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Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 25 May 2021

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

1. The pandemic has led to a surge in black marketing of essential drugs and medicines. Explain and propose measures to address the challenge of these black market networks. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains methods of deflating India’s COVID black market boom.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss measures to address the black market challenge amidst the covid-19 times.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In the gloomy battle against the novel coronavirus pandemic, what has emerged as most reprehensible is the brazen attempt by profiteers in filling the gap following the desperation of many patients and families.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss the causative factors of rise in black marketing of essentials and medicines. The desperate need for vital medical supplies has forced many hapless citizens to pay more than the market price to procure these medicines. There are reports of many having been tricked into believing fire extinguishers to be oxygen cylinders and saline water bottles to be remdesivir vials after parting with huge sums of money.

Suggest measures as to what needs to be done to check the menace of black marketing.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

In the gloomy battle against the novel coronavirus pandemic, what has emerged as most reprehensible is the brazen attempt by profiteers in filling the gap following the desperation of many patients and families.

Body

Surge in black marketing of essential drugs and medicines

  • With the second wave of infections and the rise in COVID-19 positive cases in India, the necessity for integral medicines, hospital beds and oxygen supplies has gone up incrementally.
  • Remdesivir and tocilizumab have been the most sought-after drugs ever since the pandemic set in.
  • Recently, the police in Ahmedabad arrested a few people for preparing fake remdesivir vials for sale using a mixture of glucose and salt and affixing them with fake brand labels.
  • In Mumbai’s drug black market, citizens have had to pay huge amounts ranging from ₹35,000 and ₹50,000 for remdesivir vials.
  • In Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, a racket to market oxygen cylinders in the black market was uncovered after raids on a godown.
  • The desperate need for vital medical supplies has forced many hapless citizens to pay more than the market price to procure these medicines.
  • There are reports of many having been tricked into believing fire extinguishers to be oxygen cylinders and saline water bottles to be remdesivir vials after parting with huge sums of money.

However, clamping down on these cases and the culprits is dependent on having an efficient multi-dimensional preventive model rather than a control mechanism that functions much after the damage has been already done.

Reasons for flourishing black markets

  • Any market, black or otherwise, is a dynamic hemisphere which is consumer-driven. There is public demand for what the products these black markets or rackets have to offer and which is why they thrive.
  • A patient and their attendants face challenges of resource availability and significant constraints of time within which they need a solution, resulting in tremendous mental pressures.
  • Alleged hospital bed-booking scams, the unnecessary hoarding of COVID-19 essentials by the elite, and possible VIP culture practices have contributed to the erosion of trust.
  • These elements have all combined to force the public to look elsewhere for sources beyond the probability of the government rendering them assistance.

Addressing the challenge of black marketing

  • India is blessed with numerous volunteer organisations trying to tackle the various challenges of the pandemic. Unfortunately, in many instances, they do not enjoy governmental support.
  • The state machinery needs to identify such groups, train them, optimise them and deploy them on a priority basis and ensure that there is no concentration of human resources in a single vertical.
  • We need to operationalise technological knowledge in order to ease the communication processes which could reduce the burden on data entry operators and the management information systems to induce better responsive behaviour.
  • We need an expert planning model which not only allocates the resources judiciously but also allows a follow-up of the entire process flow to ensure that there are no illegal deviations.
  • In oversight, we need a strong, decentralised and independent vigilance system which promotes transparency in this desperate situation to ensure quality in the performance of administrative set-ups.

Conclusion

It is only when the government’s performance is high and the administrative machinery is capable of large-scale affirmative outputs that the public will not have to look for third party resources. And with no dependency subsisting on them, profiteering would not have a dimension and play its game.

 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

2. As the US withdraws troops from Afghanistan, developments in the country will raise security concerns beyond South Asia. comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The US has announced that the Afghan War will end by September 11, having seized the Doha agreement as an opportunity. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan may raise security concerns beyond south Asia.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

While its withdrawal will exacerbate chaos and violence in Afghanistan and impact the wider region, there are enough indicators of a “re-engagement” by the US and NATO in the country (Afghanistan 2.0).

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain first the possibilities of re-engagement of the US in Afghanistan. While the US has reduced its troops to 10,000 and handed over responsibilities to Afghan forces in 2015, a NATO-led Train-Advise-Assist Mission and US CT mission have continued partnership with Afghan forces. While the US signed the Doha Agreement in 2020, giving edge to the Taliban, Unlike Iraq, there was clear political support for the US forces to remain in Afghanistan. Presence of active terrorist links, Current geopolitical compulsions, including the US-China competition, the China-Pakistan embrace, the China-Russia strategic partnership, and the China-Iran deal, have made Afghanistan strategically important etc.

Conclusion:

Thus, conclude that while the UN-led peace process is expected to be slow, the chaos would create more ungoverned spaces strengthening the terror infrastructure and will continue to have security implications for the region.

Introduction

American troops are set to withdraw from the country by September 11 this year, but the shadow of re-engagement looms, raising security concerns beyond South Asia. The resurgence of Taliban is a huge concern not only for Kabul but for regions in South Asia and beyond.

Body

Background

  • The US signed the Doha agreement in February 2020, dangling a “carrot” of full withdrawal, hoping the Taliban would agree to be part of an interim government.
  • The flawed peace process, which offered a clear, early edge to the Taliban, caused a deadlock in the Doha process.
  • Unlike Iraq, there was clear political support for the US forces to remain in Afghanistan.
  • But the US chose to shed the “occupier” tag and distance itself from grievances against governance and harm to civilians over the past 20 years.

 Security concerns post troop withdrawal

  • The US has announced that the Afghan War will end by September 11, having seized the Doha agreement as an opportunity.
  • While its withdrawal will exacerbate chaos and violence in Afghanistan and impact the wider region.
  • Due to the easing of UN restrictions for a few leaders and the freedom to operate from its Doha office, the Taliban continues to attend high-profile meetings in swanky hotels in Doha, while deadly attacks ravage Afghanistan.
  • Vicious attacks on civilians, such as the killing of schoolgirls in Kabul on May 8, are conveniently blamed on Islamic State Khurasan Province (ISKP) by the Taliban.
  • It is widely believed that the Pakistan army has infiltrated and is running the ISKP to “market” the Taliban as a “nationalist insurgent” group willing to fight “extremist” ISKP.
  • Groups like ISKP and al-Qaeda in Indian Subcontinent (AQIS) and their variants will be used for high-profile attacks in Afghanistan and in the region, including against Western targets, to deter deeper re-engagement in Afghanistan.
  • The chaos would create more ungoverned spaces strengthening the terror infrastructure. Hence, the developments in Afghanistan will continue to raise security concerns, far beyond South Asia.

Conclusion

Despite the withdrawal, the looming shadow of US-NATO will remain with a focus on preventing Afghanistan from becoming a safe haven. US-NATO have chosen Afghan forces, under a democratic government, as their local allies and have assured funding up to 2024. While US-NATO may focus on their specific objectives in Afghanistan 2.0, it is certain that the Taliban-ISKP-Pakistan combine will unleash much more violence.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. Explain the major issues with India’s health financing and what possible steps should be taken to address the same. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains that despite of pandemic related stimulus package, sustained health financing in Indian remains a challenge in this pandemic.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the major issues with India’s health financing and what possible steps should be taken to address the same.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some background of the question.

Body:

Various reports show the increase in out-of-pocket payments on health, with higher rate in the rural areas. This outlines why alternate sources of health financing in India need to be stressed. The COVID-19 pandemic has also forced the world to rethink climate change and the need for preservation of the environment. It has become important to bring Fiscal reforms for managing the environment, where India has great potential for revenue generation.

Suggest measures and other ideas to be practiced to address the issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

The Indian government announced a pandemic-related stimulus package in FY 2020-21 though there was large decline in tax revenue. The fiscal deficit for FY 2020-21 (revised estimates) is projected to be 9.5% of the GDP; for 2021-22, it is pegged at 6.8%. The focus is on maintaining fiscal discipline. In this peculiar scenario, sustained health financing in India remains a challenge.

Body

Background

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) provides data on the percentage of the total population where the household expenditure on health was greater than 10% and 25% of the total household expenditure or income in India in 2011.
  • This provides a clear picture of the status of spending on health by the rural and urban populations.
  • As far as health expenditure above 10% is concerned, 33% of the population in India made out-of-pocket payments on health. The percentage was higher in rural areas compared to urban areas.
  • Globally, the average was 12.67%, which means that 12.67% of the population spent more than 10% of their income (out of their pocket) on health. In Southeast Asia, 16% spent more than 10% of their household income on health.
  • The Western Pacific region came second in the list of regions that saw a rate higher than the global average.
  • Similarly, 3.9% of the population in India made more than 25% of out-of-pocket payments on health, with 4.34% in the rural areas.

Major issues with India’s health financing

  • Health budget: The health budget has neither increased nor is there any policy to strengthen the public/private sector in deficit areas. While the Ayushmaan Bharat provides portability, one must not forget that it will take time for hospitals to be established in deficit areas.
    • This in turn could cause patients to gravitate toward the southern States that have a comparatively better health infrastructure than the rest of India.
  • Infrastructure constraints: There are doubts on the capacity of India’s infrastructure to take on the additional load of patients during pandemics like Covid-19 as seen recently.
    • There is a growing medical tourism (foreign tourists/patients) as a policy being promoted by the government, and also domestic patients, both insured and uninsured.
  • Absence of primary care: In the northern States there are hardly any sub-centres and primary health centres are practically non-existent. First mile connectivity to a primary healthcare centre is broken. For eg, in Uttar Pradesh there is one PHC for every 28 villages.
  • Out of pocket expenditure high: Even the poor are forced to opt for private healthcare, and, hence, pay from their own pockets. As a result, an estimated 63 million people fall into poverty due to health expenditure, annually.
    • Inequities in the health sector exist due to many factors like geography, socio-economic status and income groups among others. Compared with countries like Sri Lanka, Thailand and China, which started at almost similar levels, India lags behind peers on healthcare outcomes.
  • Rural medical practitioners (RMPs), who provide 80% of outpatient care, have no formal qualifications for it. People fall prey for quacks, often leading to grave disabilities and loss of life.
  • Dependency on import: Compounding the problem of poor health infrastructure and low spending, especially in the current COVID-19 environment that has caused significant disruptions to the global supply chains, is India’s dependence on medical devices imports.
    • As per IMA data, India’s medical devices imports were around Rs 39,000 crore in FY2019, having seen a growth of 24 per cent from the previous year.
  • Numerous Schemes: The Government has launched many policies and health programmes but success has been partial at best. The National Health Policy(NHP) 2002 proposed to increase Government spending on health by two to three per cent of the gross domestic product (GDP) by 2010 which has not happened yet. Now, the NHP 2017, has proposed to take it to 2.5 per cent of the GDP by 2025.

 Conclusion

Especially in times of Pandemics like Covid-19, the significance and loopholes of Indian public health sector are led bare. It gives an opportunity to reform and rehaul the healthcare sector to be better equipped for future emergencies. It calls for a people-centred, decentralized public health system that socializes the cost of healthcare.

 

Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

4. What is the Reykjavik Declaration? Why is this declaration important for the Arctic region and India? Discuss.  (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

Foreign ministers of the Arctic Council recently signed their first-ever strategic plan for the region, which will guide the body’s work for the next decade. Thus the context of the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss what is Reykjavik Declaration and explain its importance for the Arctic region and India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by Reykjavik Declaration.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

The member countries’ Foreign Ministers of the Arctic Council signed the Reykjavik Declaration, reaffirming the Council’s commitment to maintain peace, stability and constructive cooperation in the Arctic region, emphasizing Arctic States’ unique position to promote responsible governance in the region.

In recognition of the Council’s 25th anniversary, the Ministers adopted Council’s first ever Strategic Plan that reflects the shared values, goals and joint aspirations of the Arctic States and Indigenous Permanent Participants. It will guide the Council’s work for the next decade.

Explain why such a declaration and strategic Plan required and important.

Conclusion:

Thus, conclude that the Arctic as a region for strategic competition has seized the world’s attention, but it is also necessary to ensure the rule of law, so that it remains a region free of conflict where countries act responsibly. Through this declaration and plan, the council can act as an enabler to make the Arctic a region of peace, stability, and constructive cooperation.

Introduction

Acknowledging the unique biodiversity of the Arctic, the ministers representing the eight Arctic States, noting with concern the serious threats to Arctic ecosystems due to climate change and other stressors, reaffirmed their commitment to the protection of the Arctic environment. This is the Reykjavik declaration, signed on May 20th 2021, in Iceland.

Body

Threat to Arctic Climate

  • The warming Arctic tundra will make it harder for the world to curb climate change, as thawing permafrost and wildfires release greenhouse gases that are not fully accounted for in global emissions agreements.
  • As temperatures rise and permafrost thaws, carbon dioxide and methane trapped within the long-frozen soil are released. The deeper the thaw, the more gas is released.
  • That threatens to create a feedback loop that contributes to even more warming of the atmosphere.
  • The Arctic is in the process of disintegrating as we know it, and the permafrost is one major component with some pretty grave implications.

Importance of the declaration for Arctic region

  • Siberia saw its highest-ever recorded temperature last summer, when the far north town of Verkhoyansk hit 38℃. Also last year, unprecedented wildfires in the region released about 35% more carbon dioxide than in 2019, which saw the highest emissions from Russian fires since 2003.
  • Policymakers need to be pursuing deeper emissions cuts. In this context Reykjavik declaration is committed to protect the Arctic environment.
  • Recognizing the cooperative strength of the Arctic States and the Permanent Participants, declaration call upon members to address new challenges and opportunities in the Arctic.
  • Stressing the importance of achieving the Paris Agreement goals and, in that regard, calling upon all parties to the Paris Agreement, including Arctic States and Arctic Council Observer States, to implement and enhance nationally determined contributions and other measures in line with the Paris Agreement goals.
  • Noting the essential role of the human and social dimension in the work of the Arctic Council, reaffirming that the well-being of Arctic inhabitants is at the core of the Council’s work, recognizing the diversity of societies, cultures and economies in the Arctic, and acknowledging the effects of a devastating pandemic.
  • Recognizing the rights and the special circumstances of indigenous Peoples and the unique role of the Permanent Participants within the Arctic Council and noting the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of indigenous Peoples.
  • A new Arctic marine strategic plan has also been envisaged to protect marine biodiversity.

Conclusion

Arctic permafrost thawing will blow the worlds budget of green-house gas emissions. There will be global repercussions of changes in Arctic. Thus, it is important that members of Arctic council are committed to conservation of the region.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. India’s economic recovery post pandemic seems to be K shaped. In this context, Discuss and suggest some policies needed for higher growth and a reduction in inequalities. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The second wave of the pandemic is receding although it continues to have a significant adverse impact on lives, livelihoods and the economy.

Key Demand of the question:

Suggest some policies needed for higher growth and a reduction in inequalities.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the current covid-19 situation.

Body:

The country has to address the issue of rising inequalities for achieving higher sustainable growth and the well-being of a larger population. Inequalities were increasing earlier also, but the first and second waves of the pandemic have widened them further. The State of Working in India 2021 report of the Azim Premji University revealed that both poverty and inequality increased during the first wave.

Suggest some policies needed for higher growth and a reduction in inequalities- aggressive vaccination programme, improving the healthcare facilities in both rural and urban areas, create universal healthcare facilities for all etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

Introduction

The impact of the pandemic on the economy is expected to be lower this time as the lockdown is less stringent. However, one difference between the first wave and second wave is that the latter is spreading to rural areas also. It is known that rural areas have poor health infrastructure. Similar to the first wave, inequalities are also increasing during the second wave. Thus, India has to address both growth and inequality issues.

Body

Background: India’s K shaped economic recovery

  • The recovery seemed to be K-shaped during the first wave. The share of wages declined as compared to that of profits.
  • A large part of the corporate sector could manage the pandemic with many listed companies recording higher profits.
  • On the other hand, the informal workers including daily wage labourers, migrants, MSMEs etc. suffered a lot with loss of incomes and employment.
  • The recovery post the second wave is also likely to be K-shaped with rising inequalities.
  • The overall GDP growth would be less than the earlier expectations — the GDP growth in 2021-22 is expected to be around 8 per cent.
  • The level of real GDP in 2019-20 was Rs 145.7 lakh crore. At the end of 2021-22, the level of GDP may be the same or lower than that in 2019-20.
  • In other words, India would have zero per cent or negative growth over the two-year period FY20 to FY22.
  • This is on top of the continuous slowdown of the economy during the eight quarters preceding the pandemic.
  • India may become a $5-trillion economy only in 2026-27 or beyond with the assumption of 12 per cent nominal growth in the next few years.
  • In other words, much more effort is required to compensate for the lost growth and put the economy on a higher growth path.

Policy measures for higher growth and reducing inequality

The government should have a three-pronged approach.

  • First, an aggressive vaccination programme and improving the healthcare facilities in both rural and urban areas is needed.
  • Reducing the health crisis can lead to an economic revival. Vaccine inequality between urban and rural areas has to be reduced.
  • As rural areas have poor health infrastructure, more efforts are needed to reach the rural areas for vaccination.
  • The crisis can be used as an opportunity to create universal healthcare facilities for all, particularly rural areas. Other states can learn from Kerala on building health infrastructure.
  • Second, the budget offered some good announcements relating to capital investment in infrastructure.
  • The Development Financial Institution (DFI) for funding long-term infrastructure projects is being established.
  • A boost to infrastructure investment, including in rural areas, can lift the economy out of the Covid-19 induced slowdown.
  • Third, there is a need for safety nets including cash transfers. The informal workers and other vulnerable sections including MSMEs have been dealt back-to-back blows in the last 13 months due to the first and second waves.
  • A majority of workers have experienced a loss of earnings. Therefore, apart from its focus on infrastructure, the government has to provide safety nets in the form of free food grains for six more months, expand work offered under MGNREGA in both rural and urban areas and undertake a cash transfer to provide minimum basic income.

Conclusion

Monetary policy is already very accommodative and there are limits to more accommodation. In the near term, fiscal policy has to play a more important role in achieving the objectives of growth, jobs and equity by expanding the fiscal space by restructuring expenditure, widening the tax base and increasing non-tax revenue.

 

Topic:  Awareness in the fields of IT

6. Discuss the concept of AI cloud. Examine it significance in adoption of AI strategy in India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article brings to us insights on the concept of AI cloud and its significance.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the concept of AI cloud and examine it significance in adoption of AI strategy in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with definition of AI cloud in general.

Body:

Explain that the AI cloud brings together AI hardware and software to deliver AI software-as-a-service on hybrid cloud infrastructure. AI will make cloud computing significantly more effective.

An AI cloud consists of a shared infrastructure for AI use cases, supporting numerous projects and AI workloads simultaneously, on cloud infrastructure at any given point in time.

The AI cloud brings together AI hardware and software (including open source) to deliver AI software-as-a-service on hybrid cloud infrastructure, providing enterprises access to AI and enabling them to harness AI capabilities.

Discuss then the advantages of AI cloud. The most compelling advantages of AI cloud are the challenges it addresses. It democratizes AI, making it more accessible. By lowering adoption costs and facilitating co-creation and innovation, it drives AI-powered transformation for enterprises.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance to India.

Introduction

The AI cloud, a concept only now starting to be implemented by enterprises, combines artificial intelligence (AI) with cloud computing. Two factors are driving it: AI tools and software delivering new, increased value to cloud computing which is no more just an economical option for data storage and computation but playing a significant role in AI adoption.

Body

Concept of AI cloud

  • An AI cloud consists of a shared infrastructure for AI use cases, supporting numerous projects and AI workloads simultaneously, on cloud infrastructure at any given point in time.
  • The AI cloud brings together AI hardware and software (including open source) to deliver AI software-as-a-service on hybrid cloud infrastructure, providing enterprises access to AI and enabling them to harness AI capabilities.
  • A significant amount of processing power is required to run AI algorithms, making it unaffordable for many enterprises, but this deterrent is being eliminated by the recent availability of AI software-as-a-service, on the lines of software-as-a-service or infrastructure-as-a-service.

Significance in the context of AI strategy for India

  • The most compelling advantages of AI cloud are the challenges it addresses. It democratises AI, making it more accessible.
  • By lowering adoption costs and facilitating co-creation and innovation, it drives AI-powered transformation for enterprises.
  • The cloud is veritably becoming a force multiplier for AI, making AI-driven insights available for everyone.
  • Besides, though cloud computing technology now is far more prevalent than the use of AI itself, we can safely assume that AI will make cloud computing significantly more effective.
  • AI-driven initiatives, providing strategic inputs for decision-making, are backed by the cloud’s flexibility, agility, and scale to power such intelligence massively.
  • The cloud dramatically increases the scope and sphere of influence of AI, beginning with the user enterprise itself and then in the larger marketplace.
  • In fact, AI and the cloud will feed off each other, aiding the true potential of AI flower through the cloud.
  • Considering the new push from Niti Ayog on Artificial intelligence, AI cloud can augment the efforts in this area by providing the necessary agility and speed.

Conclusion

Enterprise software integrated with AI is now the primary way of using AI and such software is increasingly cloud-based, helping in making AI cloud more real. Future exists in collaborating with enterprises to create domain specific scenarios and models for different industries such as telecom, manufacturing, healthcare, finance, and insurance. Verticals that can help in quickly weaving AI capabilities to realise their vision of becoming an AI-first enterprise.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance

7. What do you understand by Emotional Intelligence (EI)? Highlight its significance; discuss the ways to develop EI among civil servants. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of EI.  

Key Demand of the question:

Explain what do you understand by Emotional Intelligence (EI)? Highlight its significance; discuss the ways to develop EI among civil servants.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Emotional Intelligence.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) and discuss its components

Highlight the significance and importance of EI for civil servants.

Discuss the ways to develop EI among civil servants. Give examples to justify your answer better.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of it.

Introduction

Emotional intelligence refers to the capability of a person to manage and control his or her emotions and possess the ability to control the emotions of others as well. In other words, they can influence the emotions of other people also.

Body

Emotional intelligence

Emotional intelligence or EI is the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, and those of the people around you. Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth.

It is said to have five main elements such as – self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. Of these, self-regulation is of significant importance in this context, especially for civil servants.

For instance, watching social media and comparing ourselves with someone else might lead to extreme anxiety about our inadequacies or shortcomings. Instead of indicting ourselves for our situation, one must understand that every individual has their own trajectory in life. And circumstances surrounding one’s riches or well-being can be very different.

Significance of Emotional Intelligence

  • The chances of succeeding are skewed towards people who are better able to manage

themselves and others emotionally, one’s who are likeable and trustworthy.

  • Research shows that more than 80% percent of success is due to skills in “human engineering,” personality and ability to communicate, negotiate, and lead. Only 15 percent is due to technical knowledge.
  • Additionally, Nobel Prize winning psychologist, Daniel Kahneman, found that people would rather do business with a person they like and trust rather than someone they don’t, even if the likeable person is offering a lower quality product or service at a higher price.
  • Hence, instead of exclusively focusing on conventional intelligence quotient, one should make an investment in strengthening his/her EQ (Emotional Intelligence). The concepts of EQ may be difficult to measure, but their significance is far greater than IQ.
  • Simply put, emotional intelligence is that “something” within us that help us to sense how we feel and enables us to truly connect with others and form a bond.
  • It gives us the ability to be present and listen to someone when they most need it. It is that sense of internal balance within us that enables us to keep our composure, make good decisions, communicate successfully, and maintain effective leadership even when under stress.

 Ways to develop Emotional Intelligence among civil servants

  • Self-regard: Having high self-regard means that one has a good understanding of his

strengths and weaknesses. Acting on this understanding requires that you have good self-

knowledge and effectively strike a balance between being confident and being arrogant.

People are more comfortable helping others who demonstrate the right amount of                           humility.

  • Optimism: People find optimism and happiness attractive attributes. People are more likely

to cooperate with someone who’s optimistic.

  • Approachability: Approachability, like optimism, attracts people. When we’re happy others are more pleasant to be around. Being happy add to “likability” factor. It can also be contagious. Everybody likes to be happy, and being around happy people contributes to one’s own happiness.
  • Self-evaluation: By self-evaluating oneself, one can know one’s emotions and reactions to different situations. By observing others, one can comprehend feelings of others.
  • Communication: By improving one’s expression, one can communicate better.

Conclusion

In the civil services, emotional intelligence is beneficial to manage the emotions in a manner that will be helpful to achieve productive outcomes. High-EI individuals, could reduce the effects of negative emotions like anger or rage on their decision-making. Rage and anger are not only removed as hindrances, but also used to enhance the quality of decisions. Therefore, emotionally intelligent civil services could result in better decisions especially when more negative emotions accompany decisions.


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