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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 22 June 2021

 

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Russian Revolution

1. Deliberate upon the view that the Russian Revolution was brought about by a small group of revolutionaries without the support of the masses. (250 words)

Reference:  Old NCERT World History ch11: Russian Revolution: Causes, Consequences, Comintern

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I , part World Geography.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to discuss in what way the Russian Revolution was brought about by a small group of revolutionaries without the support of the masses.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly discuss the nuances of the Russian revolution first.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain in short the conditions in Russia before the onset of the Revolution.

Then explain the growth of Revolutionary Movements in Russia.

Discuss the coming of small groups, and their revolutionary role. Suggest how it was brought about by a small group of revolutionaries without the support of the masses.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

2. In the light of flared gap between India and China’s maritime capabilities, discuss the need for realistic goals and futuristic vision with its right implementation to realize the maritime goals in Asian strategic sphere. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains that the Naval power will play a decisive role in India-China rivalry. But India needs greater vision, realistic targets and proper implementation to achieve its maritime goals.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the needs for greater vision, realistic targets and proper implementation to achieve maritime goals for India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly start by explaining the importance of maritime goals for India in the Asian sphere.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain first that the competition between China and India in the economic and military spheres, no matter how asymmetric, makes it inevitable that the two will remain rivals in the Asian strategic space.

Discuss how China has aggressively expanded in terms of maritime strength; China has not only overtaken the US Navy in numbers, it is also the world’s top ship-producing nation, with the largest merchant navy, coast-guard and fishing fleet/maritime militia in the world.

The competition between China and India in the economic and military spheres, no matter how asymmetric, makes it inevitable that the two will remain rivals in the Asian strategic space.

Brief upon the maritime capabilities of India and its present status, and suggest what needs to be done to ensure maritime confidence in the Asian sphere.

Conclusion:

Conclude that it is time India evolved a National Strategy for the maritime sector that charts a 50-year path and receives Parliament’s approval to ensure survival through changes of government.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. How far do you agree with the view that access to healthcare needs to be recognized as an explicit fundamental right? Debate. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The editorial elaborates on why access to healthcare needs to be a fundamental right.

Key Demand of the question:

Present your viewpoint on the need to recognize access to healthcare as a fundamental right.

Directive:

Debate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with importance access to healthcare in the current era across the world.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss first what you understand by access to healthcare and explain its significance in the Indian context.

The constitutional right to health is critical to breaking discriminatory structures that will otherwise continue to perpetuate inequality in all spheres of life.

Explain in detail that the right to equality guaranteed under Article 15 upholds non-discrimination on the basis religion, race, caste, gender, place of birth, etc. However, the dismal investment in public health for decades has made healthcare a privilege available to a few. The constitutional right to health is critical to breaking discriminatory structures that will otherwise continue to perpetuate inequality in all spheres of life, including education, opportunity, wealth, and social mobility.

Conclusion:

Conclude that we need a fundamental shift in our approach to healthcare. Instead of viewing it as spending, we have to see it as a high-yield investment that can considerably cut down future out-of-pocket costs and also increase output.

 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

4. Russia’s gullible advocacy of China’s global visualization is what seems to be leaving India quite puzzled. Discuss from the viewpoint of India’s interests. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article discusses the increasingly divergent perspectives of India and Russia in global geopolitics and analyzes its potential impact on bilateral relations.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse in detail the widening gap in the opinions of Russia and India in global geopolitics and what impact could it leave on India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with current context; Russian President through his recent statement on the India-China border standoff and ongoing de-escalation talks had emphasized the need to debar any “extra-regional power” to interfere in the process.

Body:

Highlight first the Russia’s increasing inclinations towards China and its implications for India.

Then discuss the implications of such a remark for India-Russia ties.

Discuss in detail Russia’s perspectives; On India-China standoff, On Quad and the Indo-Pacific strategy, India’s deepening relationship with the West etc.

Explain in what way the current Russian foreign policy is being based on a flawed assessment of the current situation. Discuss how it warns against obsessive preoccupation with Russia’s ‘status’ rivalry with the U.S.

Conclusion:

Despite some great changes in the global and regional politico-security environment, India has been able to maintain amicable ties with Russia. However, the recent events seem to be straining this bilateral relation.

 

Topic: Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

5. A below par poverty measurement instrument misrepresents the degree of poverty. Elucidate in Indian context and suggest ways to fight the never-ending battle against poverty in the country. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article brings to us the state of India’s poor and need to address it.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need to correct the scale of poverty measurement in India and suggest ways to fight the never-ending battle against poverty in the country.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the conditions of poverty in the country. Poverty is a state or condition in which a person lacks the resources for a minimum standard of living.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss the challenges associated with the current measurement system of poverty in India.

Explain why poverty has become a never ending fight in the country.

Discuss policies and programs in this direction; highlight the challenges associated with them.

Suggest ways to fight the never-ending battle against poverty in the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

6. Commodities like rice and sugar form a major share of Agri-exports in India; however they need to be looked upon from a sustainability perspective owing to their water-intensive nature and production subsidies. Discuss the concerns and suggest measures.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article highlights the unsustainability of agri-exports owing to their water-intensive nature and subsidies provided in their production. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concerns associated with agricultural exports in India with respect to their sustainability.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some key facts on Agri-exports; Agri-exports touched $41.8 billion in FY 2020-21, registering a growth of 18 per cent over the previous year.

Body:

In the answer body briefly explain the trends in agri-exports of India. During the last seven years, agri-exports have remained lower than the level reached in FY2013-14 ($43.3 billion). That was when the highest agri-trade surplus (exports minus imports) was generated ($27.8 billion).

Then move on to discuss why sustainability of agri-exports is a concern? – discuss the key concerns ranging from water intensive nature of crops like rice and sugar, issues related to subsidies etc.

Suggest what needs to be done, discuss the policy measures already in place for addressing these concerns.

Conclusion:

Conclude that to maintain the sustainability of the agri-exports, crops must be produced efficiently and with minimal subsidies. The government needs to take steps to ensure that with rice and sugar.

 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

7. In what way can India take a leadership position in driving the global hydrogen economy? Discuss the prospects and challenges. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains that a robust policy framework akin to the one that guided the country’s solar revolution could lead to an increase in production and demand of this green fuel.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way India can take a leadership position in driving the global hydrogen economy.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what is a hydrogen economy.

Body:

Currently, India consumes about 6 million metric tonnes of grey hydrogen per annum, which is about 8.5 per cent of the global hydrogen demand. Increasing the share of hydrogen in the country’s energy mix would take it towards greater self-reliance in its energy needs.

Explain how an emphasis on green hydrogen would help reduce carbon emissions and take India closer to meeting its climate change commitments.

Discuss how India can leverage its potential and take a leadership position in driving the global hydrogen economy.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


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