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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 16 June 2021

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Napoleon, Unification of Italy and Germany

1. How was Napoleon responsible for the unification of Germany and Italy? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  Mastering Modern World History by Norman Lowe

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of unification of Italy and Germany and role of Napoleon.  

Key Demand of the question:

Explain how Napoleon was responsible for the unification of Germany and Italy.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief history of the unification with timelines.

Body:

A new epoch began, when Napoleon Bona parte conquered the kingdoms of Austrian and French princes. He even annexed the Papal State. He brought together the city states. Napoleon gave Italy an uniform system of administration. The Italians learnt the French ideas of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. They were introduced to concepts like self-government and freedom of press. This intensified their sense of patriotism.

Napoleon undertook military operations against the European coalitions that were formed against France. He conquered parts of Italy, Austria, Spain, Holland, Germany, etc. In Germany he created the “confederation of the Rhine” consisting of 38 German states.

Account for the role played by Napoleon in the unification.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of contributions made by Napoleon.

Introduction:

During 19th century, Europe witnessed radical changes in the political borders of the states in the region. The major driving force of these unifications and separations was “Nationalism” and rise of “Nation states”. Unification of Germany and Italy are classic examples of nation states.

Napoleon Bonaparte occupies a place of honour among those rulers in history, who by virtue of their military skill and administrative capability have acquired undying fame.

Body

  • A coalition of powers comprising Britain, Holland, Spain, Austria, Prussia, Naples, Portugal etc. was formed in 1793 and again in 1797.
  • He conquered parts of Italy, Austria, Spain, Holland, Germany, etc. In Germany he created the “confederation of the Rhine” consisting of 38 German states.
  • Napoleon abolished the smaller states in the area and established state of West Phalia in Germany. He took similar steps in Italy too.
  • Napoleon gave Italy a uniform system of administration. Italians learnt the French ideas of Liberty, equality and fraternity.
  • They were introduced to concepts like self-government and freedom of press these intensified their sense of patriotism
  • He extended and perpetuated the effects of the French Revolution in Europe by destroying feudal privileges. Napoleon also helped the growth of nationalism. By transforming Italy and Germany into national kingdoms under him, Napoleon fostered national sentiments among the people.

Conclusion

Many factors alongside led to unification of Germany and Italy. Birth of these two new nations started changing the political conditions of Europe, finally leading to most important event in history of the world that is, World War I.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

2. Language has been one of the main indicators of political identity in India. In this context examine the need for amending the official language Act of 1968 to make it more inclusive. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

Various organizations have initiated a Twitter campaign demanding official language status to Tulu in Karnataka and Kerala and received an overwhelming response.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to examine the need for amending the official language Act of 1968 to make it more inclusive.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

First explain in what way Language has been one of the main indicators of political identity in India.

Explain the constitutional provisions related to language.

Then present the case of Tulu language demand; The Tulu speakers, mainly in Karnataka and Kerala, have been requesting the governments to give it official language status and include it in the eighth schedule to the Constitution.

Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Bodo, Santhali, Maithili and Dogri are the 22 languages presently in the eighth schedule.

What is the present status of Tulu? Discuss the need to recognise importance of such languages in general.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Tulu speakers, mainly in Karnataka and Kerala, have been requesting the governments to give it official language status and include it in the eighth schedule to the Constitution.

Body

Part XVII of the Indian constitution deals with the official languages in Articles 343 to 351.

The Constitutional provisions related to the Eighth Schedule are: Article 343 of the Constitution, which states that the official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script.
Article 344: Article 344(1) provides for the constitution of a Commission by the President on expiration of five years from the commencement of the Constitution.

Article 351: It provides for the spread of the Hindi language to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India.

  • Usage or prominence of a particular language often reflects the dominance of one community in the Indian society. For Eg: sanskrit, most of the times has been associated with the dominance of brahmanism in society.
  • Tulu is a Dravidian language spoken mainly in two coastal districts Dakshina Kannada and Udupi of Karnataka and Kasaragod district of Kerala.
  • The Karnataka government introduced Tulu as a language in schools a few years ago.
  • “At present, Tulu is not an official language in the country. Efforts are being made to include Tulu in the eighth schedule of the Constitution. If included in the eighth schedule, Tulu would get recognition from the Sahitya Akademi,”
  • Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Bodo, Santhali, Maithili and Dogri are the 22 languages presently in the eighth schedule to the Constitution.
  • Demand placed: As India is known for unity in diversity also enshrined in the Preamble to the Constitution, it is necessary that all the regional languages recognized in the Eighth Schedule be encouraged, developed and used as the official language of the Union. This will promote national integrity.

Conclusion

It is time for India to relook its language policy under Part XVII which became obsolete more than 50 years ago. The need today is to respect, protect and nurture the diversity of our nation so that unity is ensured. The problem needs to be addressed at societal level, in which the communities voluntarily engage in conservation of language diversity that is part of cultural wealth.

 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

3. A strong and effective grievance redressal system (GRS) is essential parts of public administration, in this context discuss how to better integrate public grievance redressal and delivery systems? (250 words)

Reference: Deccan Herald

Why the question:

The question is based on the importance of grievance redressal system as part of effective public administration.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way a strong and effective grievance redressal system (GRS) is an essential part of public administration and discuss the need to integrate the same.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by highlighting the current system of public delivery systems of the administration.

Body:

Explain that a strong and effective grievance redressal system (GRS) is an essential part of public administration. It is referred to as the heart of governance’. People’s trust in administration hinges on to the extent that it is able to address public grievance. Besides, a strong and effective GRS is a tool to measure the effectiveness of its service delivery function.

Elaborate that Public grievances are closely related to public service delivery. Hence, any effort to reduce grievances should aim at an efficient and quick public delivery system.

Give examples to justify your stand better.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of grievance redressal system to public administration.

Introduction:

Grievance Redressal System commonly abbreviated as GRS is a mechanism, which allows reception and redressal of complaints or grievances by stakeholders of private or public institutions, enabling prompt actions on any issues raised by them thus allowing for better services.

Grievance Redress Mechanism is part and parcel of the machinery of any administration. No administration can claim to be accountable, responsive and user-friendly unless it has established an efficient and effective grievance redress mechanism. In fact, the grievance redress mechanism of an organization is the gauge to measure its efficiency and effectiveness as it provides important feedback on the working of the administration.

Body:

Importance of GRS:

  • Grievance Redressal Mechanism is an important cog in the wheel of any Government.
  • Without efficient grievance redressal mechanisms, the Government and its administration can never be accountable and effective.
  • In Democracy, citizens make the Government and hold them accountable.
  • Some of the public grievances against the Government could be a shortage of food, overcrowded public transport, late running of trains etc.

Government measures for GRS:

  • Central Public Grievance Redress and Monitoring System (CPGRAMS) – It is an integrated online grievance redressal and monitoring system developed by National Informatics Centre (NIC) in collaboration with DARPG and DPG. Citizens can lodge complaints and monitor the status of their complaints through CPGRAMS. This system was developed in 2007.
  • Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation (PRAGATI) – It is a multi-modal and multi-purpose grievance redressal system designed by the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) and NIC. It increases the cooperation and coordination between the Union Government and State Government in addressing the grievances and monitoring government schemes.
  • E-Nivaran – It was launched by the Central Board of Direct Taxes for online redressal of grievances related to taxpayers. The taxpayers can register and track their grievances in this system.
  • Unified Mobile Application for New-Age Governance (UMANG) – It is a single platform through which citizens across India can access e-governance services, starting from Central Government to local government bodies.
  • MyGov – It is a platform launched in 2014 to disseminate information by the Government and Government can seek public opinion.
  • Nivaran – It is an online portal launched by the Indian Railways in 2016, to address the grievances of lakhs of Railway Employees.
  • Integrated Grievance Redressal Mechanism (INGRAM) – It is a portal launched by the Ministry of Consumer Affairs to address grievances of the public when they purchase any goods or services.
  • Mera Aspataal (My Hospital) – It was an app and portal launched by the Ministry of Health in 2017 under the National Health Mission. It was to capture patient feedback for the services received at the Government Hospitals. This is to help the Government enhance the quality of health care services provided across public facilities.
  • Right to Information Act
  • Citizens Charter
  • Grama Sabha

Measures to better integrate public grievance redressal and delivery systems:

  • For effective public grievance redressal, an important tool is regular analysis of public grievance received in order to help the identification of the problem areas.  A Grievance Analysis Study was conducted through Quality Council on India for identifying grievance prone areas, undertake root cause analysis and to recommend systematic analysis and to recommend systematic reform.
  • While public grievances reflect the problem areas and challenges that confront the institutions involved in service delivery and administration, these also offer the opportunity to address these problems before they explode in the form of public discontent.
  • The awareness of grievances is the first condition for effectively addressing them. Expression rather than repression of voice, therefore, should be encouraged if the objective is to win public trust or improve the state of governance.
  • Timely capture and appropriate analysis of public grievances offers an opportunity to public institutions to address the performance appropriately.  It is important to realise that participatory approach is necessary, where suggestions to improve the functioning of institutions or policy are invited from public and considered with an open mind.
  • Redressal of complaints and grievances is an important part of service delivery and quality of service standards. With the recent high profile cases of some private hospitals in Delhi and Gurgaon as well as public health care hospitals in various parts of the country, it is clear that there is an urgent need to devise and implement a clear and practical swift grievances and complaint redressal mechanism that is patient and public friendly and improves access, availability and quality.

Conclusion:

A strong and effective grievance redressal system (GRS) is an essential part of public administration. It is referred to as the heart of governance’. People’s trust in administration hinges on to the extent that it is able to address public grievances quickly. Besides, a strong and effective GRS is a tool to measure the effectiveness of its service delivery function.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money laundering and its prevention

4. Social media needs regulations but not to the extent that it is difficult for them to do business in India. Comment (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article throws light on social media regulations and pros and cons associated with it.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way Social media needs regulations but not to the extent that it is difficult for them to do business in India.

Directive:

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the context of social media regulations in the country.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First explain what does it mean to regulate social media? – Media regulations are rules enforced by the jurisdiction of law. This regulation, via law, rules or procedures, can have various goals, for example intervention to protect a stated “public interest”, or encouraging competition and an effective media market, or establishing common technical standards.

The Government has been intermittently asking social media firms such as WhatsApp to ‘trace’ certain messages, in the interests of preventing fake news and misinformation. Justice Sri Krishna recently indicated that it is not fair for the government to require the ‘tracing’ of messages by social media platforms, as that makes inroads into user privacy.

Take hints from the article and explain.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable solutions to address the problem.

Introduction:

The Government has been intermittently asking social media firms such as WhatsApp to ‘trace’ certain messages, in the interests of preventing fake news and misinformation. The adherence to new IT rules also raised new concerns regarding surveillance and privacy of users.

Body

Need for regulation of social media

  • WhatsApp has about 400 million active Indian users (about four times that in the US where it is headquartered); about 300 million Facebook users are active in India (about 100 million more than the US); about 250 million YouTube users in India (about 50 million more than the US).
  • With such a large market share, these significant data fiduciaries have an obligation to abide by the law of the land, in the interest of the data subjects in India at large.
  • The recent stand taken by some of the data fiduciaries indicates that they are using their significant market power to defy rules of the land in which they operate.
  • While a democratic country such as India always has legal recourse and the judiciary to oversee undue exercise of power by the State, this should not be taken as the first step by the data fiduciaries, as has been recently done.

However, excessive regulations also hinder ease of doing business by social media companies.

Issues with recent social media regulations

  • In its petition before the Delhi High Court, the social media giant said that it would have to “build an ability to identify the first originator of every message, to be served up to the government forever”.
  • This means even legal users and their messages would be under watch. The effect would be chilling on free speech.
  • Another regulation required by the government of social media firms has been the appointment of a compliance officer within the country to deal with redress of data breach.
  • Some firms are contending that such requests if made inappropriately or frequently may actually result in breach of personal data of citizens at large.
  • The government, before enforcing the laws on the data fiduciaries, need to make it clear that due process will be followed for such data requests and that they will be vetted properly before issuing them. This requires the State to build a “trustworthy” relationship with data fiduciaries as well as data subjects.

Way forward

  • Technology has its own benefits, especially social media with wide outreach. In the midst of a pandemic, there was WhatsApp, Facebook, and Twitter for SOS calls.
  • In prolonged periods of lockdown in the current era, social media has given respite to people from mental distress.
  • There can be no dispute that we need social media to enable us to emerge out of this crisis; to come to terms with whatever losses we have had to face due to the pandemic, and to connect with peers.
  • The government should regulate these social media platforms, but not to the extent that it is difficult for them to do business in India.

 

 

Topic: GS-2: India and its neighborhood- relations.

GS-3: Security challenges and their management in border areas

5. Galwan is an aide-mémoire that India cannot let its guard down on its northern borders. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article takes an overview of the situation one year after the violent clashes between Indian and Chinese soldiers in Galwan valley.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way Galwan is an aide-mémoire that India cannot let its guard down on its northern borders.

Directive:

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with background of the question.

Body:

Explain why it is important to keep the guards steady at the northern borders.

Discuss the concerns and issues at the Northern borders, explain in what way Galwan experience was a lesson to be remembered. To deal with the threat of combined China and Pakistan, the Government opened backchannel talks with Pakistan which led to the reiteration of the ceasefire on the Line of Control.

The Ladakh crisis has also led the Government to relook external partnerships, particularly with the United States.

The U.S. military officials have earlier spoken of the intelligence and logistics support provided to the Indian forces in Ladakh.

List down the challenges before India.

Conclusion:

The events of the past one year have significantly altered India’s thinking towards China. The relationship is at the crossroads now. The choices made will have a significant impact on the future of global geopolitics.

Introduction:

On June 15 last year, the Line of Actual Control (LAC) witnessed its first deaths after 1975 when 20 Indian soldiers and at least four soldiers of China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) died in a violent clash in Galwan in Ladakh.

Body

Background

  • The last year standoff between India and China on the banks of Pangong-tso and the massive build-up of Chinese troops on the other side of the LAC indicate a shift in policy from an ‘inch-by-inch’ intrusion to an all-out aggressive posturing.
  • Chinese dominance and deterrence posture in the DBO sector was an effort by the PLA to prevent India from executing its plan for rapid border infrastructure development.
  • It will significantly improve India’s capacity to rapidly deploy in the area near the LAC in Ladakh. This prospect worries China.

Need for India to strengthen its guard on northern borders

  • With a continued deployment of 50,000-60,000 soldiers, the Indian Army has been able to hold the line to prevent any further ingress by the PLA.
  • The Chinese presence on the Indian side of the LAC in Gogra, Hot Springs and Demchok gives the PLA some tactical advantage but the area which majorly jolts Indian military plans is the Chinese control of Depsang Plains.
  • There has been no progress in talks after the disengagement at Pangong lake and Kailash range in February.
  • Outside of Ladakh, the Indian Army remains in an alert mode all along the LAC to prevent any Chinese misadventure but the bigger change has been its reorientation of certain forces from Pakistan border towards the China border.
  • The basis of this shift was articulated by the Chief of Defence Staff General Bipin Rawat when he recently said that China is a bigger security threat for India than Pakistan.
  • The Ladakh crisis has also exposed India’s military weakness to tackle a collusive threat from China and Pakistan: to avoid such an eventuality, the Government opened backchannel talks with Pakistan which led to the reiteration of the ceasefire on the Line of Control.

Way forward

  • The spectrum within which a boundary settlement could realistically be sought is an LAC-plus solution at one end, and a Package Proposal without Tawang on the other.
  • If the ‘plus’ on the Indian side could be, LAC demarcation as international boundary, while China could settle, for only free access to Tawang for its pilgrims, then there could be a meeting ground somewhere in the middle of the spectrum.
  • It would seem more realistic that the two sides should settle for more CBMs (Confidence Building Measures) to maintain peace and tranquility on the Sino-Indian border.
  • The clarification of the LAC which the Chinese have so far resisted, after having agreed to do so earlier, could be a starting point
  • In the world of realpolitik, based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations, a velvet glove is effective when it is backed up by an iron fist.
    • Economic might and cultural influence work best when reinforced with courage to deal with a bully.
    • India must pursue aggressive infrastructure development and be prepared with defence arrangements to protect territorial integrity.
  • A fresh Ladakh policy must be charted, which should include suggestions from local communities including ones who live in the frontier regions. We also need to bridge the void between frontier villages and the local administration.

Conclusion

The events of the past one year have significantly altered India’s thinking towards China. The relationship is at the crossroads now. The choices made in New Delhi will have a significant impact on the future of global geopolitics. However, the Galwan incident has taught India that it must never let down its guard, especially on the northern borders.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

6. How far do you agree with the view that administration in India requires specialists instead of generalists? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The question is based on the generalist vs. specialist debate in the Indian public administration.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the generalist vs. specialist debate in the Indian public administration and support them with suitable backing.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce by mentioning the administration in India and present few arguments in favour of specialists.

Body:

The administration in India is taken care of by the civil services, which includes both generalists (IAS) and specialists (IES). With growing complexity in society and changing nature of state functions, there is a growing clamor for need to have specialists in general administration.

Present arguments in favour of Specialists; Administration in the present is being characterized by new developments in the fields of science and technology, social and behavioural sciences, decision-making, human relations in administration etc. Each of these areas required professionalism intervention of subject experts.

Every sphere of administration – economic, social, industrial, and agricultural – has its own body of academic requirements plus technical skills. It requires core competence skills and not just managerial skills possessed by generalists.

Mention the arguments in favour of generalists as well.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting a way forward.

Introduction:

The administrative response Covid-19 has been dealt with over the last six months has resurfaced the debate of Generalists Vs Specialists in public policy and implementation.

Body

The generalists and specialists are two broad functional categories in the government. They play a very important role in rendering advice to the political executives, policy making and in implementation of policies. The present day administration has become more specialized in nature and hence requires different types of personnel with necessary skills, knowledge and qualities to discharge its functions.

Role in Governance

Role of Generalists: Generalists have a supreme role in the formulation of policy i.e. in assisting the political executives to evolve it with all the requisite data and advice as to the strong and weak points of a projected policy. It is the generalist, who functioning generally as Secretary or Head of Department, does the coordinating job and takes the necessary measures, even in specialised matters, before they are put up to the ministers who often are not specialists in those fields. The role of generalists in such cases is one of the conveyor belt which funnels right kind of data and advice in such a manner that it can be used by top policy makers for action. The ‘balancing’ role i.e. performing reconciliatory function between conflicting viewpoints, is also played by the generalists. This is possible because of their capacity to view things in an overall perspective, generated on account of their non-specialist background and exposure to wider fields of experience and administrative reality.

Role of Specialists: Due to the multiplication of developmental activities, there is a rising demand to induct specialist like the technocrats, the scientists, the engineers, technicians and doctors, etc. in the Governance. These technocrats made a substantial contribution to the country’s developmental efforts but they could not attain the coveted top positions in the Central Secretariat. Specialist has learnt the subject from the trenches, hence can provide competent leadership in a functional area. As economic reforms deepened and the state started yielding to the market, the nature of administration changed, and demanding domain knowledge, especially at the policy level.

Administrative Response to the COVID–19 Pandemic

The lessons learnt from the manner in which Covid-19 has been handled over the last six months to reflect on the formulation and implementation of public policy are worth noting. Covid-19 caught every public official by surprise. No one was prepared for the speed of its spread, the dimensions of its impact, the uncertain nature of its duration, and the ethical dilemma between saving ‘lives’ and ‘livelihoods’. The initial response of the Indian authorities was swift and surgical, a national lockdown following a four-hour notice but thereafter the policies were made with raging speed due to the nature of the raging virus.

Governments cannot, on their own, manage such a crisis. They do not have the tools—technical, scientific, even institutional—to tackle such ‘invisible’ dangers. They need the support of denizens. The paradox is that at a time when populist leaders are hiding behind protectionist walls, corporates are decoupling their supply chains and nationalism has become the byword of global geopolitics, Covid-19 has demanded collaboration and partnerships.

Conclusion

Policy formulation requires an understanding of the nature of the problem, the development of options, the risks associated with each option, and then a decision on the preferred pathway. Policy implementation, on the other hand, must get into the weeds. It requires a comprehension of the local context, the evaluation of the capacity to deliver, the identification of the obstacles, and the steps needed to remove them. Given the diversity of India, a policy formulated in Delhi will seldom be fit for purpose for implementation across the country. At most, it can provide a framework for other administrators to use in crafting a contextualized implementation plan. Hence public policy platforms should now be built on the pillars of institutionalized collaboration between the ‘gifted generalist’ and the ‘talented specialist’.

 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

7. What do you understand by the terms transparency and accountability in administration? Explain and bring out the relationship between the two. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper IV, theme transparency and accountability.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concepts of transparency and accountability and their importance n administration while establishing the relationship between the two.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define and explain both transparency and accountability.

Body:

Transparency in administration means the availability of information in the public domain as permissible under the law. It aims to bring about clarity in the functioning of government institutions. It brings out clear communication on the process of decision-making and the reasons taken without distorting facts i.e. sanctity of procedure should be reflected in decision-making. For example, e-auction of any public procurement project where all the details and parameters are made available in public domain.

Accountability in administration means the answerability of the decision makers for their decisions and actions to the designated superior authority. It means they must submit themselves to the scrutiny necessary to ensure this. Further, it also includes the enforcement of the sanctions, if actions or justifications are judged unsatisfactory. For e.g. the government is accountable to the Parliament for its various actions and parliamentarians are accountable to their constituencies for their performance.

Explain that Transparency and accountability share a complementary relationship. On one hand, accountability defines the type of transparency needed and on the other hand, the quality of information decides the type of accountability possible.

Conclusion:

Conclude that to ensure a positive influence, transparency and accountability systems should be designed to support each other. Both the concepts reinforce each other and contribute towards good governance, rule of law and improving the citizen’s trust in the government.

Introduction:

Transparency involves the release of information and requires an open attitude about actions and decisions, indicated by the degree to which the principal (on whose behalf the agent is supposed to act) can monitor and evaluate the actions of the agent (who does the action)

Transparency, in governance context, is honesty and openness. Transparency is about information. It is about the ability of the receiver to have full access to the information he wants, not just the information the sender is willing to provide.

Accountability exists in a relationship between two parties where one has expectations of the other, and the other is obliged to provide information about how they have met these expectations or face the consequences of failing to do so.  There are two components of accountability: Answerability & Enforcement.

Body:

relationship between the transparency and accountability:

  • Usually, transparency is considered as a pre-requisite of accountability as well. This is because for an action to be evaluated properly there should be access to all necessary information. If the access is denied, then accountability cannot be proven.
  • Accountability and transparency can take different forms, and the relationship between them depends on the extent to which they are designed to support each other.
  • Both transparency and accountability are viewed as necessary conditions for good management. This applies in a large variety of settings starting from the individual to organizations.
  • In general, it is assumed that the existence of transparency would result in better governance, more accountability and less corruption
  • In public services both transparency and accountability are must to ensure good governance. It is evident that transparency is a pre-condition of accountability.
  • There is a direct link between transparency and accountability, and both strengthen each other.
  • Thus accountability must accompany transparency as if a civil servant is not accountable for his decisions, transparency would not fulfil the purpose.

Importance of accountability with transparency:

  • Accountability lead to the obligation of an individual or an organisation (either in the public or the private sectors) to accept responsibility for their activities, and to disclose them in a transparent manner. This includes the responsibility for decision-making processes, money or other entrusted property.
  • Accountability result in answerability (the duty of an individual or organisation to answer to their decisions and actions) and punishments in case of malpractice.
  • If citizens are to hold their government accountable, they must be able to find out what it is doing.
  • High levels of corruption and poor quality of public services, especially in developing countries, enhanced the demand for accountability from the civil society.
  • Social accountability has been highly valued to curb corruption, especially in countries with a systematic problem of corruption and weak institutional systems.

Conclusion:

Transparency and accountability must go hand in hand. Many measures have been undertaken in handling corruption and inefficiency in the Government like RTI Act, Citizens’ Charter, etc. to ensure good governance and better service delivery for the citizens.


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