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InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically. 


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

1. Protection Officers in addressing Domestic Violence.


GS Paper 2:

1. UN Peacekeeping.


GS Paper 3:

1. Gaganyaan.

2. Cyber Security Index (GCI) 2020.

3. Chamoli disaster due to avalanche.


Facts for Prelims:

1. Indrajaal.


3. Saral Sanchar Portal.

4. Enforcing Contracts Portal.

GS Paper  :  1


Topics Covered: Issues related to women.

Protection Officers in addressing Domestic Violence:


The National Commission for Women (NCW) in collaboration with Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA) has launched a Training Programme of Protection Officers in addressing Domestic Violence.



The training aims to focus on the role of different stakeholders/service providers under the Act including police, legal aid services, health system, service providers, shelter services, one stop centres etc.


Who are protection Officers?

Under the Domestic Violence Act, protection officers are appointed. They act as a facilitator between the aggrieved woman and the court.

Functions: The Protection Officer aids the aggrieved woman in filing of complaints, and application before the Magistrate to obtain the necessary relief and also assists to obtain medical aid, legal aid, counselling, safe shelter and other required assistance.



  • According to the rules prescribed under the Act, state governments must appoint at least one protection officer in the jurisdiction of every judicial magistrate.
  • Protection officers can be members of either government or non-governmental organisations, with at least three years of experience in the social sector, but they must preferably be women.


Challenges/problems with the functioning of Protection Officers:

The Domestic Violence Act may have been introduced 12 years ago, but the implementation of its provisions was not taken up uniformly across the country.

  1. In many states, protection officers were not appointed even years after the Act came into force.
  2. Today, everything from their qualifications to the nature of their appointments can differ from state to state.
  3. The number of POs [protection officers] also depends from state to state. Some have very few POs while other states have too many people given that responsibility.
  4. Under the Domestic Violence Act, protection officers are meant to be full-time workers, but Delhi is not the only state where this rule is flouted.
  5. In many states, existing government officials are burdened with the additional charge of being protection officers.
  6. Most people are not even aware of the existence of protection officers.
  7. Some protection officers are themselves not clear about the procedures under the law.


Insta Curious: 

Do you know, The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) was the first human rights treaty specific to women ? CEDAW, however, doesn’t address violence. Read Here 




Prelims Link:

  1. About the Domestic Violence Act.
  2. Key Provisions.
  3. Who are protection Officers?
  4. Rights of Women Under the Act.

Mains Link:

Discuss the significance of Domestic Violence Act.

Sources: PIB.

GS Paper  :  2


Topics Covered: Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.

UN Peacekeeping:


The 193 member states of the United Nations have thus far failed to agree on a peacekeeping budget for the year beginning July 1, which could lead to “a freeze on all missions” should a deal not soon materialize.

  • The roadblock stems from China and African countries making multiple last-minute requests.

What’s the issue?

The budget for the UN’s global peacekeeping operations — about 20 missions worldwide, with nearly 100,000 Blue Helmets mobilized — amounts to about $6.5 billion and covers a 12-month period starting each year on July 1.

  • This year, the member nations have failed to agree on the budget.



  • The risk is that for a while until a decision on budgets is reached by the General Assembly, missions will find themselves under strict constraints, to only spend on measures to protect our personnel.
  • Curtailment of operations would limit the ability of the missions to implement their mandate, including, for example, supporting host countries on Covid response, protecting civilians, among others.


How UN Peacekeeping operations are funded?

  • While decisions about establishing, maintaining or expanding a peacekeeping operation are taken by the Security Council, the financing of UN Peacekeeping operations is the collective responsibility of all UN Member States.
  • Every Member State is legally obligated to pay their respective share towards peacekeeping. This is in accordance with the provisions of Article 17 of the Charter of the United Nations.

The top 5 providers of assessed contributions to United Nations Peacekeeping operations for 2020-2021 are:

  1. United States (27.89%).
  2. China (15.21%).
  3. Japan (8.56%).
  4. Germany (6.09%).
  5. United Kingdom (5.79%).


What is peacekeeping? It’s significance?

  • United Nations Peacekeeping is a joint effort between the Department of Peace Operations and the Department of Operational Support.
  • Every peacekeeping mission is authorized by the Security Council.



  1. UN peacekeepers (often referred to as Blue Berets or Blue Helmets because of their light blue berets or helmets) can include soldiers, police officers, and civilian personnel.
  2. Peacekeeping forces are contributed by member states on a voluntary basis.
  3. Civilian staff of peace operations are international civil servants, recruited and deployed by the UN Secretariat.

UN Peacekeeping is guided by three basic principles:

  1. Consent of the parties.
  2. Impartiality.
  3. Non-use of force except in self-defence and defence of the mandate.


Insta Curious: 

Did you know that In 2007, India became the first country to deploy an all-women contingent to a UN peacekeeping mission? Know about the current 13 peacekeeping operations, Read here



Prelims Link:

  1. Who funds peacekeeping operations?
  2. Role of UNSC.
  3. Composition of Peacekeepers?
  4. Why peacekeepers are called as Blue Helmets?
  5. Guiding principles of UN peacekeeping.
  6. Ongoing peacekeeping missions.

Mains Link:

Write a note on UN Peacekeeping and its significance.

Sources: the Hindu.

GS Paper  :  3


Topics Covered: Awareness in space.



The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is planning to launch the first uncrewed mission in December, as part of the human spaceflight programme ‘Gaganyaan’. It is facing challenges due to the adverse impact of the COVID-19-induced lockdowns that has disrupted hardware delivery schedules.

  • As part of the mandate of Gaganyaan, two uncrewed flights are planned to test the end-to-end capacity for the manned mission.


When was it announced?

  • Formal announcement of the Gaganyaan programme was made by Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his Independence Day address on August 15, 2018.
  • The initial target was to launch the human spaceflight before the 75th anniversary of India’s independence on August 15, 2022.



The objective of the Gaganyaan programme is to demonstrate the capability to send humans to low earth orbit on board an Indian launch vehicle and bring them back to earth safely.


Preparation and launch:

  1. Four Indian astronaut-candidates have already undergone generic space flight training in Russia as part of the Gaganyaan programme.
  2. ISRO’s heavy-lift launcher GSLV Mk III has been identified for the mission.


Relevance of a Manned Space Mission for India:

Boost to industries: The Indian industry will find large opportunities through participation in the highly demanding Space missions. Gaganyaan Mission is expected to source nearly 60% of its equipment from the Indian private sector.

Employment: According to the ISRO chief, the Gaganyaan mission would create 15,000 new employment opportunities, 13,000 of them in private industry and the space organisation would need an additional manpower of 900.

Spurs research and development: It will thrust significant research in areas such as materials processing, astro-biology, resources mining, planetary chemistry, planetary orbital calculus and many other areas.

Motivation: Human space flight will provide that inspiration to the youth and also the national public mainstream. It would inspire the young generation into notable achievements and enable them to play their legitimate role in challenging future activities.

Prestige: India could potentially become the fourth country to launch a human space mission. The Gaganyaan will not only bring about prestige to the nation but also establish India’s role as a key player in the space industry.


Insta Curious: 

Do you know about the Mir Space Station? Read Here(Read Briefly)



Prelims Link:

  1. About Gaganyaan.
  2. Objectives.
  3. About GSLV.

Mains Link:

Why is Gaganyaan mission significant for India? Discuss.

Sources: the Hindu.


Topics Covered: Cybersecurity related issues.

Cyber Security Index (GCI) 2020:


United Nations’ specialised agency for information and communication technologies — International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has released the Global Cyber Security Index (GCI) 2020.


About the index:

The index is a trusted reference that measures the commitment of countries to cybersecurity at a global level.

  • Countries are measured along five pillars, namely, legal measures, technical measures, organisational measures, capacity development, and cooperation to generate an overall score.
  • The countries were asked 82 questions where 20 indicators were measured.


Performance of India and its neighbours:

  1. India is placed on the 10th spot. In 2018, it was ranked on the 47th spot. It was ranked rank 47 in 2019.
  2. In the Asia-Pacific region India secured the 4th spot.
  3. Neighbours China and Pakistan were ranked at 33 and 79, respectively.


Top 5 Countries:

  1. The US.
  2. The UK and Saudi Arabia.
  3. Estonia.
  4. South Korea, Singapore and Spain.
  5. Russia, United Arab Emirates and Malaysia.


General challenges ahead for the countries worldwide:

  1. Digital gaps amongst nations create an unsustainable environment in the cyber domain.
  2. Growing digital reliance in the post-COVID era has exposed digital disparities which must be bridged through capacity building.
  3. There’s a sophisticated use of cyberspace by terrorists to broaden their propaganda and incite hatred.


How is India tackling its cyber security threats?

  1. India is working on its first Cyber Security Strategy.
  2. Computer Emergency Response Teams or CERT is responsible for coordinating and supporting the response to computer security events or incidents on the national or government level.
  3. Online cybercrime reporting portal has been launched to enable complainants to report complaints pertaining to Child Pornography/Child Sexual Abuse Material, rape/gang rape imageries or sexually explicit content.
  4. A scheme for establishment of Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C) has been established to handle issues related to cybercrime in the country in a comprehensive and coordinated manner.
  5. Establishment of National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) for protection of critical information infrastructure in the country.


Insta Curious: 

Do you know about TechSagar ? Read more about it, 



Prelims Link:

  1. About the Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C).
  2. National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC).
  3. CERT- In.
  4. Cyber Swachhta Kendras.

Sources: the Hindu.


Topics Covered: Disaster management.

Chamoli disaster due to avalanche:


Flash flood on February 7 in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand, claimed at least 72 lives with at least 200 missing. Now, Geological Survey of India (GSI) has submitted its report on causes of the disaster.


Key findings:

  1. Flash flood was due to a large mass of snow, ice and rock avalanche along with a hanging mass of rock crashing into the Raunthi Garh valley floor.
  2. This impact pulverised the combination of rock, snow and ice causing a rapid flow downstream of Raunthi Garh and into the Rishiganga valley leading to the deluge.
  3. A contributory factor was unusually warm weather in the region.
  4. There was no evidence of a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) having caused the event.


What happened on February 7th?

A glacial break in the Tapovan-Reni area of Chamoli District of Uttarakhand led to massive Flash Flood in Dhauli Ganga and Alaknanda Rivers, damaging houses and the nearby Rishiganga power project.

What is glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF)?

It is an outburst that happens when a dam containing a glacial lake fails.


GLOFs have three main features:

  1. They involve sudden (and sometimes cyclic) releases of water.
  2. They tend to be rapid events, lasting hours to days.
  3. They result in large downstream river discharges (which often increase by an order of magnitude).


Why does a glacier break?

  1. Erosion.
  2. A build-up of water pressure.
  3. An avalanche of snow or rocks.
  4. An earthquake under the ice.
  5. Massive displacement of water in a glacial lake when a large portion of an adjacent glacier collapses into it.


Insta Curious: 

Do you know what pelean eruption is? Read Here



Prelims Link:

  1. About GLOF.
  2. About Alaknanda river.
  3. About Dhauli Ganga.
  4. About Rishiganga river project.

Mains Link:

How is India prepared for disasters posed by glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF)? Discuss.

Sources: the Hindu.


Facts for Prelims:


Hyderabad-based technology R&D firm Grene Robotics has designed and developed India’s first indigenous drone defence dome called “Indrajaal”.

  • Features: The drone defence dome has the capability to autonomously protect an area of 1000-2000 sq km against the aerial threats by assessing and acting on aerial threats such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), loitering munitions, and Low- Radar Cross Section (RCS) targets.


  • National Automotive Test Tracks (NATRAX) is the High Speed Track(HST) locates in Indore.
  • It is the longest such track in Asia. It is a 11.3 km long. It is also the world’s fifth high speed test track.
  • It is built under NATRiP (National Automotive Testing and R&D Infrastructure Project) of the Heavy Industries Ministry.
  • NATRAX is a one stop solution for all sorts of high speed performance tests for widest categories of vehicles from 2 wheelers to heavy tractor trailers.


Saral Sanchar Portal:

Department of Telecommunications (DoT) has expanded the Saral Sanchar Portal.

‘SARAL SANCHAR’ (Simplified Application For Registration and Licenses) is a web-based portal for Issuing various types of licenses and registration certificates.

The following types of licenses/authorizations shall be issued from this portal:

  1. Unified License.
  2. Unified License-Virtual Network Operator.
  3. WPC Licenses (Wireless Planning and Coordination).


Enforcing Contracts Portal:

  • Department of Justice, Ministry of Law and Justice has launched the “Enforcing Contracts Portal”.
  • It is envisioned to be a comprehensive source of information pertaining to the legislative and policy reforms being undertaken on the “Enforcing Contracts” parameters.

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