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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 30 June 2021

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Social empowerment

1. In order to encourage gender equality-related transformation in society, it is necessary to intervene at the school level. Do you agree? Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

The article explains in what way Dowry is one of the biggest hurdles to women’s empowerment in our country.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way in order to encourage gender equality-related transformation in society, it is necessary to intervene at the school level.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

First explain what you understand by gender equality-related transformation in society.

Body:

Give some data stating the status of women in the Indian society.

Explain the gender norms that women have to deal with in our society.

Discuss ways and means through which these above stated norms can be changed for better.

Then discuss the importance of intervene at the school level. Give examples or case study.

Conclusion:

Conclude by appreciating efforts of the government in this direction and suggest solutions.

Introduction

Recently, a 24-year-old woman who was believed of being harassed for dowry, died tragically recently. It reveals a lot about the situation of women’s empowerment in our culture. 7,115 deaths were recorded in dowry-related cases in 2019. It is nearly 20 women every day, according to the records of India’s National Crime Records Bureau. In 2019, the Indian Penal Code recorded over 340,000 cases of crime against women.

Body

Gender related issues faced by women in India

  • No freedom of choice: Women’s education does not provide them much influence over their life choices. Women’s decision-making capacity is limited by their lack of access to economic resources. Education and riches do not guarantee a sense of self-worth.
  • Social conventions around marital customs and gender roles can only be challenged by the change from inside society.
  • Age for marriage: In India, marriage by a specific age is regarded as a universal requirement. According to the 2018-19 National Sample Survey, one in two females (and one in three men) in urban India and three in four girls (and two in four men) in rural India married before the age of 25.
  • Dowry: A research project found that married women workers with school-aged daughters were saving in gold for their daughters’ marriages. While yet-to-be-married women workers were saving for their own dowry.
  • Domestic violence: Spousal violence was experienced by 27% of women in paid labor and 20% of women who did not work.
  • Divorce rates: In India, one out of every four married women is subjected to marital abuse, while the proportion of divorced or separated women among ever-married women was less than 1% in 2018-19. Divorce is frowned upon and considered a betrayal of family honour.

Intervening at school level to remove gender related inequality

  • To instil a culture of gender equality, Kerala’s school textbooks will be rewritten and inspected to screen out terms and phrases demeaning women. This decision is instrumental in ensuring that children are not reinforced with wrong gender constructs.
  • Early-stage action to modify gender views among boys and girls would be the single most important policy undertaking. This is a strategy that should be implemented in all Indian states as soon as possible.
  • Promoting successful women CEOs and sportswomen as role models could change people’s perceptions. It would also be beneficial if male role models openly challenged gender stereotypes.
  • NCERT was also changed to remove gender stereotypes. Like cooking was done by fathers and male members while women were portrayed in various professional roles. This will normalize women empowerment and remove the societal expectations of women from minds of children.

 Conclusion

Curricula, textbooks and teacher training programmes should be periodically reviewed to ensure that gender stereotypes are not perpetuated and apprenticeship programmes, tutorials, networks or scholarships should be considered to promote and encourage the incorporation of women into STEM fields. Within schools, the role of teachers becomes essential when it comes to providing quality, gender-neutral education that promotes students’ welfare and respect for professional standards.

 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2. What problems were appropriate to the decolonization process of Malay Peninsula? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  Mastering world history by Norman Lowe

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I, part World history.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to discuss the causative factors that led to the decolonization process of Malay Peninsula.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining the term ‘Decolonization’.

Body:

In the aftermath of Second World War, the imperial nations began transferring power to the indigenous people in their respective colonies. This process is termed as Decolonization.

Discuss the details with respect to the Malay Peninsula; politically, the peninsula comprises the far southeastern Myanmar (Burma), the southwestern Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore.

Present the causative factors that led to decolonization; Economic challenges germane to Decolonization, Racial Harmony and Communist insurgency, Federation and its collapse etc.

Discuss the timeline in detail and its impact in general.

Conclusion:

To conclude, poverty removal, economic development, racial integration, communist insurgency and merger of Singapore were the prominent challenges germane with the decolonization of Malay Peninsula.

Introduction

Malay Peninsula was under the British influence since they first came in the late 18th century looking towards Southeast Asia for new resources. Since then the British East India Company traded and partly controlled the region. The growth of their China trade further increased the company’s desire for bases in the region near it. The decolonization of Malaya Peninsula was an extension of the series of decolonization movements going across the Asia and Africa and was influenced from this process which speeded-up after the World War-II.

Body

Problems associated with decolonization process of Malay Peninsula

  • Malay Peninsula was a multi-racial, multi-cultural society with Malay Chinese and Indians forming major ethnic and interest groups which was a suitable condition for colonial powers to consolidate their regime.
  • The post-world war phase witnessed communal violence.
  • Fall of Singapore and Japanese advances in Malay Peninsula during the World War–II forced the British to consider reassessment of its non-interventionist policies in favour of ethnic cooperation and multiracial government in this region. But with the presence of diverse interest of different groups reaching to a consensus was a tough task.
  • Cold War ideological rivalry was prevalent in Malayan Peninsula too where with the rise of commintern aligned communist parties like Malayan Communist Party and Chinese Communist Organization, the fear of Malayan Peninsula falling to the Communists emerged.
  • It was a nightmare for the liberal democracies/ colonial powers (i.e. British) which ensured transfer of power to ideologically friendly regimes.
  • The commodity prices and exchange rates were in a fluctuating condition after world war II.
  • World war II severely hit the construction and infrastructure sector.
  • The natural rubber was replaced by synthetic rubber that caused job loss to many people. The total development process was stalled.
  • Singapore’s Lee Kuan Yew had proposed an idea to form a Federation of Malaya composed of British Malay, N.Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore.
  • But this proposal couldn’t materialize till mid-60s due to opposition of Indonesia, Philippines and Brunei. (1963).
  • The economic condition and politics of the Malay peninsula broke down due to the collapse of the federation.

Conclusion

To conclude, poverty removal, economic development, racial integration, communist insurgency and merger of Singapore were the prominent challenges germane with the decolonization of Malay peninsula.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. India needs to look for each and every way to control the pandemic, among that the lessons from chronic diseases like HIV AIDS, Tuberculosis might provide some valuable suggestions. Comment.(250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains that to handle the COVID-19 pandemic, we can learn from the lessons of chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way India needs to look for each and every way to control the pandemic. Among that, lessons from chronic diseases might provide some valuable suggestions.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of previous programs like; The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported a rare fungal infection of the lungs in five persons on June 5, 1981. The world learned for the first time about the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in patients with a weakened immune system.

Body:

The answer body must explain in what way past experiences of controlling AIDS or TB can be used in building strategies for handling Covid-19 pandemic.

Give the case of AIDS; firstly, strong political leadership, financial support, advocacy, and activism are crucial in the successful handling of the movement.

Suggest upon the successes and failures of it.

Highlight how that can be leveraged.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

Pandemic control requires revisiting past pandemics such as AIDS and Tuberculosis. Clioepidemiology is the study of information from past epidemics for advice about the present. We have dealt with the HIV infection for 40 years. The insights and learnings must become a lesson in preventing future pandemics.

Body

Lessons India must take from past chronic diseases

  • It is widely acknowledged that India scripted one of the biggest success stories in fighting HIV/AIDS between 1997 and 2010, after the infection hit the shores in 1986.
  • The nationalised AIDS treatment plan is a perfect example of how early detection, diagnosis and treatment saved many lives.
  • It gave a head start to the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) when every State and Union Territory established its own AIDS control organisation and was given a free hand and funds to monitor the epidemic and work on integrated action plans under NACO’s supervision.
  • Universal precaution and prevention were NACP’s bedrock. Experts say the NACP’s experience in dealing with HIV needs to be tapped into.
  • The existing workforce in 21,000 Integrated Counselling and Testing Centres (ICTC) is well-equipped.
  • They can help in early detection of infections, provide basic information on modes of transmission, promote behavioural change, reduce vulnerability and link people with care and treatment services.
  • A majority of the ICTCs has an excellent outreach in the interiors. The staff can also be easily utilised for dealing with COVID-19 now.
  • At the core of every exit strategy is a strong surveillance system. The government needs to rejig its priorities and re-energise the ICTCs along with the 32,000-plus primary and urban health centres to uphold the right to treatment and the dignity of individuals affected by diseases — AIDS, COVID-19 or any other.
  • For that, acknowledging the existence and enormity of the problem is crucial. Using the available tools in the healthcare system is the best way to mainstream health crises.
  • By integrating education and awareness outreach programmes and re-allocating and releasing funds on time, any chronic (TB/HIV/malaria), acute (cholera/plague) or new outbreak becomes easier to deal with.

Conclusion

There is no dearth of experiences to draw from if only we are inclined to learn from our past, rather than forget and be “condemned to repeat it”, in the words of writer-philosopher George Santayana.

 

Topic: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

4. Deliberate upon the need for review of Kedarnath Judgment which upheld constitutional validity of Sedition in India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains that there is an urgent need to review the Kedarnath judgment on sedition law.

Key Demand of the question:

Deliberate upon the need for review of Kedarnath Judgment which upheld constitutional validity of Sedition in India.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what the Kedarnath judgment is about.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Briefly discuss – In Vinod Dua’s case (2021), the Supreme Court has reaffirmed the law of sedition upheld in Kedar Nath Singh (1962). The Kedar Nath judgment upheld the constitutional validity of Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code. The court held that only writings or speeches which incite people to violence against the Government will come within the ambit of sedition.

Then move on to explain why Kedarnath judgment needs a review.

Discuss for and against the sedition law in the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude that people have the right to criticize the government, which is part and parcel of democracy. Hence, the law of sedition which penalizes people for criticizing the government should be declared unconstitutional.

Introduction

Sedition laws were enacted in 17th century England when lawmakers believed that only good opinions of the government should survive, as bad opinions were detrimental to the government and monarchy. This sentiment (and law) was borrowed and inserted into the Section 124A of IPC in 1870, by the British.

Body

Progress so far:

  • In Vinod Dua’s case (2021), the Supreme Court has reaffirmed the law of sedition upheld in Kedar Nath Singh (1962).
  • The Kedar Nath judgment upheld the constitutional validity of Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code.
  • The court held that only writings or speeches which incite people to violence against the Government will come within the ambit of sedition.

KedarNath Singh vs. State of Bihar Judgement

  • In the landmark 1962 KedarNath Singh case, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutional validity of the sedition law, it attempted to restrict its scope for misuse.
  • The court held that unless accompanied by incitement or call for violence, criticism of the government cannot be labelled sedition.
  • Seven principles in the KedarNath Singh ruling specify situations in which the charge of sedition cannot be applied.

Need for review

  • The Supreme Court’s view in KedarNath isconsistently being ignored.
  • Citizens of all ages have been charged with sedition for criticizing government authorities.
  • For instance, the recent Lakshadweep case.
  • Section 124A of the IPC clearlyviolates Article 19(1) (a) of the Constitution. Further Kedarnath judgment opens the door for misuse by making it conditional.
  • It says that ‘only when the words written or spoken etc. which have the pernicious tendency or intention of creating public disorder’ the law steps in.
  • So, if a policeman thinks that a cartoon has the pernicious tendency to create public disorder, he will arrest that cartoonist.
  • It is the policeman and law enforcement machinery who would decide whether a person’s behaviour was seditious.
  • Section 124 A is not a reasonable restriction.
  • Accused under this section does not get protection under Article 19(2) on the ground of reasonable restriction.
  • Sedition as a reasonable restriction was included in the draft constitution but was deleted during the adoption of the Constitution.
  • This law was enacted by the British colonial government with the sole objective ofsuppressing all voices of Indians.
  • In the Bangobasi case in 1891,Bal Gangadhar Tilak’s case in 1897 and 1908, and Mahatma Gandhi’s case in 1922, it was held that a mere comment has the potential to cause disaffection towards the government.
  • Justice Arthur Strachey in Tilak’s case had made it absolutely clear that even attempts to cause disaffection would attract the provision.
  • These arguments do not stand valid after the adoption of the constitution.
  • However, SC adopted the reasoning given by the Federal Court in Niharendu Dutta Majumdar vs. Emperor in 1942. In which it was held that the gist of the offense of sedition is a public disorder or a reasonable apprehension of public disorder.
  • This law should be removed for being unconstitutional, but the SC judgment has softened it.
  • The Supreme Court emphasized the words ‘public order’ used in Article 19(2) and this made the offense of sedition constitutionally valid.

Conclusion

Sedition is important to protect the national interest. On the other hand, misuse of this provision will hamper the Fundamental Rights of individuals. People have the right to criticize the government, which is part and parcel of democracy. Hence, the law of sedition which penalizes people for criticizing the government should be declared unconstitutional.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Forest restoration is one of the key elements of climate mitigation strategies. In this context, examine the measures taken in restoring degraded forest landscape in India. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains in what way forest restoration is the key element in climate mitigation strategies. .

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to examine the measures taken in restoring degraded forest landscape in India.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by forest restoration.

Body:

Explain that the multifarious benefits of Community Forests Resource (CFR) Rights present compelling evidence for India to recognize and support CFR rights. Community forests with legally recognized rights are healthier and associated with lower deforestation rates, higher carbon storage and biodiversity compared to other forests.

Explain the legal mandate of Community Forest Resource Rights (CFR) in India.

Discuss in detail the compelling reasons for India to recognize and support CFR rights.

Present the case study of Banni grasslands.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance and way forward.

Introduction

Forests have a central role to play as the world confronts the challenges of climate change, food shortages, and improved livelihoods for a growing population. If predictions prove correct, the world will need to shelter, feed, clothe, and provide livelihoods for another two billion people by 2050.

Body

Forest and Climate Change Adaptation

  • Forest restoration is an important climate mitigation strategy.
  • Beyond carbon sequestration, its benefits include biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.
  • India’s potential to remove carbon through forest restoration is among the highest in the Global South as per a 2020 study published in Nature, Ecology and Evolution.
  • At 123.3 million, India also has the greatest number of people living near areas with forest restoration opportunities (within 8km).
  • Forests provide many essential environmental services like regulating water cycles, hosting 80 percent of the world’s terrestrial biodiversity (including pollinators crucial to food security), maintaining soil quality, and reducing the risks of natural disasters such as floods at a time when many of these systems are coming under tremendous pressure.

Measures taken in restoring degraded forest landscape in India

  • National Afforestation & Eco Development Board (NAEB) Division of the MoEFCC is implementing the “National Afforestation Programme (NAP)” for ecological restoration of degraded forest areas.
  • The fund accumulated under Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA), Nagar Van Yojana also help in checking degradation and restoration of forest landscape.
  • MoEF&CC also promote tree outside forests realizing that the country has a huge potential for increasing its Trees Outside Forest (TOF) area primarily through expansion of agroforestry, optimum use of wastelands and vacant lands.
  • Joint Forest Management (JFM) is partnership involving both the forest departments and local communities in natural forest management. The concept was introduced by Government of India through the National Forest Policy of 1988.
  • Green India Mission, GIM is one of the eight missions launched under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). GIM, launched in February 2014, is aimed at protecting, restoring and enhancing India’s diminishing forest cover and responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures.
  • By assigning rights to protect, manage and restore around 40 million hectares of forests to village-level democratic institutions, CFR rights under Forest Rights Act are given to forest dwellers.

Conclusion

Global attention is on ecosystem restoration — the United Nations theme for the decade. India’s restoration commitments are amongst the most ambitious in the world. Its potential to benefit from forest restoration is also among the highest.

 

Topic: Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth

6. Critically analyse India’s policy of aggressive privatisation of public enterprises. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains how Privatisation has the potential to alter the functioning of the Indian economy.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is straightforward, one must critically analyse India’s policy of aggressive privatisation of public enterprises.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by privatisation and briefly highlight the trends associated with it.

Body:

Explain that in the backdrop of an economic contraction, it is important to revisit the aggressive privatization of public enterprises. Focus should be on adopting different strategies for sick and profitable units.

Privatization of the public sector, including banks, has been part of economic reforms since 1991. This was at the core of the ‘Washington Consensus’ which believes that the private sector is inherently more efficient.

The socio-political realities of India prevented outright privatisation. However, progressive disinvestment of the shares of public sector undertakings has been taking place over the years.

Discuss the concerns associated with strong and aggressive privatisation.

Conclusion:

Suggest what needs to be done and conclude with way forward.

Introduction

Due to the poor performance of several PSEs and the consequent huge fiscal deficits, the issue of privatisation has come to the forefront. Privatisation is ought to infuse efficiency by bringing PSEs to the competition in the market.

The term ‘privatisation’ is used in different ways, ranging from ‘transition to private legal forms’ to ‘partial or complete denationalization of assets.’ 

Body

In India, privatisation is sought to be achieved through two measures:

  • The disinvestment of the government’s equity in public sector undertakings.
  • The opening up of hitherto closed areas to private participation

Categories of public sector enterprises

·         Sick for long time and beyond redemption

·         Financially troubled but can be turned around

·         Profitable enterprises

Challenges in Privatisation

  • First, the number of Indian private firms which can buy out public sector firms are very few.
  • Their limited financial and managerial resources would be better utilised in taking over the large number of private firms up for sale through the bankruptcy process.
  • Then, these successful large corporates need to be encouraged to invest and grow both in brownfield and Greenfield modes in the domestic as well as international markets.
  • Sale at fair or lower than fair valuations to foreign entities, firms as well as funds, has adverse implications from the perspective of being ‘Atma Nirbhar’.
  • Again, Greenfield foreign investment is what India needs and not takeovers.
  • Public sector enterprises provide for reservations in recruitment.
  • With privatisation, this would end and unnecessarily generate social unrest.

Way Forward

For Sick for long time and beyond redemption

  • The Government should close these in a time-bound manner with a generous handshake for labour.
  • After selling machinery as scrap, there would be valuable land left.
  • Prudent disposal of these plots of lands in small amounts would yield large incomes in the coming years.
  • All this would need the creation of dedicated efficient capacity as the task is huge and challenging.
  • These enterprises may be taken away from their parent line Ministries andbrought under one holding company.
  • This holding company should have the sole mandate of speedy liquidation and asset sale.

For financially troubled but can be turned around

  • Air India should ideally bemade debt free and a new management should have freedom permitted under the law in personnel management to get investor interest.
  • As valuation rises, the Government could reduce its stake further and get more money.
  • If well handled, significant revenues would flow to the Government.

For Profitable enterprises

  • The Government can continue to reduce its shareholding by offloading shares and even reducing its stake to less than 51% while remaining the promoter and being in control.
  • Calibrated divestment to get maximum value should be the goal instead of being target driven to get a lower fiscal deficit number to please rating agencies.
  • In parallel,managements may be given longer and stable tenures, greater flexibility to achieve outcomes, and more confidence to take well-considered commercial risks.

Conclusion

Would it be in India’s interest to lose the strategic capacity that its ownership of public enterprises including financial ones provide it? It would be better to think carefully now.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

7. What is meant by the term “conscience”? Is conscience a reliable ethical compass for our life, especially for a civil servant? Explain.(250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of “Conscience” and its reliability for our life with special focus on its application to civil servants.

Key Demand of the question:

Define what conscience is and discuss in what way it is important for civil servants and us in general.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Conscience.

Body:

Conscience describes two things – what a person believes is right and how a person decides what is right. More than just ‘gut instinct’, our conscience is a ‘moral muscle’. By informing us of our values and principles, it becomes the standard we use to judge whether or not our actions are ethical.

Discuss why we or the civil servants must rely on conscience.

Explain the idea that one’s conscience is a responsible arbiter between right and wrong and is therefore reliable for making decisions. A person’s conscience is rightly considered sacred because conscience allows man to exercise reason, which is a spark of divine intelligence. The act of the moral conscience is an efficacious practical judgment. Without conscience a person would doubt even the smallest decisions.

Illustrate its relevance to civil servants.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance.

Introduction

Conscience is the part of one’s personality that helps in determining right and wrong and keeps one from acting upon the most basic urges and desires. It is what makes us feel guilty when we do something bad and good when we do something kind. Our conscience is the moral basis that helps guide prosocial behaviour and leads us to behave in socially acceptable and even altruistic ways.

Body

Conscience as a concept

  • While law focuses on principles of morality outside human beings, conscience is something within human beings that determines the morality of human actions.
  • Conscience is a special act of the mind that comes into being when the intellect passes judgment on the goodness or badness of a particular act. It is a practical judgment on particular, concrete, human actions.
  • From a deontological perspective, conscience is a judgment—an act of the intellect. It is not a feeling or an emotion, but, rather, an intellectual decision. It is also a decision with a view to a particular action.
  • Conscience can make a practical judgment on the morality of either a past action or an action about to occur.
  • Conscience is different from law. Law states a general rule concerning actions; conscience lays down a practical rule for specific action.
  • Conscience applies the law or rule to specific actions; therefore, it is wider than law. Some have said that conscience is to law as a brush is to paint.

Conscience as a reliable ethical compass for civil servants

  • Conscience helps civil servants take emotionally intelligent decisions by not letting them sway with emotionally dominating cases. Eg. Taking judgment in lines with Rule of law in cases involving rich-poor tussle.
  • Enable a civil servant to better organize and give precedence to cases/projects seeking more attention for greater good to people. Eg: Prioritising people’s welfare and preventing displacement over mining project clearance.
  • It helps to deal with problems when civil servants are in dilemma in a more scientific and objective manner to achieve a utilitarian based outcome. Need to cut hundreds of trees to construct in Aarey forest for a car depot should need cost-benefit analysis.
  • Upholding values of honesty, impartiality, accountability and not letting his integrity & institutions credibility questioned, by using transparent working methodologies.
  • Suppose the situation where your superiors are also indulged in corrupt practice so it is your conscience which can raise voice against this even having so much pressure from all.
  • For example, Ashok Khemka and Sanjeev Chaturvedi’s conscience forced them to expose corruption in politics and administration.
  • Durga Shakti Nagpal UP IAS officer was motivated by her conscience to take action against the politically supported sand mafia.
  • Being a civil servant, you may have a situation when a poor person approaches you for some benefits but he does not have proper documents, so you can deny him but out of compassion, your conscience may prompt you to do some arrangements for him.

Conclusion

Conscience can aid in decision making, especially where discretion needs to be exercised by the civil servants. Every civil servant is expected uphold equality, work with integrity and in good conscience especially when he or she has a lot of discretion. The ultimate goal must be welfare of the larger community.


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