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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 23 June 2021

 

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Chinese Revolution

1. Discuss the reasons owing to which the Communists led by Mao-Tse-Tung emerged victorious in the Chinese Civil War. Also, explain in what way Mao’s victory impacted South Asian politics? (250 words)

Reference:  World history by Norman Lowe

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I , part World Geography.

Key Demand of the question:

This question seeks reasons for the victory of Chinese Communist Party over KMT regime in the Chinese Civil War and its impact upon South Asian Politics.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly introduce the Chinese Civil War. Put forth the timeline of it.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain first how the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) emerged victorious despite the odds.

Discuss the underlying factors; Political: The administration of both parties, Sino-Japanese War, Long march etc.  Socio-economic: The peasant and workers, the reforms of CCP, the communism effect. Comparative Leadership: Mao Tse Tung vs Chiang Kai Shek, the revolutionary spirit of CCP etc.

Then, outline the effect of Chinese Revolution in the South Asian Region; Tibet issue, Sino-Indian war, Taiwan and One China Policy etc.

Conclusion:

Summarize the above mentioned points which changed the fate of China and trace the emerging of the present day assertive China to this civil war.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

2 Critically analyse the Pakistan’s strategic dilemma, post Kashmir’s special status abrogation and comment upon the changing trajectory of India’s Pakistan policy. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article expounds upon understanding Pakistan’s Kashmir conundrum.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the Pakistan’s strategic dilemma, post Kashmir’s special status abrogation and its impact on India.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

Explain various developments and perspectives on Kashmir tussle between India and Pakistan.

Account for brief history of India and Pakistan with respect to the Kashmir issue.

Talk about the recent Kashmir’s special status abrogation and its impact on India- Pak relations.

Discuss the recent initiations with Pakistan; explain how the dynamics of the policies have changed over a period of time.

Take cues from the article and explain the changing trajectory of India’s Pakistan policy and underlying reasons.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

3. A federal structure with greater economic power to the States, will allow the Centre to focus on external threats instead of internal dissensions. Do you agree? Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article highlights the importance of a more federal structure in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way a federal structure with greater economic power to the States, will allow the Centre to focus on external threats instead of internal dissensions.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly start by commenting upon the nature of federal structure in India.

Body:

Highlight the present nature of fiscal relations between Union and States.

Then, comment on the nature of revenue distribution between Centre and States. Discuss the associated constitutional provisions with respect to it.

Present a case for greater economic power to the States so that they can directly collect more taxes and be less dependent on the Central government.

Discuss how such methods can help address external threats instead of internal dissents.

 Conclusion:

Conclude that India’s hard-won independence and unity needs to be preserved. Today there are threats from China. There may be threats from Afghanistan after the U.S. withdraws its troops. A transition to a more federal structure will allow the Centre to focus on external threats instead of internal dissensions.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. Providing affordable housing requires multi-pronged approach. In this light, deliberate upon the government initiatives to boost affordable urban housing in India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains how providing affordable housing requires a multi-pronged approach.

Key Demand of the question:

Deliberate upon the government initiatives to boost affordable urban housing in India.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The current pandemic has brought to fore the plight of migrant workers in India. The reverse migration that we saw with Covid highlights the need to provide affordable living conditions to the workers, so that they are not compelled to migrate back in times of income uncertainties.

Body:

Quote some key data highlighting the concerns related to poverty in India.

Explain that subsidies apart, infrastructure development and provision of basic services/amenities around the housing projects are a must. Also, policies and measures that help lower costs will enhance the feasibility of these projects.

Discuss the government initiatives to boost affordable urban housing in India.

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward and conclude.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their effects on Industrial Growth

5. Evaluate the risk of stifling the e-commerce sector due to the government’s propensity for its regulations to protect the local traders. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

The article highlights the risk of stifling the e-commerce sector due to the government’s propensity for its regulation to protect the local traders.

Key Demand of the question:

Examine the risk of stifling the e-commerce sector due to the government’s propensity for its regulations to protect the local traders.

 Directive:

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the context of the question; The Centre put out proposals to tighten e-com regulations for consumer protection. E-com firms must appoint resident officers to address grievances and monitor rule-compliance, and then be ready to share information sought by authorities within 72 hours.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss the efforts to shield local retailers; India began to open up its economy three decades ago, but efforts to shield local retailers resulted in a retail sector fraught with a thicket of rules.

Analyse the issues with regulations that have been put in place recently.

Conclusion:

Conclude that what e-com users are now at risk of suffering, though, is a hobbled industry. If all e-com websites are forced into a statist mold meant for generic market platforms, these companies could lose their ability to set themselves apart, outperform rivals and serve the market’s ultimate cause.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. Study the impact of global trade on marine pollution while discussing remedial measures to address the same. (250 words)

Reference:  Economic Times

Why the question:

Recently a cargo ship X-Press Pearl, carrying hazardous chemicals, including nitric acid, caught fire, exploded, and later sank off the coast of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the impact of global trade on marine pollution while discussing remedial measures to address the same.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with a brief on what constitutes Marine pollution.

Body:

The answer body must discuss in what way global trade has become one of the major causes leading to marine pollution.

 Maritime transport is the backbone of international trade and the global economy. Around 80 per cent of global trade by volume and over 70 per cent of global trade by value are carried by sea and are handled by ports worldwide. Developing economies account for the largest share of global seaborne trade, both in terms of exports and imports.

Then discuss how Global trade is causing Marine Pollution; oil spills, dry bulk cargo releases, port building etc.

Explain the effect Pollution on Marine Ecosystem.

Conclusion:

Suggest solutions and conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7. Define attitude. What is the process through which attitudes are formed? Explain. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of Attitude and the processes through which they are formed.

Key Demand of the question:

Define what you understand by Attitude and highlight the processes through which attitudes are formed.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

An attitude is a general and lasting positive or negative opinion or feeling about some person, object, or issue.

Body:

Attitude formation occurs through either direct experience or the persuasion of others or the media. Attitudes have three foundations: affect or emotion, behavior, and cognitions.

Explain that Attitude formation occurs through either direct experience or the persuasion of others or the media. Attitudes have three foundations: affect or emotion, behavior, and cognitions.

Give examples in support of your answer.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of it.


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