Print Friendly, PDF & Email

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 9 June 2021

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

1. Mainstreaming nutrition in different approaches to agriculture especially into agricultural extension could help in reducing overall unacceptably high economic and social costs, thus aiding to alleviate issues of hunger. Analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  researchgate.net

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of improvising nutrition through its integration into agricultural extension.  

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way mainstreaming nutrition in different approaches to agriculture especially into agricultural extension could help in reducing overall unacceptably high economic and social costs.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some facts that can highlight the current status of hunger and malnutrition in the country.

Body:

Malnutrition takes many forms: under nutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and obesity and being overweight. Under nutrition is the largest contributor to child mortality worldwide. Explain that Malnutrition blights lives and undercuts social and economic development. Children who are chronically malnourished in the critical first thousand days beginning at conception can suffer irreversible damage to their physical and mental development.

Discuss the challenge of achieving good nutrition, thus alleviating poverty and hunger.

Explain the importance of mainstreaming nutrition in different approaches to agriculture especially into agricultural extension that could help in reducing overall unacceptably high economic and social costs.

Give suitable examples.

 Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

Food and nutrition security exists when all people are able to consume food in both sufficient quantity and quality to meet their dietary needs and food preferences, and they are supported by an environment with adequate sanitation, health services and care, allowing for a healthy and active life.

Body

Background

  • Global Nutrition Report-2020: As per the Global Nutrition Report 2020, India is among 88 countries that are likely to miss global nutrition targets by 2025.
  • Malnourished children in India: Malnutrition in India accounts for 68% of total under-five deaths and 17% of the total disability- adjusted life years.
  • India is home to about 30% of the world’s stunted children and nearly 50 per cent of severely wasted children under the age of five.
  • FAO estimates: The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that 194.4 million people in India (about 14.5% of the total population) are undernourished.
  • Global Hunger Index-2019: India ranks 102 out of 117 countries in the Global Hunger Index 2019.
  • Wasting rate: India’s wasting rate is extremely high at 20.8% — the highest wasting rate of any country.

Agriculture impacts human health and nutrition in many ways, both positively and potentially negatively. Agriculture creates the source of food which provides essential nutrients, dietary diversity as well as food security. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture has emerged as a way to define agricultural investments with the purpose of improving nutrition by working with the global food system better equipped to produce good nutritional outcomes

Mainstreaming nutrition in different approaches to agriculture

  • Biofortification enriches staple crops with micronutrients such as iron, vitamin A, and zinc using plant breeding techniques. Nutrient rich crop varieties can also be produced through genetic modification but until concerns about GMOs are adequately addressed, biofortified crops bred by traditional methods or by Molecular Marker-Assisted Selection have easier market uptake.
  • Policy incentive: Making agriculture work for nutrition requires creating policy incentives for farmers and other stakeholders in the rural sector.
    • To be sustainable, interventions must be compatible with economic incentives.
    • For example, government grain subsidies which allow consumers to purchase nutritious cereals such as millet and fortified maize at below market rates may encourage increased cultivation of these crops over more conventional but less nutritious wheat and rice varieties, if price supports are also present.
  • Mixed farming: Used to promote integrated crop-livestock-fish production systems and increase availability of fruits, vegetables and/or animal source foods. Examples include fruit and vegetable horticulture on fish pond embankments, cultivation of short cycle fish species in seasonal ponds and ditches, integrated fish-duck, fish-chicken, or fish-pig farming, and rice-fish farming.
  • Crop rotation: Used to identify agricultural production systems which improve nutritional quality of available foods and/or soil integrity. For example, a cereal-legume rotation provides both proteins to human beings and nitrogen to the soil.

Conclusion

Nutrition must be incorporated into all aspects of the value chain – starting with nutrient-rich soils that will improve the quality of the crops, and extending across the food system to other elements like food safety, food processing, food fortification and proper food preparation and consumption in households. Food processing is essential for making nutritionally rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables and dairy products, available year-round. It can also reduce food preparation time, and thus—like other labour-saving technologies—enable women to spend more time caring for their children, namely to breastfeed. Nutrition education initiatives that explain which food combinations will provide essential vitamins and minerals can have a big impact as well.

 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

2. Account for the growing convergence of India’s interest with the West in the changing geopolitical scenario and opportunities it offers to India. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains how for India, G-7 is an opportunity to expand ties with West.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to elaborate in detail on the growing convergence of India’s interest with the West in the changing geopolitical scenario and opportunities it offers to India.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with significance of G-7 Summit for India. For India, the G-7 summit is an opportunity to expand the global dimension of India’s growing partnerships with the US and Europe.

Body:

Discuss in detail the areas of convergence of interests between India and the West.

The challenges from an increasingly aggressive China, the urgency of mitigating climate change, and the construction of a post-pandemic international order are generating convergence between the interests of India and the West.

The idea of a global democratic coalition that is based more broadly than the geographic West has gained ground in recent years.

And India is at the very heart of that Western calculus.

Throw light upon the China factor.

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward. The convergence of interests between India and the West does not mean the two sides will agree on everything.  There are many areas of continuing divergence within the West — from the economic role of the state to the democratic regulation of social media and the technology giants.

Introduction

The summit of the Group of Seven industrial countries hosted by the United Kingdom in the picturesque Cornwall region promises to be a definitive moment in the political evolution of the West. The summit, which will see the digital participation of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, also marks an important step towards a new global compact between India and the West.

Body

Indias growing convergence with the West

  • For India, the Cornwall summit comes amidst intensifying strategic cooperation with the West.
  • This includes strong bilateral strategic cooperation with the US, France, UK as well as the Quad and the trilateral partnerships with France and Australia as well as Japan and Australia. India has also stepped up its engagement with the European Union.
  • There is no doubt that the increasing intensity of this engagement with the US and the West has been triggered in part by the continuous deterioration of the relationship with China.
  • The frequent military crises at the northern frontiers — in 2013, 2014, 2017 and 2020 — have compelled Delhi to re-evaluate its threat perceptions.
  • Besides the threat to territorial security, India finds that its hopes for strong global cooperation with China— through such forums as the RIC (Russia-India-China forum), BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) — have taken a big beating in recent years.
  • China is the only great power that does not support India’s permanent membership of the UN Security Council and blocks India’s membership of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.
  • At the end of the Cold War, Delhi believed that Beijing was a natural partner in the construction of a multipolar world to limit the dangers of a unipolar world dominated by the US.
  • Delhi now can’t escape the conclusion that China is the greatest obstacle to India’s global aspirations and the West is an emerging partner.
  • If in the past Delhi resented the Western tilt towards Pakistan on the Kashmir question, it is China today that rakes up the Kashmir question in the UNSC. India
  • has relied on Western support to fend off China’s effort to internationalise the Kashmir question after the 2019 constitutional changes.
  • The West is also more empathetic than China on India’s international campaign to contain Pakistan’s support for cross-border terrorism.
  • India is not only reluctant to integrate with the China-led Asian economic order, but it is also turning to the West — the US, UK, EU and others — for trade agreements.
  • India is also eager to emerge as a critical node in future supply chains oriented to the democratic world, including in the area of vaccine production.

Conclusion

Looking east and mobilising the south have been India’s default political orientations all these decades. While Delhi continues to strengthen its partnerships in Asia and the global south, a more productive partnership with the West helps secure a growing array of India’s national interests and adds a new depth to India’s international relations.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. Government schemes and policies have the needed components to address the mental health issues but more needs to be done in the context of pandemic. Explain (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The question is based on the importance of recognizing mental health as the next big concern that lies before the world post-pandemic.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss what more needs to be done in India in the context of COVID-19, which has exacerbated mental illnesses.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some key data on mental illness in the country.  

Body:

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there is a 10-25-year life expectancy reduction in patients with severe mental disorders. About 72% of member states had a standalone policy or plan for mental health in 2017.

Discuss briefly what mental illness is.  Account for the issues that can be posed by it.

Suggest what measures India should take to address the challenges of it. India could reduce the treatment gap for mental disorders, increase the number of personnel in the mental health sector, work towards reducing discriminatory attitudes, and devise an integrated approach for detecting, treating, and managing patient needs.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a possible roadmap to address the issue.

Introduction

Mental illness is a general term for a group of illnesses that may impact on a person’s thoughts, perceptions, feelings and behaviours. Surveys have indicated that the pandemic is increasing mental health problems.

Body

Practo, an integrated health care company, reported a 665% jump in the number of mental health consultations; More than two-thirds of the queries were from those aged 21-40. Anxiety, stress and panic attacks were the most commonly discussed topics.

Indian Scenario:

  • A report published in The Lancet Psychiatry in February 2020 indicates that in 2017, there were 197.3 million people with mental disorders in India. The top mental illnesses were depressive disorder (45.7 million) and anxiety disorder (44.9 million).
  • The contribution of mental disorders to the total DALYs in India increased from 2.5% in 1990 to 4.7% in 2017.
  • Budgetary Spending: The year 2020 began with a reduction of budget allocation formental health in India. India’s healthcare budget in 2018 was Rs. 52,800 crore, of which Rs. 50 crore was for mental health and that was reduced to Rs 40 crore the following year.
  • India is barely spending 0.5% of the health budget on this sector.

Government Initiatives:

  • The Mental Healthcare Act 2017 came into force in 2018 to meet the requirements of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities which India ratified in 2007.
  • KIRAN: The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has launched a 24/7 toll-free helpline to provide support to people facing anxiety, stress, depression, suicidal thoughts and other mental health concerns.
  • Manodarpan Initiative: It is an initiative of the Ministry of Education under Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.
  • It is aimed to provide psychosocial support to students, family members and teachers for their mental health and well-being during the times of Covid-19.

Way Forward

  1. Increasing the number of psychologists and psychiatrists alone won’t help. Stigma and awareness are two separate issues although interlinked. They need to be addressed in parallel in order to tackle the burden of mental illness.
  2. Community Partnership: By forming self-help groups of carers families along with NGO’s which brings community participation and helps reduce the social stigma associated with mental illness.
  3. Increase Resources:
    1. Increasing mental healthcare facilities and related infrastructure through more resource allocation in the budget.
    2. Adequate Mental healthcare professional availability.
    3. Empathetic Service delivery: Delivery of services should be sensitive, compassionate and free from stigma and discrimination in public healthcare institutions.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4.  Performance grading index can give a makeover to the performance of schools as recognized by right to education act 2009 in the country. Do you agree? Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The Ministry of Education has released the Performance Grading Index for 2019-20. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the utility of PGI in improvising the performance of schools in India.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The PGI is a tool to provide insights on the status of school education in States and UTs including key levers that drive their performance and critical areas for improvement.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain briefly about the Performance Grading Index (PGI) and its objectives.

Discuss the significance of this Performance Grading Index; the index would encourage states and UTs towards undertaking multi-pronged interventions leading to optimal education outcomes. The index will help the states and UTs to pinpoint the gaps. Accordingly, they can prioritize areas for intervention to ensure that the school education system is robust at every level.

Discuss how it will help in achieving the objectives under RTI 2009.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

 

Introduction

The PGI is a tool to provide insights on the status of school education in States and UTs including key levers that drive their performance and critical areas for improvement. The Education Ministry released the latest edition of the Performance Grading Index or PGI. This relatively new index measures the performance of states in school education.

Body

Performance grading index

  • It assesses states’ performance in school education based on data drawn from several sources, including the Unified District Information System for Education Plus, National Achievement Survey, and Mid-Day Meal.
  • States are scored on a total of 1,000 points across 70 parameters, which are grouped under five broad categories: access (eg. enrolment ratio, transition rate and retention rate); governance and management; infrastructure; equity (difference in performance between scheduled caste students and general category students) and learning outcomes (average score in mathematics, science, languages and social science).
  • States are graded and not ranked to discourage the practice of one improving only at the cost of others, “thereby casting a stigma of underperformance on the latter”.
  • According to the government, the objective is to help the states prioritise areas for intervention in school education.
  • The Education Ministry released the first PGI in 2019 for the reference year 2017-18.

Importance of PGI in improving school performance

  • The PGI exercise envisages that the index would propel States and UTs towards undertaking multi-pronged interventions that will bring about the much-desired optimal education outcomes.
  • The PGI helps the States/UTs to pinpoint the gaps and accordingly prioritise areas for intervention to ensure that the school education system is robust at every level.
  • According to the report, states and UTs mainly need to improve their performance in terms of governance processes. This domain carries several parameters, including teacher availability, teachers training, regular inspection, and availability of finances.
  • The area that requires attention is the Domain for Infrastructure and facilities, where twenty States/UTs have scored less than 120 (80% of maximum possible score in this domain). Two States, Bihar (81) and Meghalaya (87) recorded lowest scores in this domain.
  • This is a cause for concern as a proper school building with adequate facilities is a must to improve the overall quality of school education.
  • Schools have performed poorly in ‘governance process’ area as well. Compliance with the indicators here will lead to critical structural reforms in areas ranging from monitoring the attendance of teachers to ensuring a transparent recruitment of teachers and principals.
  • The Centre, with its transparent scores and data for each parameter and sub-topic made available in the public domain, seeks to create a resource-sharing system that low-performing States can tap into.

Conclusion

Clearly, the shadow of COVID-19 will persist over the education system for the foreseeable future, and further progress on all parameters will depend on bridging the gaps, particularly on digital tools, infrastructure and subsidies for access. The PGI scores show that the southern and western States are on firm ground to achieve this, while those in central India and parts of the east and Northeast are less resourced.

 

Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

5. Do you think the Digital Service Delivery platforms in India have reversed the trust deficit and increased the citizen’s participation in the country? Discuss with suitable justifications. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains how a service delivery platform which builds trust between citizens and government has shown results.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the key positive role that the Digital Service Delivery platforms in India have played in reversing the trust deficit and increasing the citizen’s participation.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Historically, Indians have had low social trust and have looked to authorities to enforce compliance. But over the last decade, India has witnessed a big and welcome change in social trust. Indians are increasingly comfortable sending money to a phone number from their phones (UPI, PayTM) and getting into taxis driven by strangers (Ola, Uber).

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Throw light on the aspects of digitalization of citizen services in India.

Explain Digital platforms providing goods and services, including online education and telemedicine; have grown vigorously during the COVID-19 pandemic, while many professionals have maintained productivity by working from home.

Discuss the relevance and acceptance of digital platforms in India and its benefits. Explain how far it has reversed the trust deficit amongst the citizens.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of digital platforms.

Introduction

Historically Indians have had low social trust and have looked at authorities to enforce compliance. But over the last decade, India has witnessed a big and welcome change in social trust. Indians are increasingly comfortable sending money to a phone number from their phones (UPI, PayTM) and getting into taxi driven by strangers (Ola, Uber)

Body

Development of India as a Digital nation

  1. Digital as a way of life in India: Digital platforms providing goods and services, including online education and telemedicine, have grown vigorously over past few years due to increase in smartphone and internet access with an estimated 750 million connections and a thriving financial technology sector.
  2. India at cusp of Digital Revolution: A beginning has been made through government-to-citizen services using Common Service Centres, advice to agriculturists, digital payments of welfare benefits through bank accounts and, even legal advice online to four lakh people under the Tele-Law scheme
  3. Digital India mission, launched five years ago, was not being seen as any regular government initiative and had now become a way of life, especially for the poor and marginalised and those in the government
  4. Result of internet access: Affordable smartphones and Internet access have made India a digital nation with an estimated 750 million connections and a thriving financial technology sector.
  5. India is uniquely positioned to leap ahead in the information era as the Country has the best minds as well as the biggest market. Also, India’s local tech solutions have the potential to go global (example UPI).
  6. Digital platforms in Covid-19: Digital platforms providing goods and services, including online education and telemedicine, have grown vigorously during the COVID-19 pandemic, while many professionals have maintained productivity by working from home.
  7. Ayushman Bharat which is the world’s largest healthcare scheme has been able to see progress and success due to vital role played by Technology
  8. Swamitva scheme is ambitious scheme to give land titles to millions of people in rural areas and would be achieved through technology like drones.
  9. Need for innovative Cyber Security Solutions: With rapid increase of tech use, data protection as well as cyber security became very important. Indian youth needs to devise innovative solutions could effectively “vaccinate digital products against cyber-attacks and viruses”.
  10. Differences between the industrial age and the information age: PM Modi said that in the information era, the first mover did not matter; the best mover did, and “anyone can make a product any time that disrupts all existing equations of the market.”
  11. Global Market:  In the industrial era, boundaries mattered but the information era was “all about going beyond boundaries.”
  12. Climate Change: Technology held the key to new science, reduction of carbon emission and tackling of global climate change.

Challenges ahead

  1. Trust worthiness: The true measure of digital nations is the readiness of governments to use technology to create open, participatory public systems that citizens consider trustworthy. Governance must achieve a reliable system of digital welfare.
  2. Need to apply to other sectors: If digital methods can be applied to other sectors, such as road safety, the results could be dramatic — potentially reducing the accident mortality rate of about 1,50,000 deaths a year.
  3. Internal Changes required: At a broader level, efficient digital government depends on transforming internal processes, and fixing deadlines for service delivery.
  4. Lacks Legislative framework: The UPA government could not see its electronic delivery of services legislation through, and it remains forgotten.

Conclusion

If digital has to become a way of life, redefining the labyrinthine functioning of citizen-centric services would be a good place to start, with deadlines for government departments. Governance must achieve is a reliable system of digital welfare.

 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

6. Sex workers in India continue to face difficulties due to the Covid-19 pandemic. They have lost their livelihoods, have limited access to healthcare and face increased violence, in this context discuss the need to grant basic labour rights to sex workers in the country. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article presents the viewpoint that adults have the right to earn through providing sexual services and live with dignity.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the idea of considering the demands of the sex workers to grant them basic labour rights in the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the context of the question.

Body:

Owing to the non-recognition of sex work as “legitimate work”, sex workers have mostly been kept at arm’s length from the government’s relief programmes. COVID-19 has thus provided more reason to consider a long-pending demand of sex workers in India — decriminalization of sex work and a guaranteed set of labour rights.

Explain why do sex workers face double burden? Throw light upon the current legal provisions.

Highlight the associated concerns.

Suggest what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

The Supreme Court, in Budhadev Karmaskar v. State of West Bengal (2011), opined that sex workers have a right to dignity. Parliament must also take a re-look at the existing legislation and do away with the ‘victim-rescue-rehabilitation’ narrative.

Introduction

Around the world, sex workers are being forgotten in government responses to the COVID-19 crisis. As sex workers and their clients self-isolate, sex workers are finding themselves unprotected, increasingly vulnerable and unable to provide for themselves and their families.

Body

As the global crisis deepens, sex workers are increasingly faced with the difficult choice of isolation with no income or support or working at a risk to their own health and safety.

Concerns of Sex workers

  1. Lack of availability of community support, access to health and social services, and broader aspects of the legal and economic environment.
  2. Stigma and criminalisation making them non- eligible for, government led social protection or economic initiatives to support small businesses.
  3. Increased prevalence of underlying health conditions among sex workers might increase risk of COVID-19 progressing to severe illness. Demand for shelter and supported housing has increased as sex work venues have been shut down or rental payments default through loss of income.
  4. Existing mental health problems are likely to be exacerbated by anxiety over income, food, and housing, alongside concerns about infection from continuing to work in the absence of social protection.
  5. Risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 is heightened for those who share drug paraphernalia for drug use.
  6. They now risk being homeless, as they are unable to pay rent because of no income. The core clientele of sex workers has traditionally been migrant workers and men away from their families.
  7. Sex workers now face months without any business, considering migrant workers are also struggling to cope with little to no income and a long-term economic downturn. While the homeless and beggars were being put in shelters, people rarely acknowledge the existence and plight of sex workers.
  8. The Right to Food as a fundamental right is statutorily imbibed in the National Food Security Act, 2013. Sex workers, however, are not included as beneficiaries for this statutory relief either.

Need for basic labour rights:

  1. Improvement in condition of sex workers- We can clearly see that the countries which have legalised it has only helped in the improvement of the condition of sex workers. A study conducted in countries where prostitution is legalised has shown positive results, which shows that violence and spread of disease has reduced to a great level.
  2. Reduction in trafficking- The biggest concern of legalising prostitution is that it will lead to the increase in trafficking of human being. I would say the results will be contrary if prostitution is legalised without restrictions such as criminalising the third parties involved in it. Newland is a leading example which has achieved the target where there is no case of trafficking after legalizing the prostitution.
  3. Empowerment of sex workers- Legalising prostitution will empower sex workers. They will get the courage to approach the police when their rights will be violated.
  4. Improvement in the health of sex workers- Legalisation of prostitution will help the sex-workers to lead a healthy life. Legalisation will help the sex worker to fight for her right to have safer sex only i.e. sex with condoms or any other protection. Legalisation will help sex worker to get tested regularly for her safety and for the safety of the client. This will help in reducing the STDs. Sex workers in Nevada go to testing of sexually transmitted dieases every month. Nevada also requires condoms for all sex in brothels.
  5. Taxes instead of bribes- Prostitution will be considered a work after its legalisation. It will be considered a profession where people work to earn their living just like any other profession.
  6. Reduction in involvement of minors in prostitution- With legalisation, as trafficking will reduce so the involvement of minors. There will be a license of every sex worker which will help in maintaining the data with the government. No person will be allowed to work without a license and under a certain age.
  7. Reduction in rape cases- There are various researches available which found that legalisation of prostituiton has a huge impact on the reduction of rapes cases. It reduces the rape cases to a great extent. In Rhodes Island, the rape cases reduced to the extent of 39 after the legalisation of prostitution.

Conclusion

There exists no requirement for any specific cure, such as criminalizing, decriminalizing or sanctioning it. From the past research it is difficult to refute the fact that legalization of prostitution bears both negative as well as positive effects. Therefore, just providing legal validity to prostitution will not be sufficient to resolve this problem rather than this a uniform law must be made for its administration in our country. As regulation of prostitution will help to safeguard the sex workers and their children from getting exploited. Not only will this ensure protection of the health of the sex workers and the society at large. Thenceforth a set of rules and regulations should be established in order to regulate this industry.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Case Study based

7. Instead of passing the law banning pre-natal sex determination tests, government should have concentrated on changing the underlying social attitudes. Do you agree? Give reasons. (250 words)

Reference:  ethics, integrity and aptitude by Lexicon publications ,The Hindu

Why the question:

The question is with the context of PCPNDT act and about the need to change social attitudes .

Key Demand of the question:

Explain how instead of passing the law banning pre-natal sex determination tests, government should have concentrated on changing the underlying social attitudes.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the prevalence of sex detection cases in India.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Present the causes and prevalence of sex selection in India.

Discuss the aspects of Human rights considerations.

Elaborate on the implications of son preference.

Discuss how change in social and behavioural attitude is more important and needs focus.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the issue.

Introduction

In India, the female to male ratio is 1.08 males for every female. This is a result of the limitations Indian society places on the birth of girls. In India, female foeticide is the earliest stage possible in the discrimination of women and girls.

Social discrimination against women and a preference for sons have promoted female foeticide in various forms skewing the sex ratio of the country towards men.

Body

Main provisions of PCPNDT act are:

  1. The Act provides for the prohibition of sex selection, before or after conception.
  2. It regulates the use of pre-natal diagnostic techniques, like ultrasound and amniocentesis by allowing them their use only to detect :
  1. genetic abnormalities
  2. metabolic disorders
  3. chromosomal abnormalities
  4. certain congenital malformations
  5. haemoglobinopathies
  6. sex-linked disorders.
  1. No laboratory or centre or clinic will conduct any test including ultrasonography for the purpose of determining the sex of the foetus.
  2. No person, including the one who is conducting the procedure as per the law, will communicate the sex of the foetus to the pregnant woman or her relatives by words, signs or any other method.
  3. Compulsory registration: The Act mandates compulsory registration of all diagnostic laboratories, all genetic counselling centres, genetic laboratories, genetic clinics and ultrasound clinics.

Despite the enactment; According to India’s 2011 Census, while the overall female-to-male ratio has improved marginally as compared to the Census of 2001, the child sex ratio has seen a steep decline.

As per the 2011 Census, the child sex ratio (0-6 years) has actually witnessed a decline from 927 females per thousand males in 2001 to 919 females per thousand males in 2011. Evidently, just the formulation of this policy has failed to achieve its goals.

Behavioural change for better results

  1. Addressing the social attitude of Son meta preference
  2. Increasing female education and economic prosperity help to improve the ratio. In this pursuit, the government’s Beti-Bachao Beti Padhao Campaign has achieved remarkable success in bringing behavioural change in the society.
  3. There is an urgent need to reach young people for reproductive health education and services as well as to cultivate gender equity norms.
  4. Addressing the Regressive Mind set: There is considerable son preference in all states, except possibly in Kerala and Chhattisgarh. This son’s preference is derived from a regressive mind set. E.g.: People associate girls with dowry.
  5. Spreading awareness about women’s rights, Rollout campaigns on sensitisation towards women and children, making women safety cells, ensuring the safety of women on public transport systems, making cyber-crime cells are some other initiatives that need to be taken.

Conclusion

Despite several policies and programmes, lower health outcomes for women and girl children still persist in India. Certain forms of discrimination, especially the son preference, reinforced by the techno-economic forces are eliminating the girl child (even from the womb).

Finally, only an over- arching gender sensitization program focussing at the individual level through education, at the institutional level, public and private, at societal level through professional behavioural campaign is the only way to not add more to the sufferings of the female population and to the inventory of the ‘Missing Millions’.


  • Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates
  • Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos