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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 16 June 2021

 

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Napoleon, Unification of Italy and Germany

1. How was Napoleon responsible for the unification of Germany and Italy? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  Mastering Modern World History by Norman Lowe

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of unification of Italy and Germany and role of Napoleon.  

Key Demand of the question:

Explain how Napoleon was responsible for the unification of Germany and Italy.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief history of the unification with timelines.

Body:

A new epoch began, when Napoleon Bona parte conquered the kingdoms of Austrian and French princes. He even annexed the Papal State. He brought together the city states. Napoleon gave Italy an uniform system of administration. The Italians learnt the French ideas of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. They were introduced to concepts like self-government and freedom of press. This intensified their sense of patriotism.

Napoleon undertook military operations against the European coalitions that were formed against France. He conquered parts of Italy, Austria, Spain, Holland, Germany, etc. In Germany he created the “confederation of the Rhine” consisting of 38 German states.

Account for the role played by Napoleon in the unification.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of contributions made by Napoleon.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

2. Language has been one of the main indicators of political identity in India. In this context examine the need for amending the official language Act of 1968 to make it more inclusive. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

Various organizations have initiated a Twitter campaign demanding official language status to Tulu in Karnataka and Kerala and received an overwhelming response.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to examine the need for amending the official language Act of 1968 to make it more inclusive.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

First explain in what way Language has been one of the main indicators of political identity in India.

Explain the constitutional provisions related to language.

Then present the case of Tulu language demand; The Tulu speakers, mainly in Karnataka and Kerala, have been requesting the governments to give it official language status and include it in the eighth schedule to the Constitution.

Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Bodo, Santhali, Maithili and Dogri are the 22 languages presently in the eighth schedule.

What is the present status of Tulu? Discuss the need to recognise importance of such languages in general.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

3. A strong and effective grievance redressal system (GRS) is essential parts of public administration, in this context discuss how to better integrate public grievance redressal and delivery systems? (250 words)

Reference: Deccan Herald

Why the question:

The question is based on the importance of grievance redressal system as part of effective public administration.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way a strong and effective grievance redressal system (GRS) is an essential part of public administration and discuss the need to integrate the same.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by highlighting the current system of public delivery systems of the administration.

Body:

Explain that a strong and effective grievance redressal system (GRS) is an essential part of public administration. It is referred to as the heart of governance’. People’s trust in administration hinges on to the extent that it is able to address public grievance. Besides, a strong and effective GRS is a tool to measure the effectiveness of its service delivery function.

Elaborate that Public grievances are closely related to public service delivery. Hence, any effort to reduce grievances should aim at an efficient and quick public delivery system.

Give examples to justify your stand better.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of grievance redressal system to public administration.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money laundering and its prevention

4. Social media needs regulations but not to the extent that it is difficult for them to do business in India. Comment (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article throws light on social media regulations and pros and cons associated with it.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way Social media needs regulations but not to the extent that it is difficult for them to do business in India.

Directive:

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the context of social media regulations in the country.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First explain what does it mean to regulate social media? – Media regulations are rules enforced by the jurisdiction of law. This regulation, via law, rules or procedures, can have various goals, for example intervention to protect a stated “public interest”, or encouraging competition and an effective media market, or establishing common technical standards.

The Government has been intermittently asking social media firms such as WhatsApp to ‘trace’ certain messages, in the interests of preventing fake news and misinformation. Justice Sri Krishna recently indicated that it is not fair for the government to require the ‘tracing’ of messages by social media platforms, as that makes inroads into user privacy.

Take hints from the article and explain.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable solutions to address the problem.

 

Topic: GS-2: India and its neighborhood- relations.

GS-3: Security challenges and their management in border areas

5. Galwan is an aide-mémoire that India cannot let its guard down on its northern borders. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article takes an overview of the situation one year after the violent clashes between Indian and Chinese soldiers in Galwan valley.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way Galwan is an aide-mémoire that India cannot let its guard down on its northern borders.

Directive:

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with background of the question.

Body:

Explain why it is important to keep the guards steady at the northern borders.

Discuss the concerns and issues at the Northern borders, explain in what way Galwan experience was a lesson to be remembered. To deal with the threat of combined China and Pakistan, the Government opened backchannel talks with Pakistan which led to the reiteration of the ceasefire on the Line of Control.

The Ladakh crisis has also led the Government to relook external partnerships, particularly with the United States.

The U.S. military officials have earlier spoken of the intelligence and logistics support provided to the Indian forces in Ladakh.

List down the challenges before India.

Conclusion:

The events of the past one year have significantly altered India’s thinking towards China. The relationship is at the crossroads now. The choices made will have a significant impact on the future of global geopolitics.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

6. How far do you agree with the view that administration in India requires specialists instead of generalists? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The question is based on the generalist vs. specialist debate in the Indian public administration.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the generalist vs. specialist debate in the Indian public administration and support them with suitable backing.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce by mentioning the administration in India and present few arguments in favour of specialists.

Body:

The administration in India is taken care of by the civil services, which includes both generalists (IAS) and specialists (IES). With growing complexity in society and changing nature of state functions, there is a growing clamor for need to have specialists in general administration.

Present arguments in favour of Specialists; Administration in the present is being characterized by new developments in the fields of science and technology, social and behavioural sciences, decision-making, human relations in administration etc. Each of these areas required professionalism intervention of subject experts.

Every sphere of administration – economic, social, industrial, and agricultural – has its own body of academic requirements plus technical skills. It requires core competence skills and not just managerial skills possessed by generalists.

Mention the arguments in favour of generalists as well.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting a way forward.

 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

7. What do you understand by the terms transparency and accountability in administration? Explain and bring out the relationship between the two. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper IV, theme transparency and accountability.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concepts of transparency and accountability and their importance n administration while establishing the relationship between the two.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define and explain both transparency and accountability.

Body:

Transparency in administration means the availability of information in the public domain as permissible under the law. It aims to bring about clarity in the functioning of government institutions. It brings out clear communication on the process of decision-making and the reasons taken without distorting facts i.e. sanctity of procedure should be reflected in decision-making. For example, e-auction of any public procurement project where all the details and parameters are made available in public domain.

Accountability in administration means the answerability of the decision makers for their decisions and actions to the designated superior authority. It means they must submit themselves to the scrutiny necessary to ensure this. Further, it also includes the enforcement of the sanctions, if actions or justifications are judged unsatisfactory. For e.g. the government is accountable to the Parliament for its various actions and parliamentarians are accountable to their constituencies for their performance.

Explain that Transparency and accountability share a complementary relationship. On one hand, accountability defines the type of transparency needed and on the other hand, the quality of information decides the type of accountability possible.

Conclusion:

Conclude that to ensure a positive influence, transparency and accountability systems should be designed to support each other. Both the concepts reinforce each other and contribute towards good governance, rule of law and improving the citizen’s trust in the government.


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