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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 18 May 2021

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

1. Is the Arabian Sea becoming cyclone-friendly? Don’t you think in recent years, strong cyclones have been developing in the Arabian Sea more frequently than earlier? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  Financial Express

Why the question:

Cyclone Tauktae (pronounced Tau-Te), classified as a very severe cyclonic storm (VSCS) and developed in the Arabian Sea, is wreaking havoc all across the Indian Coast. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss why in recent years, strong cyclones have been developing in the Arabian Sea more frequently than earlier.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief description of how in recent years, strong cyclones have been developing in the Arabian Sea more frequently than earlier.

Body:

Typically, tropical cyclones in the North Indian Ocean region (the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea) develop during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon (October to December) periods.

May-June and October-November are known to produce cyclones of severe intensity that affect the Indian coasts.

Discuss the reasons – In the Arabian Sea, cyclones typically develop over the Lakshadweep area and largely traverse westwards, or away from India’s west coast. However, in recent years, meteorologists have observed that the Arabian Sea, too, has been warming. This is a phenomenon associated with global warming.

Substantiate your answer with suitable facts.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

After recent Cyclone Tauktae, this is the third year in a row that cyclones in the Arabian Sea have menaced the west coast. Nisarga in 2020 even made landfall near Alibaug in Maharashtra while in 2019 Vayu moved parallel to the shoreline.

Body

Arabian sea and cyclones

  • Cyclone Tauktae, which formed over the Arabian Sea a few hours ago, makes 2021 the fourth consecutive year to witness an Arabian Sea cyclone during the pre-monsoon season (April–June).
  • This is also the third consecutive year when a cyclone has come so very close to the west coast of India.
  • In 2019, Cyclone Vayu moved parallel to the west coast and made landfall on the coast of Gujarat.
  • In 2020, Cyclone Nisarga was the first cyclone in recorded history that hit the Maharashtra coast in June.
  • Experts said the recent frequency of cyclones was a clear sign of temperatures rising in the Arabian Sea.
  • These low-pressure systems are formed when warm, moist air rises up from the sea surface.
  • Historically, waters off the western coast have experienced fewer storms than the Bay of Bengal, and typically weaker.
  • The rapid warming of the Arabian Sea is leading to not just more cyclones but also more extreme rain events.
  • Due to these warm ocean conditions, it is seen that the cyclone intensifies from a weak cyclone to an extremely severe cyclone rapidly.

 Increasing frequency of cyclones on west coast

  • Tropical cyclones draw their energy from the warm waters—a reason why they form over the warm pool regions where temperatures are above 28°C.
  • Sea surface temperatures over the Bay of Bengal are always above 28°C, and therefore, it used to host way more cyclones than the Arabian Sea which is a degree or two cooler.
  • Now, the scenario is changing due to rapid warming. Sea surface temperatures in the Arabian Sea have increased rapidly during the past century, and now the temperatures are very often above the warm pool threshold.
  • Warmer temperatures support active convection, heavy rainfall, and intense cyclones. Arabian Sea temperatures prior to cyclone formation are now 1.2–1.4°C higher in the recent decades, compared to those four decades ago.
  • This has led to an increase in the frequency and intensity of cyclones in the Arabian Sea. Recent research shows that widespread extreme rainfall events (above 150 mm/day) that cause floods have also increased by threefold over India, in response to Arabian Sea warming.
  • Climate projections indicate that the Arabian Sea will continue warming due to increasing carbon emissions, resulting in more intense cyclones in the future.
  • Considering that both cyclones and floods due to heavy rains are increasing across the west coast along with a gradual rise in sea level, we need to be prepared.

Conclusion
Global warming has presented us with new challenges such as rapid intensification of cyclones, which need to be closely monitored at higher resolution and accuracy using on-site platforms such as buoys and moorings. Improving the Indian Ocean Observing System (IndOOS) and incorporating the global warming signals in the weather models can help us tackle the challenges of intense cyclones in the future.

 

Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country. Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

2. Discuss in what way the policies of Jawaharlal Nehru aided in the nation-building and post-independence consolidation of India. (250 words)

Reference:  jetir.org

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I, part Modern Indian history.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to discuss in what way the policies of Jawaharlal Nehru aided in the nation-building and post-independence consolidation of India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start the answer by briefly explaining the challenges faced by the newly independent India.

Body:

The answer body must discuss Nehru’s role in post-independence consolidation and nation building.

Discuss how Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of Independent India and initiated a slew of reforms and policies that helped in nation building and post-independence consolidation of India. He established the State Reorganization Committee to fulfill regional aspirations of the people which would lower the chances of them wanting to cede from the nation. Refugees from Pakistan were given shelter and attempts were made to reduce communalism. He believed that socialism and democracy were not contradictory but complementary to each other etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of his contributions.

Introduction

Jawahar Lal Nehru (1889-1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a control figure in Indian Politics before and after independence. He emerged as the paramount leader of the Indian independence movement under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi and ledIndia from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in 1964.

Body

Nehruvian Policies that aided nation building post Independence

  • Consolidation of the nation: Nehru took a firm stance against the possible division of India into smaller principalities. He established the State Reorganization Committee to fulfil regional aspirations of the people which would lower the chances of them wanting to cede from the nation. This way he strengthened the unity.
  • Rehabilitation of refugees: Refugees from Pakistan were given shelter and attempts were made to reduce communalism.
  • Secularism: It was mainly due to Jawahar Lal Nehru’s efforts that India emerged as a secular state in the mid-twentieth century. Much before independence, he played a heroic role in the development of a secular basis for Indian polity. This helped in building the narrative of ‘Unity in Diversity’.
  • Welfare state: Nehru was a practical idealist and believed that socialism and democracy were not contradictory but complementary to each other. He wanted to build a welfare state for the equitable distribution of wealth.
  • Planning Commission: Nehru, a pragmatic socialist understood the importance of the welfare state in a country which does not have sufficient infrastructure, established a planning commission for long term planning of social schemes.
  • Non-Alllignment Policy (NAM): Nehru, being the Foreign Minister, did not want to join either of the power blocs. Also he did not want India to remain aloof from world politics. Therefore, Nehru’s visionary approach to establish NAM with other third world countries proved to be an ideal foreign policy approach.

Conclusion

The period of Nehru is recorded in the history as “Nehruvian Era” during which democracy took the roots; and social, economic, cultural and educational development for the nation building. Despite facing daunting tasks, he was successful in maintaining and strengthening the nation.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. Sedition law has been a matter of debate for long in the country especially with the concerns of its misuse, In this context do you think the law needs to be scrapped? Analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article throws light on the concerns associated with Sedition laws in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the concerns with sedition laws in the country and examine if they need to be scrapped with suitable justifications.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

One can start by quoting the example of – The arrest of K. Raghu Ramakrishna Raju, an MP from Andhra Pradesh, on the grave charge of sedition, is yet another instance of the misuse of the provision relating to exciting “disaffection” against the government.

Present historical background of Sedition Law in the country. Discuss the loopholes in the law that poses threat to the system.

Discuss major Supreme Court Decisions on Sedition Law.

Present your views as to whether it should be scrapped.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

As per Section 124A of IPC, Sedition is an act that brings or attempts to bring into hatred or contempt, or excites or attempts to excite disaffection towards the Government established by law in India by words, either spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise.

Body

Background

  • The section 124A of Indian Penal Code is a pre- independence provision, which covers sedition charges against government.
  • Various verdicts by Indian Judiciary have led to re-interpretation and re-examination of ‘sedition’ in light of Article 19 of the Constitution.
  • There has been an effort to strike a balance between right to free speech and expression and power of State to impose reasonable restrictions (Article 19(2)).
  • In 1962, the Supreme Court in Kedar Nath Singh vs. State of Bihar upheld Section 124A and held that it struck a “correct balance” between fundamental rights and the need for public order.
  • The court had significantly reduced the scope of Sedition law to only those cases where there is incitement to imminent violence towards overthrow of the state.
  • Further, the Court held that it is not mere against government of the day but the institutions as symbol of state.

Should sedition be scrapped?

  • Against democratic norms: It stifles the democratic and fundamental right of people to criticize the government.
  • Inadequate capacity of State Machinery: The police might not have the “requisite” training to understand the consequences of imposing such a “stringent” provision.
  • Possibility of Misuse: It has been used arbitrarily to curb dissent. In many cases the main targets have been writers, journalists, activists who question government policy and projects, and political dissenters.
  • The draconian nature of this law as the crime is non-bailable, non-cognisable and punishment can extend for life—it has a strong deterrent effect on dissent even if it is not used.
  • Used to gag press: The press should be protected so that it could bare the secrets of government and inform the people. Only a free and unrestrained press can effectively expose deception in government.

Arguments in favour of Section 124A

  • Not really a draconian law: Now after the Supreme Court directions, its jurisdiction has been narrowed down. It can be applied only on grounds laid down by the court.
  • Application is a part of reasonable restrictions: It is provided under the Article 19 (2) .
  • Does not really curb free speech: One can use any kind of strong language in criticism of the government without inviting sedition. However, such dissent should not be turned into some kind of persuasion to break the country.
  • Threats to unity and integrity of nation due to presence of anti- national elements and divisive Forces such as naxals, separatists who are receiving support from inside and outside the country.
  • Mere misuse cannot be a ground of repeal, rather provisions should be made where such misuse is eliminated.

Conclusion
The guidelines of the SC must be incorporated in Section 124A as well by amendment to IPC so that any ambiguity must be removed. Only those actions/words that directly result in the use of violence or incitement to violence should be termed seditious. The state police must be sufficiently guided as to where the section must be imposed and where it must not. Need to include provisions where the government can be penalized, if it misuses the section. This will ensure that section 124 A of IPC strikes a balance between security and smooth functioning of state with the fundamental right of freedom of speech and expression.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4. What kind of practices need to be adopted to develop a robust pandemic response? Examine the pandemic preparedness and discuss both short-term and long term measures. (250 words)

Reference:  nationalheraldindia.com

Why the question:

An Independent Panel for Pandemic Preparedness and Response was formed by the WHO last year to examine the pandemic preparedness prior to Covid 19, the cause and circumstances leading to the Covid 19 outbreak and the response to the disease nationally, regionally, and globally.

Key Demand of the question:

What kind of practices need to be adopted to develop a robust pandemic response? Examine the pandemic preparedness and discuss both short-term and long term measures.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Present first the problems in the global pandemic response such as – Disjointed and limited pandemic preparedness, Absence of a fast response of the international alert system, uncoordinated approach in some countries, inequalities etc.

Then move on to discuss what kind of practices need to be adopted to develop a robust pandemic response?

Discuss what the short-term and long term measures are that can be taken up globally to deal with the pandemic.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the issue.

Introduction

The scale of the coronavirus pandemic could have been prevented, an independent global panel has said. A “toxic cocktail” of waiting and poor coordination cost many people their lives. The second wave is ravaging lives in India.

Body

Pandemic response in India: Shortcomings

  • Variants: A combination of a large asymptomatic population and the presence of more infectious variants (B1.617) of the virus during the second wave, which is much steeper than the first wave.
    • For instance, the UK strain detected in a significant proportion during genome surveillance in Delhi and Punjab, has shown a 50% higher transmission, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
    • The L452R mutation found in the variant B1.671, first detected in India, too has been associated with increased infectivity.
  • Containment zone: Second, in the current wave, the marking of containment zone has been less strict. In cities, the government has asked civil authorities to adopt micro-containment: with perhaps just a floor or a house defined as a containment zone.
  • Healthcare infrastructure shortage: Shortage of beds, oxygen, remdesivir became steeper with patients dying due to crumbling healthcare infrastructure. Black marketing, hoarding and profiteering became bane to the poor.
  • Protocol Fatigue: When cases started declining, people just broke out of the protocol of wearing a face mask, washing hands regularly and maintaining social-physical distance.
    • Gatherings began becoming large particularly January 2021 onwards.
    • Rules were relaxed. Penalties were not enforced. The pattern was seen across the country allowing the novel coronavirus to create a second and possibly stronger wave.
  • Mixed Signal from Government: The queues outside polling booths and gatherings at the election rallies of all the parties defied Covid-19 protocol. This sent a confusing message to the public and also the grassroots-level functionaries of the government. It weakened the vigil against the pandemic.
  • Urban Mobility: India has recorded over 1.2 crore cases of Covid-19 yet the pandemic is still mostly concentrated around cities, especially the bigger cities. These cities have greater mobility giving more opportunities for the virus to spread from one person to another when the guard is lowered.

Short term and long term measures needed

  • There are only two ways of getting immunity from the virus, one is getting infected, and the other is via a vaccine therefore it is important to fast track the vaccine programme across the country, but testing is equally important.
  • The number of tests must go up again and contact tracing, ideally 20 persons for every case, should be taken up intently.
  • Decentralise the response to district level. Knowledge of existing and evolving local conditions matters, for the design and the delivery of an effective response. Local data gathering and analysis provide real time intelligence for rapid response.
  • Local community networks are important channels for information dissemination and for partnering the administration in implementation.
  • We need consultative policymaking at the national level, inter-departmental planning at the State level and data-driven decentralised decision making for situation adaptive implementation at the district level.
  • The district collector must coordinate health-care services across all facilities in the district and be empowered to commandeer hospitals, hotels and transport facilities as needed.
  • Prevent super spreader events and mandate masks. Testing numbers are again being projected as the best measure of an efficient and effective response. This is incorrect.
  • While tests are indeed an important component of the strategy, we cannot test asymptomatically infected persons and mildly symptomatic persons who do not report themselves.
  • These constitute a very large number at any time, as we know from antibody surveys.
  • We cannot randomly and repeatedly test large proportions of the population to detect virus presence in such potentially infective persons.
  • Masks, if worn well and regularly in public and even in indoor gatherings, will greatly reduce risk of transmission from any infected person, known or unknown.
  • Even the more infectious variants will be blocked by effective masks, even where physical distancing is not possible.

Conclusion

Nonetheless, as India aims to inoculate more and more people it is imperative to ramp up vaccine production. It is important for the government, therefore, to come up with rational activity curbs, keep them stable and incentivise people, including through financial rewards. These initiatives can lower the perception of lost opportunities and compensate workers in the affected sectors such as the travel, food and hospitality industries. This road map can be reviewed when vaccines become widely available and cases decline, although a return to a carefree past is a long way off. Political communication on the state of the pandemic lacked a clear sense of purpose during festivals and poll campaigns. Now, the COVID-19 strategy can avert costly partial or full lockdowns only with public cooperation, and that calls for building credibility and trust.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

5. Why farmers today need to take up precision farming? Discuss the associated prospects in bringing modern agricultural revolution. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article brings to us the importance of Precision farming in bringing revolution to Indian agriculture.

Key Demand of the question:

Account for the importance of Precision farming methods for Indian farmers and the prospects associated with it.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with definition of Precision farming.

Body:

Precision farming is an approach where inputs are utilized in precise amounts to get increased average yields, compared to traditional cultivation techniques. In India, one major problem is the small field size. More than 58 per cent of operational holdings in the country have size less than one hectare (ha)

Precision agriculture is the practice of maximizing profitability and crop yields by using precise inputs in farming practices. With the help of precision agriculture equipment and technology, this practice can boost the efficiency, sustainability, and profitability of farmlands.

For India to double its farmer incomes there is an immediate need for the agricultural sector to adopt leading-edge digital and precision agriculture technologies to improve farm productivity and democratize access to market information for all farmers.

Conclusion:

Conclude with efforts of the government in this direction.

Introduction

Precision farming is an approach where inputs are utilised in precise amounts to get increased average yields, compared to traditional cultivation techniques. An information and technology-based farm management system identifies, analyses and manages variability in fields by conducting crop production practices at the right place and time and in the right way, for optimum profitability, sustainability and protection of the land resource.

Body

Need for Precision farming and associated aspects in bringing modern agri-revolution

  • Precision farming enables climate-smart agri-business: Precision agriculture enables climate-smart farming with right amount of inputs while ensuring the land remains fertile.
  • Drip Irrigation: In addition to its advantages over other types of irrigation for improving yields, drip irrigation is the best delivery system for soluble fertilisers. It also drastically reduces the propagation of weeds and the need for herbicides.
  • Soil and crop monitoring: Early detection and correction of soil and crop deficiencies is a win-win proposition for both farmers and off-takers. It helps in pest management and remove weeds detrimental to crops.
  • Forecasting: Advanced models of forecasting is needed using supercomputers such as Pratyush and Mihir, so that farmers can sow seeds at the right time and harvest at the right time.
  • Technologies include a vast array of tools of hardware, software and equipment such as Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), Geographic information systems (GIS), Remote sensing, Variable Rate Applicator and Combine harvesters with yield monitors.

Significance of precision farming

  • To increase agriculture productivity
  • Prevents soil degradation
  • Reduction of chemical application in crop production
  • Efficient use of water resources
  • Dissemination of modern farm practices to improve quality, quantity and reduced cost of production
  • Developing favourable attitudes
  • Precision farming changing the socio-economic status of farmers

Challenges

  • High cost: In India, one major problem is the small field size. More than 58 per cent of operational holdings in the country have size less than one hectare (ha). And majority are small farmers who do subsistence farming.
  • Lack of technical expertise knowledge and technology: Traditional approaches are used by farmers who are not technology oriented.
  • Not applicable or difficult/costly for small land holdings: It is uneconomical in case of small holdings.
  • Heterogeneity of cropping systems and market imperfections are detrimental to precision farming.

Way forward: The policy approach to promote precision farming at farm level 

  • Identify the niche areas for the promotion of crop specific precision farming
  • Creation of multidisciplinary teams involving agricultural scientists in various fields, engineers, manufacturers and economists to study the overall scope of precision agriculture
  • Provide complete technical backup support to the farmers to develop pilots or models, which can be replicated on a large scale
  • Pilot study should be conducted on farmers’ fields to show the results of precision agriculture implementation
  • Creating awareness among farmers about consequences of applying imbalanced doses of farm inputs like irrigation, fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. What is the difference between economic value and social value? Do you think Social values are more important than economic values? examine with suitable justifications. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of economic and social values and their importance to administrators.

Key Demand of the question:

Differentiate economic value and social value and explain how Social values are more important than economic values.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining what Social values and Economic values are.

Body:

Discussion should include the following:

What do you understand by social values and what are economic values? – Social values form an important part of the society, account for the stability of social order. The values such as fundamental rights, democracy, equality, rationality, patriotism, human dignity are examples.

Economic values mostly deal with values related to monetary conditions.

Then move on to explain why Social values are important than economic values?

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting importance of social values over economic values.

Introduction

Social Value is created when resources, inputs, processes or policies are combined to generate improvements in the lives of individuals or society as a whole. Economic value on the other hand, can be described as a measure of the benefit from a good or service to an economic agent. It is typically measured in units of currency.

Body

Social value

It is in this arena, that most non-profits justify their existence, and unfortunately it is at this level that one has the most difficulty measuring the true value created. Examples of Social Value creation may include such “products” as cultural arts performances, the pleasure of enjoying a hike in the woods or the benefit of living in a more just society.

Social Value is about inclusion and access. Social Value can be found in anti-racism efforts, some aspects of community organizing, animal rights advocacy and folk art. It has intrinsic value, but can be difficult to agree upon or quantify.

Economic Value:

An entity creates Economic Value by making use of resources, inputs, or processes; increasing the value of these inputs, and by then generating cost savings for the public system or environment of which the entity is a part.

An example of the practical application of economic value is the weighing of the merits of college degrees in different disciplines. There is a consensus that a college degree has more economic value than a high school diploma and that some college degrees have a higher economic value than others.

Social values versus Economic Values

There can be no inclusive growth if the nation is lacking in social values like gender equality, non-discrimination, brotherhood/sisterhood, cooperation, respect of rights of all, etc. For any nation imbibing social values must precede economic values to unleash the potential of masses and hence achieve the “inclusive growth”.

They say that it is morals and etiquettes that make us civilized and not merely development in terms of economic structures. Human beings transformed not magically from apelike early men to what we are today; it was only when we started learning social values that brought the slow and steady change. But the other side would say that without economic values, nations would remain underdeveloped and cursed like the third world countries. Under the tormenting lack of economic values, people lose their minds and all social values are forgotten. That’s why people do not think twice before committing a crime when they are allured with monetary gain.

Conclusion

There can be no peace without social values and hence they are more important than economic values. What makes India far better as a nation than Bangladesh or Pakistan is our social values, the way we appreciate our diversity and live together despite having frequent clashes. Whatever people might say about the existence of intolerance in India, the fact continues to remain that we still continue to peacefully coexist at large.

 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. As a civil servant, Ethics is more about understanding the right thing to do and the rights that you have to do? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is about understanding ethics from the perspective of right to do and the right thing to do.  

Key Demand of the question:

Explain with suitable substantiation how as a civil servant, Ethics is more about understanding the right thing to do and the rights that you have to do.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define ethics in respect to administration and mention the need to knowing the distinction between your powerful rights and the right thing to do.

Body:

In the answer body explain as to why it is imperative for the administrator to do the right thing. Use examples to substantiate your point.

 Bring out the various facets of integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections that an administrator has to consider before taking any actions.

Mention certain principle, theories and benchmarks one can to take the right decision especially when faced with an ethical dilemma.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of need for doing right.

Introduction

At its simplest, ethics is a system of moral principles. They affect how people make decisions and lead their lives. Moral integrity is the bedrock of the civil service. Civil servants are like steel pillars and help give strength to policy framework and its implementation. They are also the torch-bearers of major transformations. In short, there is a need to push for virtuousness in budding public officials

Body

Importance of understanding ethics by civil servants

Civil servants are the true executioners of welfare policy of the government. For this, they must not only understand procedurally the right thing to do

Although people in public service generally work to improve the lives of the public, their behavior in public service is based on subjective morals and belief systems as opposed to universal, ethical principles. The purpose of ethics is to bridge the gap between these varying moral systems, ensuring that public service represents all of the public.

Importantly, trust in public services is forever being eroded by public officials and organizations acting unethically. This may take the form of an organization serving differing populations inequitably, or it may be a more overt betrayal, such as an elected official misusing public money. Even if they’re not they are elected, public servants must be held accountable to the public.

When public servants violate the public trust, they violate the public’s sense of representation, undermining the very institutions that undergird our democracy. Thus unethical behavior is antithetical to public service and the principles of democracy.

As a civil servant, one must uphold and conduct oneself in the following manner

  • Advance the public interest
  • Uphold the Constitution and the law
  • Promote democratic participation
  • Strengthen social equity
  • Fully inform and advise
  • Demonstrate personal integrity
  • Promote ethical organizations
  • Advance professional excellence

Ethics is an essential part of public service work and maintaining the integrity of democratic institutions. As public administrators, one plays a crucial role in instilling trust and responsibility in the public sector through ethical behaviour and conduct.

Conclusion

Civil servants must do the right thing regardless of whether there are possible consequences—one must treat other people well and behave morally, not because they are afraid of the possible consequences. Simply put, people do the right thing because it is the right thing to do. More so, with civil servants as they hold the baton of welfare of the larger society.


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