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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 22 July 2021

 

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

1. Economic partnerships could form a central component of our plurilateral platforms of cooperation in the vibrant Indo-Pacific region. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

The article brings to us the role that industry could play in India’s Indo-Pacific out reach.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way economic partnerships could form a central component of our plurilateral platforms of cooperation in the vibrant Indo-Pacific region.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly talk about India’s stakes in the Indo-pacific region.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss first the evolution of India’s Indo-Pacific strategy. Talk about the 2018 Shangri-La Dialogue in Singapore, 2019 East Asia Summit, and The Indo-Pacific Business Summit etc.

Elaborate upon the seven pillars of Indo-Pacific strategy.

Explain in what way Economic partnerships could form a central component of our plurilateral platforms of cooperation in the vibrant Indo-Pacific region.

Conclusion:

Conclude that enhanced partnership in Health, Power and Digital platforms can bring in more strength to the Indo-Pacific region.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2. What the Pegasus surveillance scandal means for Indian democracy? Analyse.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

‘Pegasus Project’ report produced by the collaborative investigation of journalists from around the world has given rise to speculations of extensive surveillance by the Indian government.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail what the Pegasus surveillance scandal means for Indian democracy.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with key facts relevant to the question to set the context.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

The Pegasus scandal is a matter of grave concern for Indian democracy. We have to discuss its Implications and future course of action.

Firstly, talk about the associated laws and agencies involved in surveillance activities in India.

Then discuss the threat posed by excessive surveillance; while a small amount of surveillance is necessary for national security, excess and arbitrary surveillance is dangerous. Excessive and unaccountable surveillance imperils privacy, freedom of thought, of speech, and has a chilling effect on people’s behaviour.

Discuss the concerns associated with surveillance in India.

Conclusion:

Suggest solutions to address the issue and conclude.

 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

3. US has been is taking several trade actions against India in the recent times. In this context, discuss the need for renegotiation of trade deal with US for the betterment of India-US trade relations. (250 words)

Reference:  Hindustan Times

Why the question:

The article suggests that India-US trade relations need a reset.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need for renegotiation of trade deal with US for the betterment of India-US trade relations.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Since 2016, the US administration has been increasingly undertaking trade actions against India, including tariff and non-tariff barriers and anti-dumping duties.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First talk about various trade actions against India in the recent times that US has been taking.

Explain that the resurgence of tariffs as a critical foreign policy tool for the United States (US) is a departure from one of its long-upheld commitments towards free trade.

Suggest what should be India’s stand.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

4. How can rooftop solar energy projects offer an opportunity for India to meet its emission reduction targets? Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Down to Earth

Why the question:

The article explains to us why rooftop solar and storage offers a viable future for India.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss how rooftop solar energy projects can offer an opportunity for India to meet its emission reduction targets.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The Union government’s target of producing 40 gigawatts of rooftop solar power by 2022 is unrealistic: The country could produce only 4.4 GW rooftop solar energy till March 31, 2021, according to the Union Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First explain what you understand by solar rooftops; A solar photovoltaic (PV) system mounted on a rooftop of a building is a mini-power requirement or feed into the grid.

Discuss the need of solar rooftops.

Explain why it’s a viable alternative and an opportunity for India.

Discuss associated challenges.  Suggest policies in support of solar rooftops in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

5. There were more frequent extreme weather events across the world in recent years. Do you think climate change as a sole reason for rise in such extreme events? Examine.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article provides a look at some of the extreme weather events across the world in 2021, and whether they are being caused by climate change.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail if climate change is a sole reason for rise in such extreme events.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with key facts related to extreme weather events that have occurred recently.

Body:

Even as countries are grappling with the Covid-19 pandemic, climate change remains one of the biggest threats. This year, people around the world have been doubly hit by the pandemic and extreme weather events which experts say have been fuelled by climate change.

Explain how increasing temperatures mean more melting ice, higher sea levels, more heatwaves and other extreme weather.

Suggest that while there can be many other reasons for intense weather events, the trajectory is clear — climate change remains the most significant contributing factor that is causing more powerful heat waves, droughts and bigger storm surges.

Conclusion:

Suggest solutions to address the issue.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. A timely green stimulus can address air pollution, generate surplus power, create jobs, do you agree? Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains in what way a timely green stimulus can address air pollution, generate surplus power, create jobs.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the importance of green stimulus and explain in what way it can address air pollution, generate surplus power, create jobs etc.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by Green stimulus.

Body:

Discuss in detail the elements of Green Stimulus.

Talk about the procurement of crop wastes; the burning of rice crop residue in northern India will create an air pollution crisis.  This can be avoided by procuring all the crop waste at a remunerative price. The waste can be converted into briquettes, which can be substituted for coal in thermal power stations. 

Demand for EVs will not pick up till a critical mass of charging infrastructure is available, and the investment in charging stations would not generate returns —a classic chicken and-egg conundrum.

Decentralized solar procurement, decentralized gas-based economy etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of such stimulus.

 

Topic: Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security

7. Is a state actor more powerful than a non-state actor or is a non-state actor more powerful than a state actor? Deliberate. (250 words)

Reference:  en.wikipedia.org

Why the question:

The question aims to differentiate the State and Non-state actors and in what way one is powerful than the other.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain if a state actor is more powerful than a non-state actor or is a non-state actor more powerful than a state actor.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by State and Non-State actors.

Body:

State actors are governments or their agencies of foreign countries and non-state actor are individual/ organisation who have social, political and economic power to influence national/international policies but they are not allied with any particular country such as NGOs, Inter- Govt. organisations, Terrorist outfits.

Difference b/w state and non-state actors are converging as state actors support non state actors whose ideologies converge with that of state actor. For example Pakistan using LeT and JeM against India. Sometimes non state actors also influence state policies like IMF’s condition to open India’s economy during balance of payment crisis of 1980s.

Discuss what needs to be done to overcome the threat of the two.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions.


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