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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 1 June 2021

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. Tarun Tejpal case judgment needs to be overturned. Else, it will remain as a bad precedent that impedes the workplace safety of women. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

Earlier this week, a Goa Sessions Court acquitted former Tehelka Editor-in-Chief Tarun Tejpal of all charges relating to his alleged rape of his junior colleague (the prosecutrix) in 2013. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to analyse the case from the perspective of safety of women at workplace.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the case.

Body:

Explain that the judgment adopts deeply flawed lines of reasoning that exemplify the system’s failures to protect sexual assault survivors, particularly when faced with power imbalances.

Discuss then the reasons for criticizing the Tarun Tejpal case judgment; the judgment is criticized for its unprecedented interpretation in support of the accused. Violation of privacy – Section 53A in the Indian Evidence Act rules out reference to past sexual history. However, the survivor was subjected to answer even intimate details of her life and her friendships. The judgment criminalizes the right of a survivor to approach activists and lawyers for their help.

Conclusion:

Suggest what needs to be done, emphasize on need to overturn the judgment while reiterating importance of workplace safety of women.

Introduction

A recent judgment in a seven-year-old rape case is a triggering reminder to Indian women about the way the country sees rape. In November 2013, a female journalist had accused Tarun Tejpal, then editor-in-chief of Tehelka magazine and her boss, of sexually assaulting her on two occasions on the sidelines of a public event in Goa. Tejpal was arrested a few days later and spent several months in jail before being granted bail. Seven-and-a-half years later, on May 21, a district court in the state of Goa acquitted Tejpal.

Body

Many lawyers and activists said that this judgment goes way beyond what one could call a judicial line. It is written not in keeping with even basic judicial propriety.

Judgement is antithesis of women’s safety in Indian workplaces

  • The Tejpal judgment could have stopped with an acquittal on reasonable doubt due to lack of police evidence. Instead, there are insinuations about the woman’s credibility, including the fact that she admittedly had no physical injuries after the assault.
  • The 527-page long judgment by justice Kshama Joshi lays bare intimate details of the survivor’s private life, her past and present relationships, her conversations with friends, and her own views as a journalist on sexual consent and rape.
  • Justice Joshi referred to the survivor’s past sexual history as if it spoke to her character and it mattered to the alleged sexual assault that happened in the elevator.
  • There are many misogynistic judgments, but none that tears into the complainant in this manner.
  • The revulsion in the judicial gaze against the complainant also plays out in the fact that the judgment names the survivor and even lists her email address, a clear departure from the guidelines for sexual assault cases.
  • This judgment is the exact opposite of the #MeToo movement. If this judgment stands and there are no sanctions passed against the judge by a higher court, this is the worst setback to the women’s movement in decades.
  • By Naming Survivor, Judge Violated Law Despite law being clear, the judge while acquitting Tarun Tejpal revealed the identity of the rape survivor. Section 228A of the Indian Penal Code makes disclosure of the identity of victims of certain offences punishable.
  • While acquitting Tarun Tejpal, the trial court held that the “woman’s behaviour” was a key factor in “undermining her case”. This is victimizing the survivor further.

 Conclusion

The judgement in this case underlines that it is not biology but ideology which determines the social reality. The judgement will find its place in history as an example of the worst kind of victim blaming and shaming to the benefit of the accused. If this sets a precedent, women’s safety at workplaces will be jeopardized in the country.

 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

2. Dalit women are more vulnerable to violence in our country due to Systematic and structural discrimination; In this backdrop explain why India’s Dalit women are vulnerable to sexual violence? Also critically examine role of Indian judicial system in protecting these survivors. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article brings to us insights on recognising caste-based violence against women.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the issue of caste-based violence against women in the country while explaining the key role that the Indian judicial system must play in protecting these survivors.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with recent incidences justifying the case in question; the horror of the gang rape of a 19-year-old Dalit woman in Hathras in 2020.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Firstly discuss why Dalit women are more vulnerable to violence; culture of impunity – Dalit, also known as the “untouchables” in India, languish at the bottom of the South Asian country’s caste hierarchy. Dalit women, who make up 16% of India’s female population, face higher risks of gender and caste-based violence and are often exposed to widespread sexual violence. Dalit women are more vulnerable to violence is because they make up the majority of India’s landless laborers and scavengers, and a significant percentage of them are forced into prostitution or sold into brothels.

For this reason, Dalit women are more likely to come into contact with landlords and enforcement agencies, which can then easily exploit and abuse them with impunity. law and order systems are not accessible. Etc.

Then, critically examine role of Indian judicial system in protecting these survivors.

Conclusion:

Take hints from the article and suggest way forward.

Introduction

The horror of the gang rape of a 19-year-old Dalit woman in Hathras in 2020 is still fresh in our minds. Activists, academics and lawyers argued that the sexual violence took place on account of the woman’s gender and caste and that the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 (PoA Act) must be invoked. Another case of sexual violence on a blind Dalit woman highlights caste based sexual atrocity.

Body

Background

  • On the heels of the Hathras crime came a new judgment of the Supreme Court (Patan Jamal Vali v. State of Andhra Pradesh) addressing the intersectionality of caste, gender and disability.
  • In this case, the victim of sexual assault was a blind 22-year-old Dalit woman. The trial court and the High Court had convicted the accused for rape under Section 376 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), and under Section 3(2)(v) of the PoA Act, and sentenced him to life imprisonment.
  • The Supreme Court, in its judgment delivered by Justice D.Y. Chandrachud and Justice M.R. Shah, confirmed the conviction and the punishment for rape under the IPC but set aside the conviction under the PoA Act.
  • On the one hand, this judgment is a huge step forward as the court used the opportunity to bring recognition to intersectional discrimination faced by women on the grounds of sex, caste and disability.
  • However, by setting aside the conviction under the PoA Act, it is like many other previous judgments of the Supreme Court.

Role of Indian judiciary in protecting sexual violence victims

  • The Supreme Court, in a first, elaborated on the need for an intersectional approach, to take into account the multiple marginalities that the victim faced.
  • It relied on well-known intersectional theorists such as Kimberlé Crenshaw who first coined the term ‘intersectionality’ and on the statement of the Combahee River Collective which addressed the intersectional discrimination faced by black women in the U.S.
  • Using these sources, the court recognised that when the identity of a woman intersects with her caste, class, religion, disability and sexual orientation, she may face violence and discrimination due to two or more grounds.
  • It said we need to understand how multiple sources of oppression operated cumulatively to produce a specific experience of subordination for the blind Dalit woman.
  • Placing special emphasis on making the criminal justice system more responsive to women with disabilities facing sexual assault, the court also laid down directions to train judges, the police and prosecutors to be sensitised in such cases.

Criticism against ignorance of caste-based violence

  • In cases of sexual violence against Dalit and Adivasi women, courts have almost consistently set aside convictions under the PoA Act.
  • In 2006 in Ramdas and Others v. State of Maharashtra, where a Dalit minor girl was raped, the Supreme Court set aside the conviction under the PoA Act stating that the mere fact that the victim happened to be a woman who was member of an SC community would not attract the PoA Act.
  • In Dinesh Alias Buddha v. State of Rajasthan (2006), the Supreme Court held: “It is not case of the prosecution that the rape was committed on the victim since she was a member of Scheduled Caste.”
  • In 2019, in Khuman Singh v. State of Madhya Pradesh, a case of murder, again the court held that the fact that the deceased was a member of an SC community was not disputed but there was no evidence to show that the offence was committed only on that ground; conviction under the PoA Act was set aside.
  • There are several precedents insisting on an unrealistic burden of proof. This issue needs to be referred to a larger bench to take a different view.
  • The only evidence that can be led is that the victim was from an SC/ST community and that the accused was aware of that.
  • When a woman is from a marginalised caste and is disabled, she faces discrimination due to her sex, caste/tribe and disability, all of which render her vulnerable to sexual violence.
  • This is what intersectionality theory requires us to recognise.

Way forward

  • It matters, even if life imprisonment was given in this case, because the repeated setting aside of convictions under the PoA Act bolsters the allegations that the law is misused and amounts to the erasure of caste-based violence faced by women.
  • Further, as stated in the recent Parliamentary Standing Committee Report on Atrocities and Crimes against Women and Children, the “high acquittal rate motivates and boosts the confidence of dominant and powerful communities for continued perpetration”.
  • This judgment was a missed opportunity for the court to use intersectionality to uphold the conviction under the PoA Act or refer the matter to a larger bench if needed.
  • We need to stop hiding behind smokescreens of hyper-technicality of evidence and recognise caste-based violence against women when it stares us in the face.
  • Else, our caste discrimination laws will be rendered toothless.
  • If intersectionality theory mattered in this case, it should have influenced an interpretation of the PoA Act that reflects the lived experiences of women facing sexual violence.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. The draft legislation of reforms in Lakshadweep with the aim of transforming Lakshadweep into a renowned international tourist destination bags stringent criticism. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article highlights the issues with development model sought to be pursued in Lakshadweep.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to critically analyse the suitability of Maldives model of development for the Lakshadweep.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of Lakshadweep.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain the issues with following Maldives model for development of Lakshadweep. Recently, the Administrator, Lakshadweep, introduced a slew of draft legislation that will have a wide-ranging impact on the islands.

One such legislation is the Lakshadweep Development Authority Regulation 2021 with intentions to develop Lakshadweep like neighboring Maldives, “a renowned international tourist destination”.

Rejecting the Maldives model, the plan for Lakshadweep required that the industry had to be people-centric and enrich the fragile coral ecology.

Today, long lines and refrigeration have aided the expansion of the fishing sector but income disparities have grown.

Conclusion:

Conclude that what Lakshadweep needs is a clear policy must include conservation and natural resource management arrived at after wide consultation, eminently possible within the existing infrastructure of the Union Territory, and also taking into account climatic compulsions.

Introduction

Over the last few weeks, public anger has been simmering in the Lakshadweep islands over a number of controversial proposals floated by the Union Territory Administrator, Praful K Patel. Addressing the media in the face of widespread criticism of these measures, the administrator said the measures intend to develop Lakshadweep like neighbouring Maldives.

Body

Draft legislations introduced in Lakshadweep and their criticisms

  • The Administration has decided to allow liquor to be served at resorts on inhabited islands. Currently, prohibition is in place on all inhabited islands, with liquor served only at resorts on the uninhabited Bangaram island.
    • Criticism: Residents have alleged that the move will lead to a proliferation of liquor sales on the island, which had been observing near-prohibition until now.
  • The Administration brought in a draft Lakshadweep Development Authority Regulation (LDAR) to oversee development of towns on the islands, with sweeping changes in the way land can be acquired and utilised. It talks of declaration of ‘planning areas’ and constitution of ‘planning and development authorities’ for preparing a land use map and register, ostensibly for large projects.
    • Criticism: Residents have protested against the way it was prepared and pushed through without consultation. They fear large infrastructure and tourism projects can destabilise the ecology, and that the notification gives powers to the Administration to remove small landholdings of ST residents.
  • For a year, Lakshadweep did not record any case of Covid-19, thanks to stringent quarantine protocols and testing of inbound travellers. Now, anyone with a negative RT-PCR certificate issued in the previous 48 hours could travel to Lakshadweep.
    • Criticism: The change led to the island losing its ‘green zone’ tag and a spurt in infections in subsequent months. As of May 28, the Union Territory has reported over 7,300 cases and 28 deaths. Islanders blame the Administration for mismanagement in handling of the pandemic.

Issue with Maldivian model

  • Firstly, population density in the Maldives is half what it is in the Lakshadweep.
  • The Maldives has an abundance of uninhabited islands within their atolls that are perfect for tourism activity.
  • Beyond that, the model of tourism prevalent in the Maldives does not plough its profits back to local communities — despite high-end tourism, it is international business interests that reap the benefits.
  • This cannot be called as development from the perspective of the local communities and certainly not from the perspective of ecological integrity.
  • So far, people in the Lakshadweep have been living pretty much within the bounds of the ecological integrity of the islands.

Conclusion

People’s concerns must be heard before making sweeping reforms. Representatives of the UT must be amongst the locals, or at least there must be consensus among MP’s and administrator before such laws are implemented. Given the direction of people’s response to the laws, these need to be reconsidered as they have grave environmental concerns.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4. The pandemic has made us realize that no single health care system can provide satisfactory answers to all the health needs of modern society. There is a need for an inclusive and integrated health care regime. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The question is amidst the healthcare crisis that India is facing amidst pandemic.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way the pandemic has made us realize that no single health care system can provide satisfactory answers to all the health needs of modern society. There is a need for an inclusive and integrated health care regime.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief context of the current crisis facing the Indian healthcare system.

Body:

This unprecedented public health emergency has demonstrated that health facilities, medical transport, patients as well as health care workers and their families can – and do – become targets everywhere. This alarming trend reinforces the need for improved measures to protect health care from acts of violence.

During the COVID-19 pandemic more than ever, protecting the health and lives of health care providers on the frontline is critical to enabling a better global response.

Explain why no single healthcare system can address the situation one handedly.

Deliberate upon the need to recognise the importance of an inclusive and integrated health care regime.

Conclusion:

Suggest solutions and conclude with way forward.

Introduction

The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as a public health challenge. The burden of disease and mortality is steadily increasing in many parts of the country. Several social and economic factors are leading to devastating situations. Effective management to address this infection is still evolving and attempts are being made to integrate traditional interventions along with standard car.

Body

Need for Integrated system

  1. The unprecedented pandemic has exposed the weaknesses and inadequacies in the public health sector in India right from shortage of doctors, beds, emergency equipment and medicines.
  2. There is a shortage of PHCs (22%) and sub-health centres (20%), while only 7% sub-health centres and 12% primary health centres meet Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) norms.
  3. Doctor-Density Ratio: India has a doctor-to-population ratio well below the level recommended by the WHO — 1:1,445, which adds up to a total of roughly 1,159,000 doctors.
  4. Shortage of Medical Personnel: Data show that there is a staggering shortage of medical and paramedical staff at all levels of care: 10,907 auxiliary nurse midwives and 3,673 doctors are needed at sub-health and primary health centres,
  5. Social Inequality: The growth of health facilities has been highly imbalanced in India. Rural, hilly and remote areas of the country are under served.
  6. The shortage and unwillingness of allopathic doctors, including surgeons, to serve in rural areas is now a chronic issue.

Current Scenario:

  1. India is using the AYUSH system of medicine to provide relief and alleviate some symptoms of COVID-19.
  2. The AYUSH system is not seen as a cure, rather it is being used for the management of asymptomatic and mild cases of Covid-19 and for prophylactic (preventive) care. But despite that the Role of AYUSH during the pandemic is indispensable.
  3. A dedicated community support helpline has been operationalized by the Ministry of AYUSH to provide AYUSH-based approaches and solutions for the challenges raised by COVID-19.
  4. These experts will not only be providing counselling and feasible remedies to the patients, but also guide them about the availability of nearby AYUSH facilities, the ministry said in a statement.
  5. The experts will also be suggesting post COVID-19 rehabilitation and management approaches to the patients.

Conclusion

A middle path needs to be found out by an integrated framework- merging the two systems of medicine while also leaving enough scope for their autonomous growth.

Medium and long-term plans for seamless integration should be developed expeditiously in view of the massive drive for achieving universal health care already underway in the country.

Through this India will be able to address the subservient status of AYUSH and foster its legitimate inclusion into mainstream health care.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

5. “Cryptocurrency will lead the next phase of digital revolution. India must not miss the bus.” Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article highlights the need for coherent cryptocurrency policy and the need to avoid missing the benefits offered by the technology.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the importance of adopting and regulating crypto currencies in India.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with growing dominance of crypto currency worldwide briefly.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Present the positives of Cryptocurrency and block chain technology first.

Fears associated with regulation and use of Cryptocurrency.

Account for the Critique of government’s reluctance against Open Cryptocurrency.

Highlight the need for regulation – Regulation is definitely needed to prevent serious problems, to ensure that crypto currencies are not misused, and to protect unsuspecting investors from excessive market volatility and possible scams.  However, regulation needs to be clear, transparent, coherent and animated by a vision of what it seeks to achieve.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

Created by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008, Bitcoin is the most popular cryptocurrency. It is a fully decentralised, peer-to-peer electronic cash system that didn’t need the purview of any third-party financial institution.

Body

Significance of Cryptocurrencies:

  1. Corruption Check: As blocks run on a peer-to-peer network, it helps keep corruption in check by tracking the flow of funds and transactions.
  2. Time Effective: Cryptocurrencies can help save money and substantial time for the remitter and the receiver, as it is conducted entirely on the Internet, runs on a mechanism that involves very less transaction fees and is almost instantaneous.
  3. Cost Effective: Intermediaries such as banks, credit card and payment gateways draw almost 3% from the total global economic output of over $100 trillion, as fees for their services.

Integrating blockchain into these sectors could result in hundreds of billions of dollars in savings.

Cryptocurrencies in India:

  • In 2018, The RBI issued a circular preventing all banks from dealing in cryptocurrencies. This circular was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in May 2020.
  • Recently, the government has announced to introduce a bill;Cryptocurrency and Regulation of Official Digital Currency Bill, 2021, to create a sovereign digital currency and simultaneously ban all private cryptocurrencies.
  • In India, the funds that have gone into the Indian blockchain start-ups account for less than 0.2% of the amount raised by the sector globally.
  • The current approach towards cryptocurrencies makes it near-impossible for blockchain entrepreneurs and investors to acquire much economic benefit.

Need for regulation

  • Regulation is definitely needed to prevent serious problems, to ensure that cryptocurrencies are not misused,and to protect unsuspecting investors from excessive market volatility and possible scams.
  • However, regulation needs to be clear, transparent, coherent and animated by a vision of what it seeks to achieve.
  • India has not been able to tick these boxes, and we’re in danger of missing out in the global race altogether.

Way forward

  1. Any new regulations made in this sector should prevent the misuse of these digital assets without hindering innovation and investments.
  2. Clarity on Crypto-currency definition: A legal and regulatory framework must first define crypto-currencies as securities or other financial instruments under the relevant national laws and identify the regulatory authority in charge.
  3. Strong KYC Norms: Instead of a complete prohibition on cryptocurrencies, the government shall rather regulate the trading of cryptocurrencies by including stringent KYC norms, reporting and taxability.
  4. Provisions have to be made to route the value extracted from these networks transparently into our financial system.
  5. Regulatory uncertainties over India’s position on cryptocurrency highlights the need for clear-headed policy-making.

Conclusion

India is currently on the cusp of the next phase of digital revolution and has the potential to channel its human capital, expertise and resources into this revolution, and emerge as one of the winners of this wave.

All that is needed to do is to get the policymaking right.

Blockchain and crypto assets will be an integral part of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Indians shouldn’t be made to simply bypass it.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

6. What are the seven varieties of intelligence which Howard Gardener included in emotional intelligence? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by G Subba Rao and P. N. Roy Chowdhury

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of emotional intelligence.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the seven varieties of intelligence which Howard Gardener included in emotional intelligence.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by emotional intelligence.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

What are Gardner’s 7 types of intelligence? – To broaden this notion of intelligence, Gardner introduced eight different types of intelligences consisting of: Linguistic, Logical/Mathematical, Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Musical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, and Naturalist.

According to Howard Gardner, emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize our own feelings and those of others, to motivate ourselves and to manage emotions well both with ourselves and in our relationships.

Discuss the nuances of his theory in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude with relevance and importance of the theory.

Introduction

As per Howard Gardner Emotional Quotient is the level of your ability to understand other people, what motivates them and how to work cooperatively with them.

Body

For which he introduced the theory of multiple intelligences

According to Gardner, intelligence is:

  • The ability to create an effective product or offer a service that is valued in a culture
  • A set of skills that make it possible for a person to solve problems in lif
  • The potential for finding or creating solutions for problems, which involves gathering new knowledge

Seven Varieties of Intelligence:

Linguistic

Enjoy writing, reading, telling stories or doing crossword puzzles.

Logical-Mathematical

Interested in patterns, categories and relationships. Drawn to arithmetic problems, strategy games and experiments.

Bodily-kinesthetic

Process knowledge through bodily sensations. Often athletic, dancers or good at crafts such as sewing or woodworking

Spatial

Think in images and pictures. May be fascinated with mazes or jigsaw puzzles, or spend free time drawing, building things or daydreaming.

Musical

Often singing or drumming to themselves. Usually quite aware of sounds others may miss. Often discriminating listeners.

Interpersonal

Leaders among their peers, who are good at communicating and who seem to understand others’ feelings and motives.

Intrapersonal

May be shy, but are very aware of their own feelings and are self-motivated.

Conclusion

Gardner’s theory has come under criticism from both psychologists and educators. These critics argue that Gardner’s definition of intelligence is too broad and that his seven different “intelligences” simply represent talents, personality traits, and abilities. Gardner’s theory also suffers from a lack of supporting empirical research.

Despite these drawbacks and criticisms, theory of multiple intelligences enjoys considerable popularity with educators. Many teachers utilize multiple intelligences in their teaching philosophies and work to integrate Gardner’s theory into the classroom.

Learning more about the multiple intelligences can help individuals better understand your own strengths.

 

Topic: Ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. Outline the main principles of idealism in the context of international relations. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by G Subba Rao and P. N. Roy Chowdhury

Why the question:

The question is about the main principles of idealism applied to the context of international relations.

Key Demand of the question:

Outline the main principles of idealism in the context of international relations.

Directive:

Outline – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what idealism means in the context of international relations.

Body:

The broad understanding sees idealism as a perennial doctrine or disposition towards world affairs which can be witnessed in all historical periods where independent political communities exist in a condition of anarchy i.e. in the absence of central government. Idealism is an optimistic doctrine which seeks to transcend the international anarchy, and create a more cosmopolitan and harmonious world order.

Explain the features; Idealism is centered on the notion that states are rational actors capable of ensuring lasting peace and security rather than resorting to war. Idealism is also marked by the prominent role played by international law and international organizations in its conception of policy formation.

Give examples to justify your points.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction

Idealism stands for improving the course of international relations by eliminating war, hunger, inequality, tyranny, force, suppression and violence from international relations. Idealism accepts the possibility of creating a world free from these evils by depending upon reason, science and education.

Body

Main principles of Idealism in International Relations:

  • Human nature is essentially good and capable of good deeds in international relations.
  • Human welfare and advancement of civilization are the concerns of all.
  • Bad human behaviour is the product of bad environment and bad institutions.
  • By reforming the environment, bad human behaviour can be eliminated.
  • War represents the worst feature of relations.
  • By reforming international relations, war can be and should be eliminated.
  • Global efforts are needed to end war, violence and tyranny from international relations.
  • International community should work for eliminating such global instruments, features and practices which lead to war.
  • International institutions committed to preserve international peace, international law and order should be developed for securing peace, prosperity and development.

Conclusion

The main supporters of idealism have been Mahatma Gandhi, Bertrand Russell, Woodrow Wilson, Aldous Huxley, William Ladd, Richard Cobben, Margret Mead, and others. They strongly oppose the realist view of international politics as struggle for power and national interest and advocate the use of reason, education and science for securing reforms in relations and for eliminating war and other evils from international relations.


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