • India has said that WTO members should not repeat the mistakes made during the Uruguay Round which allowed unequal and trade-distorting entitlements for select developed members, particularly in agriculture, while unfairly constraining less developed members who did not have the capacity and resources to support their industry or farmers then.

Conclusion

Given that fisheries are a common endowment to humanity and global public commons, he said that the sharing of this should be in an equitable and just manner. It is essential that big subsidisers take greater responsibility to reduce their subsidies and fishing capacities, in accordance with the principles of ‘Polluter Pays’.

 

Topic: Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security

6. What challenges do external non-state actors pose to India’s security? Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Times of India

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper III, part internal security.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the challenges that external non-state actors pose to India’s security.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining who are external State and non-State actors.  

Body:

Explain about external non state actors – Non-state actors are individuals or organizations that have powerful economic, political or social power and are able to influence at a national and sometimes international level but do not belong to or allied themselves to any particular country or state. They include NGOs, MNCs, religious outfits, Drug Cartels, Mafias, terrorist groups etc. they may work in tandem for the peace, stability and development of a country or they may work against the State.

Discuss the threat that they pose to internal security in India such as insurgency, terrorism, cyber security, communalism, counterfeit currency etc.

Discuss how India should deal with such challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions and ways to address the problems.

Introduction

India has been facing challenges on the front of internal security since independence from various state and non-state actors. External State actors refer to those entities which have formal backing of a sovereign state for carrying out any intended action. Non-state actors on the other hand, have a considerable power of influencing international events but they do not have formal state backing. Examples of state actors are the army, bureaucracy, intelligence agencies etc. whereas non-state actors would be NGOs, civil society organizations, extremist outfits, multinational companies etc.

Body

Non-state actors have played their nefarious role too in creating problems for India:

  • Insurgency:
    • North-East suffers from violent movements based upon ethnic identities leading to clashes. China is alleged to support such acts for instance. ULFA members of Assam were given shelter by China.
    • Inter-tribal conflicts, unemployed youth, illegal migration from across the border has provided a breeding ground for non-state actors to run insurgency like an industry in the region.
  • Terrorism:
    • Pakistan has been a major exporter of terrorism to India. Non-state actors like terrorist groups for instance Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammad are a continuous threat.
    • Non-state actor -sponsored terrorism, often motivated by fundamentalist ideologies, backed by secretive but efficient financial networks, use of IT, clandestine access to chemical-biological and nuclear materials, and illicit drug trafficking, has emerged as a major threat to international stability.
    • These groups aim to not only create instability in states like J&K, they also have a larger aim of destabilising the country. This is done through sporadic terrorist strikes, which spreads terror and panic. This could also adversely affect the ability of the Indian state to pursue economic modernisation.
  • Naxalism:
    • Left wing extremism affects states like Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and West Bengal.
  • Drug trafficking:
    • Inter and Intra state trafficking takes place, through golden crescent and golden triangle routes.
    • Drugs from Golden Crescent (Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran) have affected Punjab and Golden Triangle (Laos, Myanmar and Thailand) has affected North Eastern states.
  • Human-trafficking:
    • Children and women trafficking takes place via Bangladesh and Nepal.
  • Counterfeit currency:
    • It corrodes economy from inside, by facilitating black money and money laundering activities as well as funding terrorism, which itself creates a demand for fake currency, thereby creating a positive feedback loop. This is the issue arising especially from Pakistan.
  • Communalism:
    • Propagandas are run and funded by enemy country and other non-state actors (NGOs and CSOs) to destabilize India by damaging the socio-religious fabric and ensure riots.
  • Cyber Security:
    • Recent cyber-attacks by Legion, ATM skimming are examples. Pakistani hackers often hack government websites.
  • They can also incite people for regionalism thus demanding their separate state which further increases secessionist tendency.
  • Civil Society Organisations:
    • Serious charges of misuse and misappropriation of funds received as grants-in-aid from governments, foreign donors and their involvement in riling up discontentment in the local communities against developmental projects has raised questions on these organisations working as foreign policy tool of foreign governments.

Conclusion:

Both state and non-state factors from outside have created problems in our internal security framework. Hence while it is imperative to guard our borders and strengthen our diplomacy, on the other hand, we need to check the various non-state actors who come in hidden forms. There is a need for a national internal security doctrine to deal with various challenges.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Case study

7. You are posted as a DCP in the national capital of the country. In a locality which falls under your jurisdiction, protests have been going on for the last one month against a decision taken by the government. While these protests have been non-violent in nature and are being led by women, the protesters have blocked a major road which connects a number of satellite cities. This has led to traffic jams and congestion causing inconvenience to people who use this road for commuting to work causing hardships and a loss to the economy. A number of people filed complaints in this regard and also approached the courts. The High Court has directed the police to keep larger public interest in mind and take appropriate action. In light of the information given above, answer the following questions:

While highlighting the significance of right to protest in a democratic setup, discuss the limitations on this right, even if the protests are non-violent, as in this case. What are the options available to you? Evaluate each of these options and choose the option you would adopt, giving reasons. (250 words)

Why the question:

The question is a case study.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to analyse the case study in detail and highlight the significance of right to protest in a democratic setup and discuss the limitations on this right, even if the protests are non-violent.

Directive:

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The facts of the given case pertain to the rights of the people to assemble peacefully and protest against the actions of the state, which they deem unjust. Such a right is an integral part forming the foundation of a democratic setup.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

 Discuss the significance of the right to protest in a democracy.

Discuss the limitations of exercising the right to protest.

Suggest remedial measures.

Evaluate each measure and present the best option available to you.

Conclusion:

Conclude suitably.

Introduction

Non-violent protests, also known as civil disobedience, have been utilized by some of our greatest historical leaders. Gandhiji, Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela all lead their followers in peaceful protests including marches and sit-ins.

Body

The citizens’ right to protest is a pillar of Indian democracy. While citizens are allowed to peacefully assemble, however, protests and demonstrations sometimes take a violent turn; recent examples are the Jat protests in Haryana and the Kashmir unrest following the death of militant leader Burhan Wani, both in 2016. During such occasions, it is the prerogative of the Indian state to deal with the violent civil protests in a manner that ensures public order and protects citizens from harm.

Important Provisions

  • Article 19(1) (a)guarantees the freedom of speech and expression.
  • Article 19(1) (b)states about the right to assemble peaceably and without arms.
  • Article 19(2)imposes reasonable restrictions on the right to assemble peaceably and without arms and to freedom of speech and expression and none of these rights are absolute in nature.
  • These reasonable restrictions are imposed in the interests of the sovereignty & integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence.

Protesting against injustice is also a moral duty.

Reasonable Restrictions

  • Article 19(1) (3) says this right is subject to “reasonable restrictions” in the interest of public order.
    • If the security of the state is in jeopardy
    • If the friendly relationship, we share with a neighbouring country is at stake
    • If public order is disturbed
    • If there is contempt of court
    • If the sovereignty and integrity of India are threatened

Significance of protest

  • Contributing to all spheres of life: Protests play an important part in the civil, political, economic, social and cultural life of all societies.
  • Positive social change: Historically, protests have often inspired positive social change and the advancement of human rights, and they continue to help define and protect civic space in all parts of the world.
  • Advancement of human rights: Protests encourage the development of an engaged and informed citizenry.
  • Strengthening democracy: They strengthen representative democracy by enabling direct participation in public affairs.
  • Making authorities accountable: They enable individuals and groups to express dissent and grievances, to share views and opinions, to expose flaws in governance and to publicly demand that the authorities and other powerful entities rectify problems and are accountable for their actions.
  • Essential for marginalised section: This is especially important for those whose interests are otherwise poorly represented or marginalised.

Options available

  • Talk to the chief/ leader of the protest and arrange a meeting with the officials and the representatives of the protesters so that their issue could be resolved and thereby restoring the normal functioning of the city.
  • Ask the protesters to shift the venue of protest and make them understand the trouble caused to civilians.
  • If they refuse to move their venue
    • Logistical elements such as traffic routes, ambulances, proper equipment and gear could be planned and prepared and alternate routes could be put to use
    • By clearly defining the intention—i.e., are they dispersing the crowd or are they using force against civilians; the crowd could be dispersed

Since the protest is a nonviolent one it would be best suited to use option 1 or option 2 as per requirement to address the civilian issues and providing a fair grounding to the protestors.

Conclusion

In a democracy, the fundamental right of each citizen is ‘sacrosanct’. However, the collective cannot undermine the same. During protest, citizens should always be cognisant that in the name of protest, “the life of a civilised society cannot be allowed to be paralysed”.


  • Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates
  • Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos