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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 May 2021

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

1. What were the aims and objectives of the Indian National Congress at the time of its inception? Discuss how far was it successful to achieve the targets (250 words)

Reference:  Modern Indian history by Spectrum Publications

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I , part Modern history.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the details of the aims and objectives of the Indian National Congress at the time of its inception and its success.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the situation prevalent at the time of formation of Indian National Congress (INC).

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain the aims and objectives of the INC at the time of its inception. In the later 1870s and early 1880s, a solid ground had been prepared for the establishment of an all-India organisation. The final shape to this idea was given by a retired English civil servant, A.O. Hume, who mobilized leading intellectuals of the time and, with their cooperation, organized the first session of the Indian National Congress in December 1885.

Evaluate the success of INC to achieve the targets in its early phase. Also present the challenges associated.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction

In the later 1870s and early 1880s, a solid ground had been prepared for the establishment of an all-India organisation. The final shape to this idea was given by a retired English civil servant, A.O. Hume, who mobilized leading intellectuals of the time and, with their cooperation, organized the first session of the Indian National Congress in December 1885.

Body

The first session of the Indian National Congress was, attended by 72 delegates and presided over by WC Banerjee. Hereafter, the Congress met every year in December, in a different part of the country each time.

Aims and objectives of INC at the time of its inception

These were as follows

  • To establish a democratic, nationalist movement;
  • Politicise and politically educate people;
  • Establish the headquarters for a ‘movement;
  • Promote friendly relations among nationalist political workers from different parts of the country;
  • Develop and propagate an anti-colonial nationalist ideology;
  • Formulate and present popular demands before the Government with a view to unifying the people over a common economic and political programme;
  • Develop and consolidate a feeling of national unity among people irrespective of religion, caste or province.
  • Carefully promote and nurture Indian nationhood.

Early success of the nationalists from Indian National Congress

  • The early nationalists, led by Dadabhai Naoroji, R.C. Dutt, Dinshaw Wacha and others, carefully analysed the political economy of British rule in India, and put forward, the drain theory to explain British exploitation of India.
  • To mitigate the deprivation characterising Indian life, the early nationalists demanded severance of India’s economic subservience to Britain and development of an independent economy through involvement of Indian capital and enterprise.
  • They represented the most progressive forces of the time.
  • They were able to create a wide national awakening of all Indians having common interests and the need to rally around a common programme against a common enemy, and above all, the feeling of belonging to one nation.
  • They trained people in political work and popularised modern ideas.
  • They exposed the basically exploitative character of colonial rule, thus undermining its moral foundations.
  • Their political work was based on hard realities, and not on shallow sentiments, religion, etc.
  • They were able to establish the basic political truth that India should be ruled in the interest of Indians.
  • They created a solid base for a more vigorous, militant, mass- based national movement in the following years.

Conclusion

The early nationalists set the stage for more militant trend to emerge during the last decade of 19th century. Eventually the freedom struggle reached the masses and became one of the most spectacular mass movements in history of India culminating in its Independence from colonialism.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

2.  “The universalization of social security remains an unsatisfied aspiration in the new code on social security”. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains in what way the universalization of social security remains an unfulfilled aspiration in the new code on social security.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically analyse the new code on social security and its lacuna with respect to universalization.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief context of the question.

Body:

India’s Parliament in September 2020 passed a Social Security Code (SS Code 2020).

The SS Code 2020 merges existing social security laws and attempts to include informal workers within the ambit of social security administration. It proposes that both the central and State governments will formulate schemes for unorganized workers. The legal framework as proposed in the Code and Rules, implies that the basic onus lies on informal workers registering as beneficiaries. Registration is a prerequisite for universal coverage. To avail social security, an informal worker must register herself on the specified online portal to be developed by the central government.

Discuss the challenges in detail and suggest what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

India is grappling with the second wave of the pandemic that ravaged whole of 2020 around the globe. The country witnessed multiple crises: mass inter- and intra-migration, food insecurity, and a crumbling health infrastructure. The second wave has brought even the middle and upper-class citizens to their knees. Economic capital, in the absence of social capital, has proven to be insufficient in accessing healthcare facilities. Illness is universal, but healthcare is not.

Body

Social Security Code 2020

  • India’s Parliament in September 2020 passed a Social Security Code (SS Code 2020). The SS Code 2020 merges existing social security laws and attempts to include informal workers within the ambit of social security administration.
  • The SS Code 2020 amalgamates and rationalises the provisions of eight existing central labour laws.
  • Of these acts, employees provident fund, employees state insurance (ESI), maternity benefit, gratuity are entirely for organised sector workers.
  • This has remained so even in the new scheme of things. For employees’ state insurance, the existing employee threshold has been withdrawn and now the central government can extend ESI benefits to any organisation irrespective of the number of workers employed therein.
  • However, there are areas of ambiguity and overlapping too.

Issues with the code

  • It proposes that both the central and State governments will formulate schemes for unorganised workers.
  • The legal framework as proposed in the Code and Rules, implies that the basic onus lies on informal workers registering as beneficiaries. Registration is a prerequisite for universal coverage.
  • To avail social security, an informal worker must register herself on the specified online portal to be developed by the central government.
  • Similar provisions are already there in existing social security schemes run by State governments under the Unorganized Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008.
  • Still, a large number of informal workers are outside the ambit of any social security even after 13 years.
  • The absence of definite and unambiguous provisions in the present code would further complicate achievement of universal registration.
  • Also, experience shows that there is an awful lack of awareness among informal workers regarding social security schemes. Online registration places a further challenge as most informal workers lack digital literacy and connectivity.
  • Under the SS Code, the provision of maternity benefit has not been made universal. Maternity benefit is presently applicable for establishments employing 10 workers or more.

Need for a universal social security

  • We have seen an example of a universal healthcare programme that India ran successfully — the Pulse Polio Universal Immunisation Programme. In 2014, India was declared polio-free. It took a dedicated effort over a number of years.
  • With the advancements in knowledge and technology, a universal coverage of social welfare is possible in a shorter time frame.
  • Having a universal system would improve the ease of application by consolidating the data of all eligible beneficiaries under one database. It can also reduce exclusion errors.
  • The Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMGKY) is one scheme that can be strengthened into universal social security. It already consolidates the public distribution system (PDS), the provision of gas cylinders, and wages for the MGNREGS.
  • Having a universal scheme would take away this access/exclusion barrier. For example, PDS can be linked to a universal identification card such as the Aadhaar or voter card, in the absence of a ration card.
  • This would allow anyone who is in need of foodgrains to access these schemes. It would be especially useful for migrant populations.
  • Making other schemes/welfare provisions like education, maternity benefits, disability benefits etc. also universal would ensure a better standard of living for the people.
  • The implementation of any of these ideas is only possible through a focus on data digitisation, data-driven decision-making and collaboration across government departments.

Conclusion

To ensure some of these issues are addressed, we need to map the State and Central schemes in a consolidated manner. This is to avoid duplication, inclusion and exclusion errors in welfare delivery. Alongside, a study to understand costs of welfare access for vulnerable groups can be conducted. This will help give a targeted way forward.

 

 

Topic: Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

3. What is the rationale for creation of State Legislative Councils? Discuss the criticisms leveled against State Legislative Councils?  (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The West Bengal cabinet has decided to set up a Legislative Council. The formation of a legislative council was one of the promises included in the election manifesto of the Trinamool Congress.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the rationale for creation of State Legislative Councils and the criticisms for the same.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with basic demand of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Firstly explain the Constitutional Provision for the abolition or creation of a Legislative Council.

Then explain the rationale for creation of State Legislative Councils? – Check on hasty legislation, Prevent arbitrary and populist legislation, sharing workload with the assembly, Accommodation of experienced individuals etc.

Then discuss the criticisms leveled against State Legislative Councils – No substantial power, Accommodating Party Functionaries, Promotion of vested interests etc.

Conclusion:

Suggest what needs to be done and conclude with way forward.

Introduction

The power of abolition and creation of the State legislative council is vested in Parliament of India as per Article 169. To create or to abolish a state legislative council, the state legislative assembly must pass a resolution, which must be supported by majority of the strength of the house and 2/3rd majority of the present and voting

Body

Rationale for creation of State Legislative Councils

  • The Constituent Assembly was divided on having a second chamber in the states.
  • It was argued that a second House can help check hasty actions by the directly elected House, and also enable non-elected persons to contribute to the legislative process.
  • To allow leaders, professors, and other people who shy from elections to participate in legislative process.
  • To formulate better and detailed discussed legislation.
  • Upper House consisting of graduates, teachers, outstanding persons in the fields of art, literature, science and social service, check-mate the radicalism of the lower House.
  • Having a second chamber would allow for more debate and sharing of work between the Houses.

Criticisms levelled against State legislative councils

  • Superfluous: If a majority of the members in the upper house belong to the same party which holds majority in the lower house, the upper house will become a mere ditto chamber. On the other hand, if two different parties are in majority, the upper house will delay the bills for months unnecessarily. Thus, its role may become nasty and obstructive.
  • Not an Effective Check: Powers of the Legislative Councils are limited and hardly impose any effective check on the Assemblies. Whether a Bill is approved by the Council or not, assembly can still go ahead after four months.
  • Vested Interests: Legislative Council serves only as stronghold of vested interests of people, who are not interested in legislation. Instead, they may block such legislation initiated by popularly elected Legislative Assembly.
  • Backdoor Entrance of the Defeated Members: Legislative Council can be utilised to accommodate discredited party-men who may not be returned to the Assemblies.
  • Expensive: It is expensive and a big drain on the State’s exchequer.

Conclusion

Second chambers in our States have proved to be ornamental which is a burden on public money. The members of the Legislative Council also owe allegiance to one party or the other and eventually act according to the dictates of a party to which they belong. The provision of the law for Councils to have seats for graduates and teachers should be reviewed. Legislative councils should be a responsible body that can also form their part in policies and programmes for the development of states.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

4. Accurate forecasts and resilience ­building are quintessential in handling severe cyclones. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference:  NDTV

Why the question:

Cyclone Tauktae which has made landfall on the western coast of India has caused loss of life and destruction of infrastructure in Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way accurate forecasts and resilience ¬building are quintessential in handling severe cyclones

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief context of the question.

Body:

Given the fact that it is very likely that India will see more frequent cyclones every year due to global warming, India should work towards mitigating the damage to life and property from these adverse climatic phenomena. The following measures will help in this direction.

India needs to develop greater expertise in forecasting which will help in the issuance of precise early warnings.

Given the rapid intensification of cyclones, there is very little time available to take immediate measures for evacuation at the ground. State-of-the-art cyclone models are unable to pick this rapid intensification because they do not incorporate the ocean dynamics accurately. This is a forecasting challenge that needs to be addressed.

Discuss the importance of Disaster mitigation and resilience building.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

Cyclone Tauktae hit western coast recently. Over 16,000 houses were damaged, more than 40,000 trees and over 70,000 electric poles uprooted, while 5,951 villages faced total power blackout due to the cyclonic storm in Gujarat. Many ONGC employees lost lives in Maharashtra.

Body

Need for accurate forecasts

  • Last year, the India Meteorological Department (IMD) launched an impact-based cyclone warning system from the October-December season designed to reduce economic losses by focusing on districts and specific locations, and incorporating such factors as population, infrastructure, land use and settlements.
  • The IMD also claimed that its accuracy of forecasts, for instance, in plotting landfall location, is now better. Together with ground mapping of vulnerabilities, this is a promising approach to avoid loss of life and destruction of property.
  • The importance of precise early warnings cannot be overemphasised, considering that the Arabian Sea has emerged as a major source of severe cyclones, and their intensity is aggravated by long-term rise in sea surface temperatures linked to pollution over South Asia and its neighbourhood.
  • Climate-proofing lives and dwellings is a high priority now, a task that warrants a multi-sectoral approach: to build sturdy homes of suitable design, create adequate storm shelters, provide accurate early warnings, and ensure financial protection against calamities through insurance for property and assets.

Building resilience in handling severe cyclones

  • Early Warning Systems: It consists of Automatic Weather Stations, Doppler radars, High Wind Speed Recorders, Ocean buoys, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles etc. They provide critical information for tracking and forecasting intensity of cyclones.
  • Communication and Dissemination Systems: They are a pre-requisite for the proper functioning of cyclone warning. It consists of cellular telephone network, Disaster Warning System (DWS) terminals, etc.
  • Management of Coastal Zones: A holistic approach to Coastal Zone Management (CZM), like proper planning of the coastal areas for locating communities and infrastructure in safer areas, protecting and restoring natural bio-shields etc., can minimise loss of life and damage to property to a considerable extent.
  • Mangrove forests and shelterbelts constitute Bio-shields in coastal areas and provide ecological security. Their preservation is to be done by effective implementation of Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Rules.
  • Awareness Generation: Awareness encompasses a wide range of modes of sensitising communities, neighbourhoods and various functionaries from the local to the national level.
  • Ensure availability of adequate numbers of shelters, community centres/school buildings, places of worship, etc., which can be utilised for moving people from vulnerable areas to safety.
  • To provide at least one all-weather link road for each village that is accessible during cyclone or flooding periods.
  • Construction of ‘saline embankments’ is carried out to protect habitation, agriculture crop and important installations along the coast.

 Conclusion

A range of technological advances has now made cyclone forecasting a lot more accurate, thus reducing risks. Along with cyclones, problems associated with cyclones such as rainfall, storm surge and coastal inundation can also be accurately forecast in terms of magnitude, time and place of occurrence. This has resulted in reduction in loss of lives, and brought down the costs involved in evacuation of population.

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. What do you understand by Techno-nationalism?  Explain the factors that prevented India’s technological advancement in the past.  (250 words)

Reference:  Business Standard.

Why the question:

Techno-nationalism is on the sharp rise where nation states are using their superiority in specific technologies to rise up the global hierarchy and dominate other nations.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of Techno-nationalism and explain the factors that prevented India’s technological advancement in the past. 

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by Techno-Nationalism.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Techno-nationalism as oppose to Techno-globalisation; Techno-globalisation seeks the free flow of technologies and sharing of innovations in order to bring countries and individuals on a shared platform to solve social problems. Techno-nationalism sees nation states using their superiority in specific technologies rise up the global hierarchy and dominates other nations.

Discuss the current state of affairs with respect to global affairs. Discuss the context of India; India has targeted self-sufficiency and techno-nationalism, due to rising tensions with China.

Explain the factors that prevented India’s technological advancement in the past.

Conclusion:

India should be more ambitious in develop cutting edge technologies to escape remaining a techno-colony.

Introduction

Techno-nationalism is a new strain of mercantilist thinking that links technological innovation and capabilities directly to a nation’s national security, economic prosperity and social stability. The state, therefore, must intervene and guard against opportunistic or hostile state and non-state actors. Techno-nationalism seeks to attain competitive advantage for its stakeholders, both locally and globally, and leverage these advantages for geopolitical gain.

Body

Techno-nationalism

  • Techno-nationalism is built on the premise that the world has entered a new era of systemic competition between the West’s increasingly short-sighted laissez faire model and China’s state-centric capitalism.
  • Differences in ideological values are helping to accelerate the adoption of competitive techno-nationalist policies.
  • Democracies and dictatorships are looking to implement technology-enabled mechanisms that enforce and empower vastly different standards around data privacy, surveillance, censorship, transparency, digital money and intellectual property.
  • The competing ideologies of Techno-nationalism, therefore, could fracture the international system in ways not seen since the rivalry between the U.S. and Russia during the Cold War.
  • For instance, to counter Huawei’s dominant market position in wireless technology, Washington is exploring ways to fund Nokia and Ericsson, two of Huawei’s competitors, as well as looking at how to incentivize new strategic alliances involving Oracle and Cisco, two U.S. companies with operations in the radio frequency space.

Factors that prevented India’s technological advancement in the past

  • Colonial exploitation and the disempowerment of India’s wealth and resources. Human capital was not adequately honed.
  • Post-Independence, there was an inward-looking economy till 1991, which prevented incoming technological exchange with other nations.
  • High brain-drain in the country due to lack of specialisation and expertise in many sectors.
  • High poverty and poor capacity of the economy that could not embed technology.
  • Private players were not active until India went for LPG reforms.

Way forward

  • It’s globalization’s counter swing. After years of rising global connectivity, the anti-globalization blowback has manifested in the rise of techno-nationalism. This must be prevented by global cooperation.
  • There is a need to further enhance interdependence.
  • One must renew the emphasis on win-win collaboration while at the same time respecting security concerns.
  • We should take control of technology and use technology to serve the best interests of humans and all countries – not close the door.

Conclusion

The logical way to prevent the Galapagos syndrome, therefore, will be to invest massively in public private partnerships around R&D, education and human capital development. This will allow policymakers to build upon the advantages of leading companies and institutions without hampering their ability to participate in global value chains.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: corporate governance. Work culture

6. Examine the impact of company culture on the employees with suitable examples. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article explains how company culture affects employee engagement.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the importance of company culture thus the importance of work culture.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by company culture.

Body:

Company culture is critical to the success and sustainability of any organisation as it directs employees via engagement initiatives for driving satisfaction and effective interpersonal relationships. Employees who are more satisfied and engaged in their workspaces, positively impact their roles and the work culture through their daily actions — as they have a well-rounded work ethic and commitment to the organization’s goals.

Take hints from the article and discuss all the key values essential for good company culture.

Conclusion:

Conclude with methods to practice good company culture.

Introduction

Company culture or organizational culture is described as the set of beliefs, norms, values and individual personalities that represent the way an organization completes business related activities.

Body

Impact of company culture on the employees

  • Company culture can impact sales, profits, recruiting efforts and employee morale, whether positively or negatively.
  • A great company culture attracts people who want to work or do business with a company. It can inspire employees to be more productive and positive at work while reducing turnover.
  • Company Culture Influences Individual Mindsets. High-performance cultures foster high performing team members – think of it as positive peer pressure.
  • Employees work together to achieve certain goals. As the goals become more specific, organizations often undertake their own, unique road, which can lead to both success and failure.
  • The choice of the road is highly influenced by the individuals that work together and the overall atmosphere around the place.
  • As the economy continues to recover from the recession, the job market is showing steady improvement.
  • That means businesses could start to see more turnover, as employees seek greener pastures.
  • However, positive company culture can ensure that employees remain satisfied with their jobs and loyal to the organization.
  • This can be extremely beneficial in a competitive hiring environment. People are much more interested in signing on (and staying) with a company culture that promotes flexibility, supports employee development and offers work-life balance.
  • Organizations that value employees emphasize safety. A culture of safety becomes ingrained, and employees are more mindful and engaged when performing their duties.
  • Cultures that foster employee development and growth give workers something to work toward and look forward to. Such cultures prevent boredom and job stagnation while keeping things exciting and interesting.

Conclusion

In today’s highly competitive business environment, everything from sales to recruiting becomes more challenging. One way to make it all easier is by being a company that people want to do business with and work for. Smart organizations know that strong, positive company culture is one of their most important assets.

 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. What are the consequences of ‘politicization of bureaucracy’? Discuss. (250 words )

Reference:  thedailystar.net

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of politicization of bureaucracy’.

Key Demand of the question:

One is

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by politicization of bureaucracy’.

Body:

Cooperation between elected representatives and bureaucrats is essential for democratic governance of the country. However, due to ‘politicization of bureaucracy’, there is a deterioration in the functioning of the civil services.

Politicisation of bureaucracy is not a new phenomenon in democracy. However, the intensity of application and reasons for politicisation vary from country to country. There are some levels of political involvement in personnel matters in all countries. Politicisation of bureaucracy in a descriptive sense refers to the right of governments to appoint their own people to senior public service positions, and pejorative politicisation on the other hand refers to the substitution of political criteria for merit based criteria.

Give examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

Politicisation of Bureaucracy refers to undue political influence in the governance due to nexus between bureaucracy and politics resulting in government appointing their own people to sensitive positions and higher offices. Bureaucrats need to maintain political neutrality and impartiality to ensure the triumph of democracy.

Body

Background

  • Politicisation of bureaucracy is not a new phenomenon in democracy. However, the intensity of application and reasons for politicisation vary from country to country.
  • There are some levels of political involvement in personnel matters in all countries.
  • For instance, the United States has over 4,000 political appointments at federal level.
  • Even Britain, which was considered to have a strong tradition of neutral civil servants, has shown evidence of greater politicisation.
  • For instance, the undue political interference of the government in power in the functioning of the central bureau of investigation has led to severe criticisms about the institute.
  • Supreme Court even called CBI as caged parrot which speaks for its masters.
  • There is also a perception in the country that CBI has become a tool of political vendetta of government to suppress voice of opposition.

Consequences of politicization of bureaucracy

  • In each government-service, there are various factions based on language, religion, caste and region. To gain promotion and perks for their faction, they’d bend to the wills of politicians.
  • There will be more secrecy in official functioning. As a result, there develops nexus between the political executive and civil servants to fulfil their illegitimate gratifications.
  • Due to lack of independent board, civil servants align with one or the other political party to get their favourite postings and other perks.
  • Transfers have been used as instruments of reward and punishment, as tools for controlling and taming the bureaucracy. There is no transparency, and in the public mind transfer after a short stay is categorised as a stigma.
  • Some civil servants are deeply involved in partisan politics: they are preoccupied with it, penetrated by it, and now participate individually and collectively in it.
  • Over the years, whatever virtues the IAS possessed – integrity, political neutrality, courage and high morale – are showing signs of decay.

Way Forward

  • As a civil servant, one has the responsibility towards public and must adhere to constitutional principles keeping his conscience intact. His primary job is to perform Nishkama Karma (selfless and desire less duty).
  • Independent Civil Services Board should be set up, as it directed by the Supreme Court to take care of all service matters with objectivity and independently of political consideration.
  • Earnestly implementing RTI Act, especially the pro-active disclosure clause so as to bring transparency in official functioning, breaking the unholy nexus.
  • Effective performance appraisal of civil servants by independent body and aligning it with their promotions, incentives and other service conditions.

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