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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 7 June 2021

 

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

1. Discuss the major causes for snowballing frequency and intensity of cyclone and its impact on Coastal cities in India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains how India’s coastal cities need to brace up for super cyclones.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss the major causes for snowballing frequency and intensity of cyclone and its impact on Coastal cities in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some facts justifying the statement in question.

Body:

PCC research shows that the frequency and severity of cyclones will increase due to the warming of oceans and melting glaciers.

Explain the reasons that are leading to rising intensity and frequency of cyclones off late in India.

Highlight the impact on Coastal cities in India.

Give examples. Suggest upon the initiatives being taken by the government.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

2. Critically analyse the role of Jam Trinity in achieving financial inclusion in India. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article takes an overview of the progress made by India in the financial inclusion and role played by JAM trinity in it.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically analyse the role of Jam Trinity in achieving financial inclusion in India.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some relevant data say – India overtook China to register the highest number of countrywide digital payments. Real-time transactions crossed 25 billion, much higher than China’s 15 billion in 2020, as per the report of ACI Worldwide.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss first the progress made so far. The digital payment boom is indicative of a larger paradigm shift in the ease of access to financial services.

Discuss the contributing factors such as – More and more people, across all strata, are adopting digital payments as it is convenient, safe and limits exposure. It is also a result of the nudges and diligent policy and technology frameworks created by the central government in the last few years.

Then explain the significance of JAM trinity.

Conclusion:

Conclude on a positive note while pointing our challenges in the way ahead.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. Explain in what ways behavioral sciences can be used in prevention and management of COVID-19. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The question is amidst the rising importance of practicing covid-19 appropriate behaviour.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what ways behavioral sciences can be used in prevention and management of COVID-19.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the current conditions world is facing owing to the pandemic.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First discuss the lacunae especially in the behavioural aspects of our populations that are making the situation more and more difficult to be brought back in control.

Lack of physical distancing and proper hand washing are among the reasons for daily new infections. But the biggest reason for the surge is that people are wearing masks inconsistently, incorrectly, or not at all. Data from a global survey of COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) produced by the Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs show that from July 2020 to March 2021, India saw a 5% drop in mask wearing.

Highlight the importance of behavioural sciences – With behavioural data and strategic approaches, resources can be more efficiently used in reaching different audience segments with information through the channels they trust.

Conclusion:

Conclude that if we want to finish this year being able to celebrate festivals, hug our loved ones and enjoy a real holiday, we need to invest in a comprehensive, behavioural approach to address COVID-19 behaviour.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

4. What is indemnity for vaccine makers? Explain how its waiver will impact the COVID-19 vaccine process in India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains in detail what is indemnity, and how will it affect COVID-19 vaccine pricing and availability in India.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss what you understand by indemnity for vaccine makers and explain how its waiver will impact the covid-19 vaccine process in India.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The Union government is in talks with foreign manufacturers of COVID-19 vaccines on their demand for indemnity from liability as a condition for selling their vaccines to the country.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain what is indemnity and why is it sought? – Indemnity is a form of contract. The law on drugs in India does not have a provision for indemnity related to the grant of approval for any new drug or vaccine in the country.

Then discuss if the demand for or grant of indemnity a standard practice.

Explain the gains owing to it to India – In the absence of indemnity, overseas manufacturers may load the risk onto the price of the vaccines, making each dose more expensive. By indemnifying the companies in respect of these vaccines, the government of India may be able to negotiate lower prices and higher volumes.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Discuss about the underlying principle behind G7 global tax deal. By highlighting its major pillars, analyse its impact on India. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

The article brings to us deeper insights on what the G7 corporate tax deal means to India. Thus the question.  

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss about the underlying principle behind G7 global tax deal. By highlighting it’s major pillars, analyse its impact on India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Finance Ministers from the Group of Seven (G7) nations have reached a landmark agreement in London setting a global minimum corporate tax rate.

Body:

Brief on the background of the question first.

The Group of Seven nations have backed a minimum global corporation tax rate of at least 15%. They also seek to put in place measures to ensure that taxes are paid in the countries where businesses operate based on the principle of ‘Significant Economic Presence’.

Explain how would a global minimum tax work? Discuss the underlying reasons for it.

Discuss the significance of it.

Highlight the challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward and its impact on India.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

6. Highlight and explain the important teachings of Swami Vivekananda, relevant to the youth of today. (250 words)

Reference:  Hindustan Times

Why the question:

The question is based on the important teachings of Swami Vivekananda.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the important teachings of Swami Vivekananda, and its relevance to the youth of today.

 Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start by highlighting the need to remember teachings of Swami Vivekananda.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Talk about his contributions briefly first. The philosophy of Swami Vivekananda and the ideals for which he lived and worked are a great source of inspiration for the youth today. He wanted the countrymen including the youth to have ‘muscles of iron’, ‘nerves of steel’ and ‘minds like thunderbolt’. Owing to this, his birth anniversary i.e. January 12th is commemorated and celebrated as National Youth Day.

Discuss the teachings of Swami Vivekananda relevant to the youth in the current context.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of his teachings especially to the youth in the country.

 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. Norms of social morality should not be applied to acts of civil servants while they are carrying out their professional roles and responsibilities to further the common good. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the applicability of social morality vs. professional morality in rendering roles and responsibilities of civil servants.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically analyse in what way norms of social morality should not be applied to acts of civil servants while they are carrying out their professional roles and responsibilities to further the common good.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In the introduction briefly discuss the prominent thinkers promoting this view.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain the meaning of the statement with relevant examples. The rationale behind this is that when the act accuses, the result excuses, i.e., one should consider the results that have been achieved, rather than the means by which they have been executed. The dilemma arises out of a tension between perceived professional obligations and long-standing moral obligations that are the standards of everyday life.

Discuss the debate surrounding the issue and conclude accordingly.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


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