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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 30 June 2021

 

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Social empowerment

1. In order to encourage gender equality-related transformation in society, it is necessary to intervene at the school level. Do you agree? Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

The article explains in what way Dowry is one of the biggest hurdles to women’s empowerment in our country.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way in order to encourage gender equality-related transformation in society, it is necessary to intervene at the school level.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

First explain what you understand by gender equality-related transformation in society.

Body:

Give some data stating the status of women in the Indian society.

Explain the gender norms that women have to deal with in our society.

Discuss ways and means through which these above stated norms can be changed for better.

Then discuss the importance of intervene at the school level. Give examples or case study.

Conclusion:

Conclude by appreciating efforts of the government in this direction and suggest solutions.

 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2. What problems were appropriate to the decolonization process of Malay Peninsula? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  Mastering world history by Norman Lowe

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I, part World history.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to discuss the causative factors that led to the decolonization process of Malay Peninsula.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining the term ‘Decolonization’.

Body:

In the aftermath of Second World War, the imperial nations began transferring power to the indigenous people in their respective colonies. This process is termed as Decolonization.

Discuss the details with respect to the Malay Peninsula; politically, the peninsula comprises the far southeastern Myanmar (Burma), the southwestern Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore.

Present the causative factors that led to decolonization; Economic challenges germane to Decolonization, Racial Harmony and Communist insurgency, Federation and its collapse etc.

Discuss the timeline in detail and its impact in general.

Conclusion:

To conclude, poverty removal, economic development, racial integration, communist insurgency and merger of Singapore were the prominent challenges germane with the decolonization of Malay Peninsula.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. India needs to look for each and every way to control the pandemic, among that the lessons from chronic diseases like HIV AIDS, Tuberculosis might provide some valuable suggestions. Comment.(250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains that to handle the COVID-19 pandemic, we can learn from the lessons of chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way India needs to look for each and every way to control the pandemic. Among that, lessons from chronic diseases might provide some valuable suggestions.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of previous programs like; The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported a rare fungal infection of the lungs in five persons on June 5, 1981. The world learned for the first time about the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in patients with a weakened immune system.

Body:

The answer body must explain in what way past experiences of controlling AIDS or TB can be used in building strategies for handling Covid-19 pandemic.

Give the case of AIDS; firstly, strong political leadership, financial support, advocacy, and activism are crucial in the successful handling of the movement.

Suggest upon the successes and failures of it.

Highlight how that can be leveraged.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

4. Deliberate upon the need for review of Kedarnath Judgment which upheld constitutional validity of Sedition in India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains that there is an urgent need to review the Kedarnath judgment on sedition law.

Key Demand of the question:

Deliberate upon the need for review of Kedarnath Judgment which upheld constitutional validity of Sedition in India.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what the Kedarnath judgment is about.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Briefly discuss – In Vinod Dua’s case (2021), the Supreme Court has reaffirmed the law of sedition upheld in Kedar Nath Singh (1962). The Kedar Nath judgment upheld the constitutional validity of Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code. The court held that only writings or speeches which incite people to violence against the Government will come within the ambit of sedition.

Then move on to explain why Kedarnath judgment needs a review.

Discuss for and against the sedition law in the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude that people have the right to criticize the government, which is part and parcel of democracy. Hence, the law of sedition which penalizes people for criticizing the government should be declared unconstitutional.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Forest restoration is one of the key elements of climate mitigation strategies. In this context, examine the measures taken in restoring degraded forest landscape in India. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains in what way forest restoration is the key element in climate mitigation strategies. .

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to examine the measures taken in restoring degraded forest landscape in India.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by forest restoration.

Body:

Explain that the multifarious benefits of Community Forests Resource (CFR) Rights present compelling evidence for India to recognize and support CFR rights. Community forests with legally recognized rights are healthier and associated with lower deforestation rates, higher carbon storage and biodiversity compared to other forests.

Explain the legal mandate of Community Forest Resource Rights (CFR) in India.

Discuss in detail the compelling reasons for India to recognize and support CFR rights.

Present the case study of Banni grasslands.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance and way forward.

 

Topic: Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth

6. Critically analyse India’s policy of aggressive privatisation of public enterprises. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains how Privatisation has the potential to alter the functioning of the Indian economy.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is straightforward, one must critically analyse India’s policy of aggressive privatisation of public enterprises.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by privatisation and briefly highlight the trends associated with it.

Body:

Explain that in the backdrop of an economic contraction, it is important to revisit the aggressive privatization of public enterprises. Focus should be on adopting different strategies for sick and profitable units.

Privatization of the public sector, including banks, has been part of economic reforms since 1991. This was at the core of the ‘Washington Consensus’ which believes that the private sector is inherently more efficient.

The socio-political realities of India prevented outright privatisation. However, progressive disinvestment of the shares of public sector undertakings has been taking place over the years.

Discuss the concerns associated with strong and aggressive privatisation.

Conclusion:

Suggest what needs to be done and conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

7. What is meant by the term “conscience”? Is conscience a reliable ethical compass for our life, especially for a civil servant? Explain.(250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of “Conscience” and its reliability for our life with special focus on its application to civil servants.

Key Demand of the question:

Define what conscience is and discuss in what way it is important for civil servants and us in general.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Conscience.

Body:

Conscience describes two things – what a person believes is right and how a person decides what is right. More than just ‘gut instinct’, our conscience is a ‘moral muscle’. By informing us of our values and principles, it becomes the standard we use to judge whether or not our actions are ethical.

Discuss why we or the civil servants must rely on conscience.

Explain the idea that one’s conscience is a responsible arbiter between right and wrong and is therefore reliable for making decisions. A person’s conscience is rightly considered sacred because conscience allows man to exercise reason, which is a spark of divine intelligence. The act of the moral conscience is an efficacious practical judgment. Without conscience a person would doubt even the smallest decisions.

Illustrate its relevance to civil servants.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance.


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