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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 3 June 2021

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Effects of globalization on Indian society Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

1. To what extent globalization has predisposed the fundamentals of cultural diversity in India? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  un.org

Why the question:

The question is based on the impact of globalisation on the cultural diversity of India.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail to what extent globalization has predisposed the fundamentals of cultural diversity in India.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with definition of globalisation in general.

Body:

One has to analyse both positives and negatives of globalization :

Linguistic diversity: resulted in centralist language, which dominates regional dialects, and minority languages. E.g.: In urban areas, most of the families these days talk in English even at homes. But it has a positive dimension, where it had led to Indians excelling in the services sector of the economy.

Caste Diversity: has led to decreased emphasis on localized castes but the socio-economic disparities in societies continues to cause conflicts, which are dominated by caste hegemony.

Religious diversity: increased prosperity and materialistic pursuits have decreased the religion based conflicts but religion continues to dominate the social sphere mostly concerned with ethos and values. It also had led to questioning the age old exploitative traditions like Devadasi and Triple-talaq. Also though India was multi-religious but was dominated by Hindu’s with globalization it has led to be polarized by few religions. Also, exposed India to religious fundamentalism.

Racial diversity: Globalization to an extent has changed the racial demography to an extent with decreasing numbers of Mongoloid race. Migration from North East side of India has to an extent changed the demography of Indian races. The economic inequalities and slow movement towards mono-culture has led to increased attacks on racial minorities, E.g.: NE students attacked in New Delhi.

Enlist the negative influences too.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Globalization to an extent acted as a unifying force but monitored access would help India preserve its multi-lingual, multi-religious and multi-caste society

Introduction

Globalization is a process of increasing interdependence, interconnectedness and integration of economies and societies to such an extent that an event in one part of the globe affects people in other parts of the world.

Body

Impact on fundamentals of cultural diversity:

  1. Linguistic diversity: The influence of transnational corporations has resulted in a central common language mainly English, which dominates regional dialects, and minority languages. But it has a positive dimension, where it had led to Indians excelling in the services sector of the economy. Also, technology has helped preserve some of the dying artefacts, document local languages and also exposed Indians to various global arts/movies etc.

Eg: Flipkart and amazon is selling tribal artefacts, Channapatna wooden toys etc.

  1. Caste: Though globalization has led to decreased emphasis on localised castes. Globalisation has led to the rise of lower castes by making them aware of their rights. People eat together, increased instances of inter-caste marriages are seen in the urban areas. But the socio-economic disparities in societies continues to cause conflicts, which are dominated by caste hegemony.
  2. Religious diversity: In a globalised world where increased prosperity and materialistic pursuits have decreased the religion based conflicts and superstition. It also had led to questioning the age old exploitative traditions like Devadasi and Triple-talaq. Also though India is multi-religious but was dominated by Hindu’s with globalization it has led to be polarised by few religions. Also, exposed India to religious fundamentalism.
  3. Racial diversity: Globalisation to an extent has changed the racial demography to an extent with decreasing numbers of Mongoloid race. Migration within and outside India has to an extent changed the demography of Indian races.
  4. Women empowerment: Globalisation has attacked the discriminatory tendencies and patriarchal mind-set in India. It has helped in getting rid of practices derogatory to women and has helped in the rise of women and exposure of women related issues.

E.g. globalisation has helped women to realise their rights and led to raise their voice against crime like dowry.

  1. Family structure: Increasing urbanization as a consequence of globalization has resulted in migration of people from rural areas, resulting in the disintegration of the joint family system. A new trend of nuclear families with one or maximum two children has emerged in India.
  2. Lifestyle: Whether it be in attire, food habits or taste in music, there has been an attempt to imitate the West. Sarees, Salwar-Kameez for women has given way to skirts and pant, jeans and shirts. Similarly for men, traditional dhoti-kurta has been replaced by shirts and trousers. Even in food habits, junk food like pizzas, burgers, pasta are the preferred choices of the youth today in India.

Conclusion

The highly diverse nature of our culture is the uniting strength of India. As a result of globalization, women in India have become more aware of their rights and are now stepping out of homes to pursue not only schooling but higher education and jobs.  Globalisation to an extent acted as a unifying force but monitored access would help India preserve its multi-lingual, multi-religious and multi-caste society. Thus, it has both positive and negative influence overall.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

2. Analyse the deficits in the rural healthcare system during the pandemic? Propose some steps that can be taken to make the process resilient. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

 Why the question:

The article explains that after devastating India’s biggest cities, Covid-19 wave has reached India’s unprepared rural areas.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the deficits in the rural healthcare system during the pandemic and propose some steps that can be taken to make the process resilient.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with key facts representing question context.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Briefly first present the picture of the Indian rural health care system.

Discuss in detail what are the weaknesses of the Indian rural healthcare system and their manifestation into disproportionate impact of Covid-19 on rural areas?

Suggest steps to make the rural healthcare resilient for future pandemics.

Conclusion:

Conclude that although it is impossible to transform its primary health care in a day or a week or a month, the right steps in this direction will help in dealing with future pandemics and other health emergencies.

Introduction

Compared to the first wave in 2020, the second wave of 2021 has seen a rapid rise in the number of infections and deaths in rural parts, home to 65% of the country’s 1.3 billion population.

Body

Given the precarious state of the health infrastructure in rural areas, the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) has asked the government to prioritize testing and vaccination in these areas.

Indian rural healthcare system

The health care infrastructure in rural areas has been developed as a three tier system as follows.

  1. Sub Centre: Most peripheral contact point between Primary Health Care System & Community manned with one HW (F)/ANM & one HW (M)
  2. Primary Health Centre (PHC): A Referral Unit for 6 Sub Centres 4-6 bedded manned with a Medical Officer In charge and 14 subordinate paramedical staff
  3. Community Health Centre (CHC): A 30 bedded Hospital/Referral Unit for 4 PHCs with Specialized services

Issues faced

  1. Only 11% sub-centres, 13% Primary Health Centres (PHCs) and 16% Community Health Centres (CHCs) in rural India meet the Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS).
  2. Only one allopathic doctor is available for every 10,000 people and one state run hospital is available for 90,000 people.
  3. Innocent and illiterate patients or their relatives are exploited and they are allowed to know their rights.
  4. Most of the centres are run by unskilled or semi-skilled paramedics and doctor in the rural setup is rarely available.
  5. Patients when in emergency sent to the tertiary care hospital where they get more confused and get easily cheated by a group of health workers and middlemen.
  6. Non-availability of basic drugs is a persistent problem of India’s rural healthcare.
  7. In many rural hospitals, the number of nurses is much less than required.
  8. The existing healthcare centres in rural areas are under-financed, uses below quality equipment, are low in supply of medicines and lacks qualified and dedicated human resources.
  9. Medicines are often unavailable in rural areas. Supply of basic medicine is irregular in rural areas.

To add on people are returning back to their villages due to the lockdowns imposed in the metropolitan cities.

Way forward

  1. Affordable medical facilities are provided to people living in rural areas.
  2. Medical colleges need to encourage students to visit rural areas and understand the healthcare requirements of poor and downtrodden.
  3. Doctor in the government service must mandatorily serve in rural areas before getting his/her first promotion.
  4. Young doctors at grass roots level need to be sensitive to patients and their family.
  5. Private sector need to work with a spirit of altruism, commitment and missionary zeal in providing modern and affordable healthcare facilities in the rural areas and bridge the urban- rural divide.
  6. Medical associations should campaign to educate people on preventing lifestyle diseases which are slowly penetrating even the rural areas.

Conclusion

Pandemics such as Covid-19 starkly remind us that public health systems are core social institutions in any society. The government has made several efforts to address the shortfall in the public health system through the schemes like the National Medical Commission (NMC) Act, 2019, Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana, Pradhan Mantri – Jan Arogya Yojana etc.

However, the need of the hour is an adequate investment, for creating a health system that can withstand any kind of public health emergencies, deliver universal health coverage and meet the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. By highlighting the encounters in center-state relations, discuss the need for federal alliance for better governance in India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The author in the article explains that there needs to be a federal coalition to preserve the idea of a plural India, in terms of culture and politics.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need for federal alliance for better governance in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start with recent encounters between centre and state.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss the issue between centre and States which is often seen as a challenge to development. Explain the past to present experiences; while coalition governments in the past enabled the rise and the visibility of regional businesses in post-reform India, the current dispensation is working towards centralizing economic power in conjunction with political centralization. It is becoming clear that aligning politically with the BJP is critical to do business.

Discuss the challenges – uses of executive and legislative aggression, Central institutions are increasingly weakening the policy levers of State institutions etc.

Highlight thus the need of State coalition.

Conclusion:

Conclude with need for federal alliance for better governance in India.

Introduction

India is a federal state where the Centre and the State are the Cooperating units of the polity. Yet India is an asymmetrical federalism, with the balance of power tilting in the favour of the Centre. Article 256 deals with Union-state relation and State’s obligation while Article 365 mandates the state governments to follow and implement the directions of the Central government. Changing dynamics of party system is shaping the trajectory of Federalism from cooperative to confrontationalist.

Body

Issues in Centre-State relations

  • There has been increasing centralisation in resource allocations and welfare interventions.
  • The gap between the revenue that State governments are allowed to generate and the expenditure that they are expected to incur has been widening, particularly with the implementation of Goods and Services Tax (GST).
  • The shortfall of GST this year and the Centre’s lackadaisical response to demands for compensation by State governments are again known.
  • There was no prior consultation with states before the lockdown was imposed on 25th It caused serious supply chains breakdown and importantly migrant workers chaos.
  • The announcement by Prime Minister Narendra Modi of the Rs 20-lakh crore Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan (Self-reliant India Campaign) package left many scrambling with the fiscal maths.
  • Institutions such as the Income Tax Department, the Enforcement Directorate and the National Investigation Agency are being used to intimidate opponents.
  • Centre is increasingly ignoring elected representatives of State governments, holding meetings with State secretaries and district collectors on issues that are primarily under State control. An example was a recent meeting by Minister of Education with State Education Secretaries on implementation of the New Education Policy.

Strengthening Federalism

  • Strengthening of Inter-State Council: Over the year multiple committees have recommended strengthening of Interstate Council where the concurrent list subjects can be debated and discussed, balancing Centre state powers. There is far less institutional space to settle inter-state frictions therefore a constitutional institution like ISC can be a way forward.
  • Autonomy to states: Centre should form model laws with enough space for states to maneuver. Centre should give enough budgetary support to states so as to avoid budgetary burden. There should be least interference in the state subjects.
  • Democratic Decentralization of administration and strengthening governments at all levels in true spirit. Power should be decentralized based on the principle of subsidiarity.

Conclusion

While in certain areas, it might warrant greater powers to the Union(defence, currency etc), on the development front (education, health etc.) the Centre should respect the autonomy of the other two levels of government and consciously avoid the tendency to centralize powers and functions.

 

 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

4. How diverse was the impact of two Covid-19 waves on India’s diplomacy? What are the trials India faces in the near future in dealing with the fallout of the pandemic? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article highlights the contrast in India’s diplomacy during the first wave of the pandemic and the second wave. It also discusses the challenges ahead for India.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is about the impact that covid-19 has left upon the Indian diplomacy.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with present conditions of covid-19 in the country.

Body:

Explain the India’s diplomatic structure in two Covid waves. In the past month, the focus for the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) and Missions abroad has shifted.

During the first wave of the pandemic, focus was on coordinating exports of COVID-19 medicines, flights to repatriate Indians abroad through the ‘Vande Bharat Mission’ after the lockdown, and then exporting vaccines worldwide- ‘Vaccine Maitri’.

After the second wave, Covid Diplomacy 2.0 has a different order of tasks, both in the immediate and the long term.

Discuss various dimensions of vaccine diplomacy taken up India amidst the two waves.

Conclusion:

Conclude that With its seat at the UN Security Council as non-permanent member and its position on WHO’s Executive Board, India could seek to regain the footing it has lost over the past few months of COVID-19 mismanagement, by taking a lead role in ensuring the world is protected from the next such pandemic.

Introduction

In times to come the planet will remember events as either pre-Covid or post-Covid. This holds true even for India’s diplomatic structure. While the focus in 2020, during the first wave of the pandemic, was on coordinating exports of COVID-19 medicines, flights to repatriate Indians abroad (the ‘Vande Bharat Mission’) after the lockdown, and then exporting vaccines worldwide (‘Vaccine Maitri’), after the second wave, Covid Diplomacy 2.0 has a different order of tasks, both in the immediate and the long term.

Body

Diverse impact of covid-19 waves on India’s diplomacy

  • First wave
    • India provided hydro chloroquine tablets to USA and many nations when it was thought to be a prophylactic.
    • Vaccine Maitri initiative earned a lot of goodwill when it sent 6 crore vaccines to smaller nations.
    • India even sent Remdesivir, of which it has shortage in the second wave.
    • India donated ambulances to Nepal, and sent a medical team to its neighbours like Bangladesh and Bhutan.
  • Second Wave
    • The immediate imperative was to deal with oxygen and medicine shortages that claimed the lives of thousands in the matter of a few weeks across the country.
    • In Delhi alone, more than 3,000 people died in the last week of April.
    • If the first rush was about bringing in Remdesivir and favipiravir from the United States and Russia, Indian missions are now requesting black fungus medication.
    • India is also considering importing foreign vaccines for its 140 crore citizens.

Challenges due to fall out of pandemic

  • The shortage of vaccines in the country has arisen from three factors: the failure of the Government to plan and place procurement orders in time; the failure of the two India-based companies to produce vaccine doses they had committed to, and the MEA’s focus on exporting, not importing, vaccines between January and April this year.
  • These include requesting the U.S. to share a substantial portion of its stockpile of AstraZeneca doses and to release more vaccine ingredients which are restricted for exports.
  • To buy more stock outright from the three U.S. manufacturers, Pfizer, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson, and to encourage production in India of these vaccines.
  • On each of these issues, the MEA has had to negotiate a difficult route.
  • Even buying vaccines directly will need nimble negotiations as the U.S. companies seem set on getting both an indemnity waiver from India as well as Emergency Use Authorisation prior to supplying them.
  • The promise of patent waivers, from India’s joint proposal at the World Trade Organization will not (WTO) reap early benefits, despite support from world leaders such as the U.S., Russia and China.
  • The third big challenge for Indian diplomacy is to manage the fallout of the vaccine collapse. Domestically it had to defend its decision to export vaccines. Internationally, smaller nations are waiting for second doses and are in a lurch.
  • Perhaps the most egregious case is that of Bhutan and its vaccine drive which depended entirely on India’s promise of vaccines for its whole population.
  • Making amends and regaining trust for India’s vaccine and pharmacy exports in the future is going to be a challenge left to the MEA and its missions in several capitals.

Conclusion

With its seat at the UN Security Council as non-permanent member and its position on WHO’s Executive Board, India could seek to regain the footing it has lost over the past few months of COVID-19 mismanagement, by taking a lead role in ensuring the world is protected from the next such pandemic.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. A distinct global carbon incentive scheme can drive every nation to alleviate the costs of climate change. Analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

The article explains that with President Joe Biden’s administration recommitting the United States to the Paris climate agreement, and with a major United Nations climate-change conference (COP26) coming later this year, there is new hope for meaningful global policies to meet the challenge .

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need and importance of a distinct global carbon incentive scheme.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

The answer body must explain the importance of global climate change and need to mitigate the same globally.

Discuss the importance of global carbon incentive scheme – The economic solution is simple: a global carbon incentive (GCI). Every country that emits more than the global average of around five tonnes per capita would pay annually into a global incentive fund, with the amount calculated by multiplying the excess emissions per capita by the population and the GCI.

Analyse in detail and suggest solutions.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction

There is mounting evidence of increasing climate volatility led by unprecedented wildfires in Australia, droughts in California and Sub-Saharan Africa, intensifying hurricane and cyclone seasons. This suggests that we must move fast in curbing planet-warming greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions.

Body

The least costly way to reduce global emissions would be to give every country similar incentive. While India should not keep building more dirty coal plants as it grows, Europe should be closing down the plants it already has. But each country will want to reduce emissions in its own way—some through taxation, others through regulation.

Global carbon incentive scheme (GCI): To prevent climate change

  • Every country that emits more than the global average of around five tonnes per capita would pay annually into a global incentive fund, with the amount calculated by multiplying the excess emissions per capita by the population and the GCI.
  • If the GCI started at $10 per tonne, the US would pay around $36 billion, and Saudi Arabia would pay $4.6 billion.
  • Meanwhile, countries below the global per capita average would receive a commensurate payout (Uganda, for example, would receive around $2.1 billion).
  • This way, every country would face an effective loss of $10 per capita for every additional tonne that it emits per capita, regardless of whether it started at a high, low, or average level.
  • There would no longer be a free-rider problem, because Uganda would have the same incentives to economize on emissions as the US.
  • The GCI also would address the fairness problem. Low emitters, which are often the poorest countries and the ones most vulnerable to climatic changes they did not cause, would receive a payment with which they could help their people adapt.
  • If the GCI is raised over time, the collective sums paid out would approach the $100 billion per year that rich countries promised to poor countries at COP15 in 2009.
  • That would far exceed the meagre sums that have been made available thus far.
  • Better still, the GCI would assign responsibility for payments in a feasible way, because big emitters typically are in the best position to pay.
  • The beauty of the GCI is its simplicity and self- financing structure. But it would require one adjustment in how per capita emissions are computed.

Conclusion

As rich countries cast about for remedies to domestic inequality, they should spare a thought for inequality between countries, which the pandemic and the unequal vaccine roll-out will only worsen. Developing countries feel abandoned today. A fair proposal for reducing emissions would go some way toward reassuring them that they do not live on another planet. And it would give everyone a greater incentive to save this one

 

Topic: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

6. Deliberate upon the evolution of Satellite based internet services in recent years. Also analyse it’s significance in government’s vision of enabling Digital India. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article brings to us the detailed account of evolution of Satellite based internet services .

Key Demand of the question:

Deliberate upon the evolution of Satellite based internet services in recent years. Also analyse it’s significance in government’s vision of enabling Digital India.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with a fact like – Euroconsult, a leading satellite consultancy firm, estimates that 1,250 satellites will be launched annually this decade, with 70% of them for commercial purposes.

Body:

Explain that from Sputnik to SpaceX, satellites have come a long way. The next era of satellite internet will be the result of a race to deliver affordable high-speed, low-latency internet to underserved regions of the world. Several well-funded organizations have already begun launching satellites and more have launches scheduled soon.

 Despite the competition featuring a diverse field of space racers, they’re all focused on variations of the same solution, orbiting networks. Let’s take a closer look at those networks and the companies building them.

Give examples and analyse its significance in government’s vision of enabling Digital India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction

In 2019 the world’s leading private company in space technology SpaceX had launched the Starlink Network in Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) aimed at providing low-cost and reliable space-based internet services to the world.

Euroconsult, a leading satellite consultancy firm, estimates that 1,250 satellites will be launched annually this decade, with 70% of them for commercial purposes.

Body

Ned for Space Internet

  1. Ensure that reliable and uninterrupted Internet services now part of humanity’s basic infrastructure.
  2. Delivering a wide variety of public services to the world’s peoples are universally available in every part of the globe.
  3. Currently, about 4 billion people, more than half the world’s population, do not have access to reliable Internet networks.
  4. Traditional ways to deliver the Internet fibre-optic cables or wireless networks cannot take it everywhere on Earth.
  5. In many remote areas, or places with difficult terrain, it is not feasible or viable to set up cables or mobile towers.
  6. Signals from one satellite can cover roughly a third of the planet and three to four satellites would be enough to cover the entire Earth.
  7. Bringing down the Latency from 600 milliseconds to 20-30 milliseconds

Initiatives:

  1. Starlink aims to start space-based Internet service in the northern United States and Canada in 2020, and expand to cover the whole world by 2021.
  2. Several other private companies too, have plans for space-based Internet services.
  3. These include Amazon, OneWeb and O3B (apparently named for the ‘Other Three Billion’), each involving large constellations of satellites in lower and middle Earth orbits.

Scope for India

Over 70% of rural Indians do not have access to the Internet, a problem that is particularly worrisome given the increasing need for digital integration in the fields of education and banking in light of the pandemic.

  1. Availability of high speed internet as a core utility for delivery of services to citizens. Cradle to grave digital identity that is unique, life long, online and authenticable to every citizen.
  2. Catalysing business: With quality internet, people living even in far flung areas can also avail banking services through their mobile phones, and benefit from the financial security that comes with it.
  3. In fact, in 2015 alone, mobile internet contributed $3.1 trillion to global GDP, and lifted millions out of poverty.
  4. Education: In absolute numbers, Indian higher education system is the third largest in the world, next only to the US and China. However, only a few educational institutions of higher learning are equipped with infrastructure for delivering quality education. High-speed broadband internet can take learning materials even to those who cannot attend these elite institutions.
  5. Healthcare: With the availability of satellite internet, specialist doctors can remotely monitor patients and help in early diagnosis of various medical conditions. The availability of such preventive healthcare facilities can also have a positive effect on the finances of rural households.
  6. Smart Cities: The government’s Smart Cities Mission aims to leverage state-of-the-art technology to improve the quality of life in the country’s crowded cities. The smart cities, among other things, are thought to be brimming with sensors that constantly monitor water and electricity supply, air pollution levels at designated areas, and flag concerned officials automatically.
  7. Smart Agriculture: Technology solutions can be developed to centrally monitor storage facilities scattered across the country. Tracking of vehicles that transport agricultural produce can also go a long way in improving the overall logistics of the agriculture sector.

Conclusion

Robust economic growth over the last few decades, increased investments into R&D, and proactive policies have helped India to embark on a journey of technological transformation. As the country prepares itself for the road ahead, it should first address the wide disparity in the availability of technology to its citizens. Space Internet has the potential to transform the way basic services like banking, education, and healthcare are delivered to citizens of the country.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7. State the principles of morality of international politics according to John Rawls. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by G Subbarao and P N Chowdury

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of principles of morality of international politics.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the principles of morality of international politics according to John Rawls.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly talk about what are the principles of morality in international politics.

Body:

Rawls contends that the most rational choice for the parties in the original position are two principles of justice: The first guarantees the equal basic rights and liberties needed to secure the fundamental interests of free and equal citizens and to pursue a wide range of conceptions of the good.

Discuss in detail the principles of morality of international politics with examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction

John Rawls is celebrated for his universal conception of “Justice as fairness”. He has placed highest significance to dignity of human life over Bentham’s “greatest happiness of greatest number”. For Rawls, “Each person possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override.” This principle can be seen in his principles of morality in international politics as well.

Body

Rawls recognizes that any principle of international morality and justice, must accommodate the fact that there is much more pluralism and diversity in worldviews – or reasonable pluralism, among societies than there is within a single liberal society.

Rawls’ concept of original position is relevant in justice and morality. Original position is a hypothetical scenario while distributing resources among people in the society. People enter into social contract, without knowing their abilities or position in the society (eg: how well off or worse they are in reality). In such situation, people will arrive at principles that are fair to even the one who is worse off. Because, they imagine themselves to be in the disadvantaged position.

In international relations, he proposes a second original position.

  1. It is employed to derive the foreign policy that liberal peoples would choose.
  2. The representatives of peoples are subject to an appropriate veil of ignorance for the situation.
  3. As Rawls argues, “they do not know, for example, the size of the territory, or the population or the relative strength of the people whose fundamental interests they represent.
  4. While they know that reasonably favourable conditions obtain that make democracy possible, they do not know the extent of their natural resources, of the level of their economic development, or any such related information.
  5. In this scenario, people arrive at the eight principles that are outlined by Rawls, for international politics.

Rawls’ eight principles that people must adhere in International relations

  1. People are free and independent, and their freedom and independence are to be respected by other peoples.
  2. People are to observe treaties and undertakings.
  3. People are equal and are parties to the agreements that bind them.
  4. People are to observe a duty of non-intervention.
  5. Peoples have the right of self-defence but not right to instigate war for reasons other than self-defence.
  6. People are to honour human rights.
  7. People are to observe certain specified restrictions in the conduct of war.
  8. People have a duty to assist other people living under unfavourable conditions that prevent their having a just or decent political and social regime.

In addition, Rawls believes three organizations would be chosen:

  1. One aimed at securing fair trade among peoples;
  2. One which enables people to borrow from a cooperative banking institution, and
  3. One which plays a similar role of the United Nations, which he refers to as “a Confederation of People (not states)”

He maintains that better-off societies have a duty of assistance towards burdened societies in order to help them achieve the requisite level of economic and social development to become well-ordered

Eg: Developed nations funding $100 billion every year to combat climate change and help developing nations with technology and capacity.

The humanitarian assistance for hunger and poverty taken up by World Food Programme, nations aiding each other during calamities and disasters are examples of morality in international politics.

Eg: India was the first responder for Cyclone Idai in Mozambique in 2019, providing disaster relief and rescue operations in the African nation.

Conclusion

Rawlsian principles are society and people centric rather than state centric, which ensures long lasting peace and justice in international politics.


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